Tiberius (son of Maurice)

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Tiberius
Died(602-11-27)November 27, 602
Burial place Monastery of Saint Mamas
(modern-day İstanbul, Turkey)
Parents

Tiberius (Greek: Τιβέριος, died 27 November 602) was the second son of Byzantine Emperor Maurice and his wife Constantina. His father intended him to inherit Italy and the western islands, centered in Rome; however, this did not come to fruition as his father was overthrown by the new Emperor Phocas, who had him and his father executed, along with his younger brothers, in the Harbor of Eutropius, Chalcedon.

Contents

Early life and family

Tiberius was the second son of Byzantine Emperor Maurice, and Constantina. [1] [2] [3] He was named in honor of Emperor Tiberius II, his maternal grandfather. [2] He had an older brother, Theodosius, four younger brothers, Peter, Paul, Justin, and Justinian, [4] and three sisters, Anastasia, Theoctiste, and Cleopatra. [5] Maurice was not only the first Byzantine emperor since Theodosius I to produce a son, but his and Constantina's ability to produce numerous children was the subject of popular jokes. [5] [6]

Maurice had served as magister militum per Orientem , the commander of Byzantine forces in the East, [7] securing decisive victories over the Sassanian Empire. [8] The ruling Byzantine Emperor, Tiberius II, weakened by illness, named Maurice one of his two heirs, alongside Germanus, [9] planning to divide the empire in two, giving Maurice the Eastern half. However, Germanus declined, and therefore, on 13 August 582, Maurice was married to Constantina and declared emperor. [10] Tiberius II died the following day, and Maurice became sole emperor. [11]

Later life

According to his father's will, written in 597 when he was suffering from severe illness, Maurice intended for Tiberius to rule Italy and the western islands, centered in Rome, [1] [12] rather than Ravenna, [13] with Theodosius ruling in the East, centered in Constantinople. [1] [12] Theophylact Simocatta, a contemporary source, states that the remainder of the empire would be split by Maurice's younger sons, and Byzantist J. B. Bury suggests one would rule North Africa, and the other Illyricum, [12] [14] including Greece, with Domitian of Melitene as their guardian. [14] Historian Johannes Wienand suggests that in this arrangement, Theodosius would serve as senior augustus, Tiberius as junior augustus, and the younger brothers as caesars . [6]

In 602 Maurice ordered the Byzantine army to winter beyond the Danube, causing troops exhausted by warfare against the Slavs to rise up, and declare Phocas their leader. [15] The troops demanded Maurice abdicate in favor of Theodosius or General Germanus. [16] On 22 November 602, facing riots in Constantinople led by the Green faction, Maurice and his family boarded a warship bound for Nicomedia. [5] Theodosius may have been at that time in the Sasanian Empire, on a diplomatic mission, [17] or, according to some sources, was later sent by Maurice to request aid from the Sassanian Emperor Khosrow II. [4]

Phocas was crowned emperor the next day, on the 23rd, after he arrived in the capital. After surviving a storm, Tiberius and his family landed at Saint Autonomos, near Praenetus, 45 miles (72 km) from Constantinople, but were forced to stay there due to Maurice's arthritis, which left him bed-ridden. They were captured by Lilios, an officer of Phocas, and brought to the Harbor of Eutropius at Chalcedon, where on 27 November 602, Tiberius and his three younger brothers were put to death, followed by Maurice himself. Their remains were gathered by Gordia, Tiberius' aunt, and interred at the Monastery of Saint Mamas, which she had founded. [4] [5] [18] Theodosius was subsequently captured and executed when he returned, while Constantina and her daughters were taken under the protection of Cyriacus II, the Patriarch of Constantinople. [17]

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602 Calendar year

Year 602 (DCII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 602 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Maurice (emperor) Byzantine emperor from 582 to 602

Maurice was Eastern Roman Emperor from 582 to 602 and the last member of the Justinian dynasty. A successful general, Maurice was chosen as heir and son-in-law by his predecessor Tiberius II.

Germanus was an East Roman (Byzantine) general, one of the leading commanders of Emperor Justinian I. Germanus was Emperor Justinian's cousin, and a member of the ruling dynasty. He held commands in Thrace, North Africa, and the East against Persia, and was slated to command the final Byzantine expedition against the Ostrogoths. Having married into the Gothic Amal royal line through his second wife Matasuntha and a distinguished service record, at the time of his sudden death, he was considered the probable heir to Emperor Justinian.

Heraclius the Elder Byzantine general

Heraclius the Elder was a Byzantine general and the father of Byzantine emperor Heraclius. Generally considered to be of Armenian origin Heraclius the Elder distinguished himself in the war against the Sassanid Persians in the 580s. As a subordinate general, Heraclius served under the command of Philippicus during the Battle of Solachon and possibly served under Comentiolus during the Battle of Sisarbanon. In circa 595, Heraclius the Elder is mentioned as a magister militum per Armeniam sent by Emperor Maurice to quell an Armenian rebellion led by Samuel Vahewuni and Atat Khorkhoruni. In circa 600, he was appointed as the Exarch of Africa and in 608, Heraclius the Elder rebelled with his son against the usurper Phocas. Using North Africa as a base, the younger Heraclius managed to overthrow Phocas, beginning the Heraclian dynasty, which would rule Byzantium for a century. Heraclius the Elder died soon after receiving news of his son's accession to the Byzantine throne.

Constantina (empress) Augusta

Constantina was the Empress consort of Maurice of the Byzantine Empire. She was a daughter of Tiberius II Constantine and Ino Anastasia. Her parentage was recorded in the chronicles of Theophylact Simocatta, Paul the Deacon and John of Biclaro.

Ino Anastasia Augusta

Ino, renamed Aelia Anastasia was the Empress consort of Tiberius II Constantine of the Byzantine Empire, and Augusta from 578 until her death.

Sophia (empress) Augusta

Aelia Sophia was the Empress consort of Justin II of the Byzantine Empire. She was also ruler in her capacity as regent during the incapacity of her spouse from 573 until 578, though she was never a monarch. She was interested in economic and financial matters during Justin's reign.

Comentiolus was a prominent Eastern Roman (Byzantine) general at the close of the 6th century during the reign of Emperor Maurice. He played a major role in Maurice's Balkan campaigns, and fought also in the East against the Sassanid Persians. Comentiolus was ultimately executed in 602 after the Byzantine army rebelled against Maurice and Emperor Phocas usurped the throne.

Philippicus or Philippikos was an East Roman general, comes excubitorum, and brother-in-law of Emperor Maurice. His successful career as a general spanned three decades, chiefly against the Sassanid Persians.

Justinian was an East Roman (Byzantine) aristocrat and general, and a member of the ruling Justinian dynasty. As a soldier, he had a distinguished career in the Balkans and in the East against Sassanid Persia. In his later years, he plotted unsuccessfully against regent and later emperor Tiberius II.

Priscus or Priskos was a leading East Roman (Byzantine) general during the reigns of the Byzantine emperors Maurice, Phocas and Heraclius. Priscus comes across as an effective and capable military leader, although the contemporary sources are markedly biased in his favour. Under Maurice, he distinguished himself in the campaigns against the Avars and their Slavic allies in the Balkans. Absent from the capital at the time of Maurice's overthrow and murder by Phocas, he was one of the few of Maurice's senior aides who were able to survive unharmed into the new regime, remaining in high office and even marrying the new emperor's daughter. Priscus, however, also negotiated with and assisted Heraclius in the overthrow of Phocas, and was entrusted with command against the Persians in 611–612. After the failure of this campaign, he was dismissed and tonsured. He died shortly after.

Mataswintha, also spelled Matasuintha, Matasuentha, Mathesuentha, Matasvintha, or Matasuntha,, was a daughter of Eutharic and Amalasuintha. She was a sister of Athalaric, King of the Ostrogoths. Their maternal grandparents were Theodoric the Great and Audofleda.

Germanus, called "patricius", was a leading member of the Byzantine Senate during the reign of Maurice.

Germanus was a Caesar of the Byzantine Empire. He married Charito, a daughter of Tiberius II Constantine and Ino Anastasia.

Germanus was a Byzantine general who served under Emperor Phocas in the early stages of the Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628.

Theodosius (son of Maurice) Byzantine royal; co-emperor from 590 to 602

Theodosius was the eldest son of Byzantine Emperor Maurice and was co-emperor from 590 until his deposition and execution during a military revolt. Along with his father-in-law Germanus, he was briefly proposed as successor to Maurice by the troops, but the army eventually favoured Phocas instead. Sent in an abortive mission to secure aid from Sassanid Persia by his father, Theodosius was captured and executed by Phocas's supporters a few days after Maurice. Nevertheless, rumours spread that he had survived the execution, and became popular to the extent that a man who purported to be Theodosius was entertained by the Persians as a pretext for launching a war against Byzantium.

Constantine, surnamed Lardys, was one of the senior-most officials of the late reign of the Byzantine emperor Maurice.

Alexander was a Byzantine rebel against emperor Maurice and leading supporter of emperor Phocas. He is better known for executing the co-emperor Theodosius. The main source about him is Theophylact Simocatta.

Aristomachus was a Byzantine official in Egypt. He was active in the reigns of Tiberius II Constantine and Maurice. He eventually rose to become prefect of Constantinople and "curator domus Augustae", but later fell out of favor and ended his life in exile. The main source about him is John of Nikiû.

Battle of Martyropolis (588) Battle in the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591

The Battle of Martyropolis was fought in summer 588 near Martyropolis between an East Roman (Byzantine) and a Sassanid Persian army, and resulted in a Byzantine victory.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Baum 2001.
  2. 1 2 Moorhead 2014, p. 130.
  3. Martindale 1992, p. 1541.
  4. 1 2 3 Stratos 1968, p. 52.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Garland 1999a.
  6. 1 2 Wienand 2014, p. 262.
  7. Martindale 1992, pp. 856–857.
  8. Martindale 1992, pp. 859, 1215.
  9. Treadgold 1997, p. 226.
  10. Martindale 1992, pp. 859–860.
  11. Garland 1999b.
  12. 1 2 3 Ostrogorsky 1956, p. 80.
  13. Gregory 2011, p. 165.
  14. 1 2 Bury 1889, p. 94.
  15. Previté-Orton 1975, p. 201.
  16. Martindale 1992, pp. 531–532.
  17. 1 2 Martyn 2004, p. 43.
  18. Martindale 1992, p. 860.

Bibliography

  • Baum, Wilhelm (2001). "Roman Emperors – DIR Maurice". www.roman-emperors.org. Archived from the original on 20 September 2021. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  • Bury, J.B. (1889). A History of the Later Roman Empire: From Arcadius to Irene, (395 A.D. to 800 A.D). London: Macmillan. OCLC   277170123.
  • Garland, Lynda (1999a). "Constantina (Wife of the Emperor Maurice)". www.roman-emperors.org. Archived from the original on 20 September 2021. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  • Garland, Lynda (1999b). "Sophia (Wife of Justin II)". www.roman-emperors.org. Archived from the original on 20 September 2021. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  • Gregory, Timothy E. (2011). A History of Byzantium. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN   978-1-44435-997-8.
  • Martindale, John R., ed. (1992). The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire: Volume III, AD 527–641. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   0-521-20160-8.
  • Martyn, John R. C. (2004). The Letters of Gregory the Great: Books 1-4. Toronto, Ontario: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. ISBN   978-0-88844-290-1.
  • Moorhead, John (2014). The Popes and the Church of Rome in Late Antiquity. New York: Routledge. ISBN   978-1-31757-827-7.
  • Ostrogorsky, George (1956). History of The Byzantine State. New Brunswick, Canada: Rutgers University Press. OCLC   422217218.
  • Previté-Orton, C. W. (1975). Cambridge Medieval History, Shorter: Volume 1, The Later Roman Empire to the Twelfth Century. Cambridge, Cambridgeshire: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-52109-976-9.
  • Stratos, Andreas Nicolaou (1968). Byzantium in the Seventh Century. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Hakkert. OCLC   175111811.
  • Treadgold, Warren T. (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN   978-0-80472-630-6.
  • Wienand, Johannes (2014). Contested Monarchy: Integrating the Roman Empire in the Fourth Century AD. Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19020-174-6.

Primary sources