Tiberius Cavallo

Last updated
Tiberius Cavallo
Tiberius Cavallo.jpg
Born(1749-03-30)30 March 1749
Died21 December 1809(1809-12-21) (aged 60)
London

Tiberius Cavallo (also Tiberio) (30 March 1749, Naples, Italy  21 December 1809, London, England) was an Italian physicist and natural philosopher. [1] His interests included electricity, the development of scientific instruments, the nature of "airs", and ballooning. He became both a Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences in Naples, [2] and a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1779. [3] Between 1780 and 1792, he presented the Royal Society's Bakerian Lecture thirteen times in succession. [4]

Contents

Life

Tiberius Cavallo was born on 30 March 1749 at Naples, Italy [1] where his father was a physician. [2] In 1771 he moved to England. [2]

Cavallo made several ingenious improvements in scientific instruments. [5] He is often cited as the inventor of Cavallo's multiplier. [6] [7] He also developed a "pocket electrometer" that he used to amplify small electric charges to make them observable and measurable with an electroscope. Parts of the instrument were protected from drafts by a glass enclosure. [8] [9]

He also worked on refrigeration. [10] [11] Following the work of William Cullen in 1750 and Joseph Black in 1764, Cavallo was the first to carry out systematic experiments on refrigeration using the evaporation of volatile liquids, in 1781. [12]

He was interested in the physical properties of "airs" or gases, and carried out experiments on "inflammable air" (hydrogen gas). [13] In his Treatise on the Nature and Properties of Air (1781) he made "a judicious examination of contemporary work", discussing both the phlogiston theory of Joseph Priestley and the contrasting views of Antoine Lavoisier. In June 1782, a paper of Cavallo's was read at the Royal Society, describing the first attempt to lift a hydrogen-filled balloon into the air. [14] His History and Practice of Aerostation (1785) was considered "one of the earliest and best works on aerostation published in eighteenth century England". [15] In it, Cavallo discusses both recent experiments in ballooning, and its underlying principles. Cavallo targeted a more general audience in this work, avoiding technical jargon and mathematical proofs, [15] and was an effective science communicator to both his peers and the general public. His work influenced pioneer balloonists Jacques Charles, the Robert brothers, and Jean-Pierre Blanchard. [13] [16]

Cavallo also published on musical temperament in his treatise Of the Temperament of Those Musical Instruments, in Which the Tones, Keys, or Frets, are Fixed, as in the Harpsichord, Organ, Guitar, &c. [17]

The Burdett Coutts memorial, Old St Pancras. Cavallo's name is towards the bottom, but the letters B and C are missing. The Burdett Coutts memorial, Old St Pancras.jpg
The Burdett Coutts memorial, Old St Pancras. Cavallo's name is towards the bottom, but the letters B and C are missing.

He died in London on 21 December 1809. [18] He was buried in Old St Pancras Churchyard [19] reportedly in a vault near that of Pasquale Paoli. [20] The grave is lost [21] but he is listed on the Burdett Coutts memorial of 1879 to the many important persons buried therein. [22]

Works

He published numerous works on different branches of physics, including:

For Rees's Cyclopædia he contributed articles on Electricity, Machinery and Mechanics, but the topics are not known.

Related Research Articles

Aeronautics Science involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of airflight-capable machines

Aeronautics is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight–capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere. The British Royal Aeronautical Society identifies the aspects of "aeronautical Art, Science and Engineering" and "The profession of Aeronautics ."

Electrometer Instrument for measuring electric charge

An electrometer is an electrical instrument for measuring electric charge or electrical potential difference. There are many different types, ranging from historical handmade mechanical instruments to high-precision electronic devices. Modern electrometers based on vacuum tube or solid-state technology can be used to make voltage and charge measurements with very low leakage currents, down to 1 femtoampere. A simpler but related instrument, the electroscope, works on similar principles but only indicates the relative magnitudes of voltages or charges.

J. J. Thomson British physicist

Sir Joseph John Thomson was a British physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery of the electron, the first subatomic particle to be discovered.

Henry Cavendish British natural philosopher, and scientist (1731 – 1810)

Henry Cavendish FRS was an English natural philosopher, scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist. He is noted for his discovery of hydrogen, which he termed "inflammable air". He described the density of inflammable air, which formed water on combustion, in a 1766 paper, On Factitious Airs. Antoine Lavoisier later reproduced Cavendish's experiment and gave the element its name.

Jacques Charles French inventor, qcientist and mathematician

Jacques Alexandre César Charles was a French inventor, scientist, mathematician, and balloonist. Charles wrote almost nothing about mathematics, and most of what has been credited to him was due to mistaking him with another Jacques Charles, also a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences, entering on May 12, 1785. He was sometimes called Charles the Geometer. Charles and the Robert brothers launched the world's first unmanned hydrogen-filled gas balloon in August 1783; then in December 1783, Charles and his co-pilot Nicolas-Louis Robert ascended to a height of about 1,800 feet in a manned gas balloon. Their pioneering use of hydrogen for lift led to this type of balloon being named a Charlière.

The year 1783 in science and technology involved some significant events:

Electroscope

The electroscope is an early scientific instrument used to detect the presence of electric charge on a body. It detects charge by the movement of a test object due to the Coulomb electrostatic force on it. The amount of charge on an object is proportional to its voltage. The accumulation of enough charge to detect with an electroscope requires hundreds or thousands of volts, so electroscopes are used with high voltage sources such as static electricity and electrostatic machines. An electroscope can only give a rough indication of the quantity of charge; an instrument that measures electric charge quantitatively is called an electrometer.

Balloon (aeronautics) Type of aerostat that remains aloft due to its buoyancy

In aeronautics, a balloon is an unpowered aerostat, which remains aloft or floats due to its buoyancy. A balloon may be free, moving with the wind, or tethered to a fixed point. It is distinct from an airship, which is a powered aerostat that can propel itself through the air in a controlled manner.

Eudiometer

A eudiometer is a laboratory device that measures the change in volume of a gas mixture following a physical or chemical change.

Electrostatic generator Device that generates electrical charge on a high voltage electrode

An electrostatic generator, or electrostatic machine, is an electromechanical generator that produces static electricity, or electricity at high voltage and low continuous current. The knowledge of static electricity dates back to the earliest civilizations, but for millennia it remained merely an interesting and mystifying phenomenon, without a theory to explain its behavior and often confused with magnetism. By the end of the 17th century, researchers had developed practical means of generating electricity by friction, but the development of electrostatic machines did not begin in earnest until the 18th century, when they became fundamental instruments in the studies about the new science of electricity. Electrostatic generators operate by using manual power to transform mechanical work into electric energy. Electrostatic generators develop electrostatic charges of opposite signs rendered to two conductors, using only electric forces, and work by using moving plates, drums, or belts to carry electric charge to a high potential electrode. The charge is generated by one of two methods: either the triboelectric effect (friction) or electrostatic induction.

The Bakerian Medal is one of the premier medals of the Royal Society that recognizes exceptional and outstanding science. It comes with a medal award and a prize lecture. The medalist is required to give a lecture on any topic related to physical sciences. It is awarded annually to individuals in the field of physical sciences, including computer science.

Atmospheric electricity Electricity in planetary atmospheres

Atmospheric electricity is the study of electrical charges in the Earth's atmosphere. The movement of charge between the Earth's surface, the atmosphere, and the ionosphere is known as the global atmospheric electrical circuit. Atmospheric electricity is an interdisciplinary topic with a long history, involving concepts from electrostatics, atmospheric physics, meteorology and Earth science.

The versorium was the first electroscope, the first instrument that could detect the presence of static electric charge. It was invented in 1600 by William Gilbert, physician to Queen Elizabeth I.

Thomas Harris (aviator)

Thomas Harris was a pioneering English balloonist who was killed in an accident. There is little information about his early career, but he invented the gas discharge valve, a device to release all the gas in a gas balloon to prevent the balloon from dragging after landing.

Abraham Bennet

Abraham Bennet FRS was an English clergyman and physicist, the inventor of the gold-leaf electroscope and developer of an improved magnetometer. Though he was cited by Alessandro Volta as a key influence on his own work, Bennet's work was curtailed by the political turbulence of his time.

Edward Joseph Lowe

Edward Joseph Lowe FRS FGS FRAS FLS was a renowned English botanist, meteorologist and astronomer, who published papers on a wide variety of subjects, including luminous meteors, sunspots, the zodiacal light, meteorological observations during the eclipse of 1860, conchology, ferns, grasses and other plants.

History of ballooning

The history of ballooning, both with hot air and gas, spans many centuries. It includes many firsts, including the first human flight, first flight across the English Channel, first flight in North America, and first aircraft related disaster.

Cavallos multiplier Device that generates electrostatic charge

Cavallo's multiplier was an early electrostatic influence machine, invented in 1795 by the Anglo-Italian natural philosopher Tiberius Cavallo. Its purpose was to multiply, or amplify, a small electric charge to a level where it was detectable by the insensitive electroscopes of the day. Repeated operation of the device could produce voltages high enough to generate sparks.

Robert brothers

Les Frères Robert were two French brothers. Anne-Jean Robert (1758–1820) and Nicolas-Louis Robert (1760–1820) were the engineers who built the world's first hydrogen balloon for professor Jacques Charles, which flew from central Paris on 27 August 1783. They went on to build the world's first manned hydrogen balloon, and on 1 December 1783 Nicolas-Louis accompanied Jacques Charles on a 2-hour, 5-minute flight. Their barometer and thermometer made it the first balloon flight to provide meteorological measurements of the atmosphere above the Earth's surface.

Timothy Lane was a British inventor and scientist.

References

  1. 1 2 "Fellow details". The Royal Society. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  2. 1 2 3 "Account of the life and writings of Tiberius Cavallo, F. R. S." The Berwick Museum, or, Monthly Literary Intelligencer: Forming and Universal Repository of Amusement and Instruction. Berwick: Printed by W. Phorson. November: 604–504. 1787.
  3. "Portrait of Tiberius Cavallo". The Royal Society. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  4. Marshall, Katherine (23 October 2018). "Cavallo's colours". The Royal Society Blog. The Royal Society. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  5. 1 2 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cavallo, Tiberius". Encyclopædia Britannica . 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 563.
  6. Gray, John (1890). Electrical Influence Machines. London: Whittaker. pp.  80–83. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  7. Clayton, S.M.; Ito, T.M.; Ramsey, J.C.; Wei, W.; Blatnik, M.A.; Filippone, B.W.; Seidel, G.M. (14 May 2018). "Cavallo's multiplier for in situ generation of high voltage". Journal of Instrumentation. 13 (5): P05017. arXiv: 1803.07665 . Bibcode:2018JInst..13P5017C. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/13/05/P05017. S2CID   4956915.
  8. Schiffer, Michael B.; Hollenback, Kacy L.; Bell, Carrie L. (2003). Draw the Lightning Down: Benjamin Franklin and Electrical Technology in the Age of Enlightenment. University of California Press. pp. 175–176. ISBN   0-520-23802-8.
  9. "Electroscopes and Electrometers". The Jenkins Collection. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  10. Woolrich, Willis Raymond (1967). The Men who Created Cold: A History of Refrigeration. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Exposition Press, University of Michigan. pp. 136–137.
  11. Rees, Abraham (1819). The Cyclopaedia; or, Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Literature. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  12. "Refrigeration Machines". The Refrigeration Journal. 10: 57. 1956.
  13. 1 2 "Sailing in the air - History of Aeronautics". Harper's New Monthly Magazine. II: 168–323. 1851.
  14. King, Heather (October 18, 2017). "A Fascinating Flight into the Unknown". Every woman dreams. Regina Jeffers. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  15. 1 2 "The History and Practice of Aerostation". Science History Institute. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  16. DOHERTY, CAITLÍN RÓISÍN (10 April 2017). "'Transporting thought': cultures of balloon flight in Britain, 1784–1785". The British Journal for the History of Science. 50 (2): 229–247. doi:10.1017/S0007087417000280. PMID   28390441.
  17. Cavallo, Tiberius (January 1788). "XV. Of the temperament of those musical instruments, in which the tones, keys of frets, are fixed, as in the harpsichord, organ, guitar, &c". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 78: 238–254. doi:10.1098/rstl.1788.0017. S2CID   186212127.
  18. Partington, J. R. (1962). History of Chemistry. 3. London: Macmillan. p. 300. ISBN   9781349003099 . Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  19. "Tiberius Cavallo". Find A Grave. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  20. Nichols, John (1814). Literary anecdotes of the eighteenth century;: comprizing biographical memoirs of William Bowyer, printer, F.S.A. and many of his learned friends. VIII. London: Nichols Son and Bentley. p. 120. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  21. Mason, Charles Alexander James (1867). A Sketch of the History of Old S. Pancras Church and its Grave-yard, with an account of the recent desecration of the burial-ground attached thereto: a paper, etc. London. p. 17.
  22. Wheatley, Henry Benjamin; Cunningham, Peter (1891). London Past and Present: Its History, Associations, and Traditions. London: John Murray. p. 21. ISBN   9781108028080.