Tiberius Julius Aspurgus Philoromaios (Greek : Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Ἀσποῦργoς Φιλορώμαιος, Philoromaios means lover of Rome, flourished second half of 1st century BC & first half of 1st century AD, died 38) was a Prince and Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom.
The name Aspurgus is of Iranian origin,derived from aspa (horse) and aspabara (horseman). Aspurgus was of Iranian ancestry and possible Greek ancestry.
Aspurgus was born to Asander, ruler of the Bosporan Kingdom and Dynamis. He was the maternal grandchild to the previous Roman client king of the Bosporan and Pontus, Pharnaces II and his Sarmatian wife.
In 17 BC, Asander died of voluntary starvation from despair at the age of 93 because he witnessed his troops desert him for the Roman usurper, Scribonius. Scribonius pretended to be a relative of Dynamis, so he could seize Asander's throne and become king. Dynamis was forced to marry Scribonius. The Roman statesman Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa discovered Scribonius’ deception and intervened, appointing Polemon I of Pontus as the new Bosporan King. Dynamis married Polemon I, making him Aspurgus' stepfather. Dynamis died in 14 BC and Polemon I reigned until his death in 8 BC.
Aspurgus then succeeded his stepfather. Little is known of Aspurgus’ reign. However, he seemed to have been a strong and capable ruler. Due to previous dynastic conflicts during the Roman Republic and around the period of Asander's death, the Emperor Augustus and the Roman Senate only accepted Aspurgus as the legitimate Bosporan King in 14 AD. Aspurgus adopted the Roman names "Tiberius Julius", because he received Roman citizenship and enjoyed the patronage of Augustus and his heir, Tiberius.
Aspurgus married a Thracian Princess called Gepaepyris. Gepaepyris bore Aspurgus two sons who were:
Aspurgus reigned until he died in 38 AD. After his death, Gepaepyris ruled jointly with their first son.
The Bosporan Kingdom, also known as the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus, was an ancient Greco-Scythian state located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus, the present-day Strait of Kerch. It was the first truly 'Hellenistic' state in the sense that a mixed population adopted the Greek language and civilization. The Bosporan Kingdom became the longest surviving Roman client kingdom. The 1st and 2nd centuries AD saw a period of a new golden age of the Bosporan state. It was briefly incorporated as part of the Roman province of Moesia Inferior from 63 to 68 AD, under Emperor Nero, before being restored as a Roman client kingdom. At the end of the 2nd century AD, King Sauromates II inflicted a critical defeat on the Scythians and included all the territories of the Crimea in the structure of his state.
Polemon Pythodoros, also known as Polemon I or Polemon I of Pontus was the Roman Client King of Cilicia, Pontus, Colchis and the Bosporan Kingdom. Polemon was the son and heir of Zenon and possibly Tryphaena. Zenon and Polemon adorned Laodicea with many dedicated offerings.
Mithridates I of the Bosporus sometimes known as Mithridates II of the Bosporus and Mithridates of Pergamon, was a nobleman from Anatolia. Mithridates was one of the sons born to King Mithridates VI of Pontus from his mistress, the Galatian Princess Adobogiona the Elder. He also had a full-blooded sister called Adobogiona the Younger. The Pontic prince was of Persian, Macedonian and Galatian ancestry.
Antonia Tryphaena also known as Tryphaena of Thrace or Tryphaena was a Pontus Princess and a Roman Client Queen of Thrace.
Gepaepyris was a Thracian princess, and a Roman Client Queen of the Bosporan Kingdom, the longest known surviving Roman Client Kingdom.
Asander, named Philocaesar Philoromaios was a Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom. He was of Persian ancestry. Not much is known of his family and early life. He started his career as a general under Pharnaces II, the king of the Bosporus. According to some scholars, Asander took as his first wife a woman called Glykareia, known from one surviving Greek inscription, "Glykareia, wife of Asander".
Tiberius Julius Mithridates Philogermanicus Philopatris, sometimes known as Mithridates III of the Bosporan was a Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Cotys I Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Cotys I or Kotys I was a prince and Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Bithynia and Pontus was the name of a province of the Roman Empire on the Black Sea coast of Anatolia (Turkey). It was formed during the late Roman Republic by the amalgamation of the former kingdoms of Bithynia and Pontus. The amalgamation was part of a wider conquest of Anatolia and its reduction to Roman provinces.
Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis I Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Rhescuporis I was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Dynamis, nicknamed Philoromaios, was a Roman client queen of the Bosporan Kingdom during the Late Roman Republic and part of the reign of Augustus, the first Roman Emperor. Dynamis is an ancient Greek name which means the “powerful one”. She was a monarch of Iranian and Greek Macedonian ancestry. She was the daughter of King Pharnaces II of Pontus and his Sarmatian wife. She had an older brother called Darius and a younger brother called Arsaces. Her paternal grandparents had been the monarchs of the Kingdom of Pontus, Mithridates VI of Pontus and his first wife Laodice, who was also his sister. Dynamis married three times. Her husbands were Asander, a certain Scribonius and Polemon I of Pontus. According to Rostovtzeff, she also had a fourth husband, Aspurgos.
Tiberius Julius Sauromates I Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Sauromates I was a prince and Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Sauromates II Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Sauromates II, was a prince regnant and the Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Cotys III was the Sapaean Roman client king of eastern Thrace from 12 to 18 AD.
The Crimean Peninsula was under partial control of the Roman Empire during the period of 47 BC to c. 340 AD. The territory under Roman control mostly coincided with the Bosporan Kingdom . Rome lost its influence in Taurica in the mid third century AD, when substantial parts of the peninsula fell to the Goths, but at least nominally the kingdom survived until the 340s AD. The Eastern Roman Empire, the eastern part of the Roman Empire that survived the loss of the western part of the empire, later regained Crimea under Justinian I. The Byzantine Greeks controlled portions of the peninsula well into the Late Middle Ages.
Eunice was a Roman Client Queen of the Bosporan Kingdom by marriage to the Roman Client King, Cotys I. She appears to have been regent during the minority of her son Rhescuporis I in 68-69.
The Mithridatic dynasty, also known as the Pontic dynasty, was a hereditary dynasty of Persian origin, founded by Mithridates I Ktistes in 281 BC. The origins of the dynasty were located in the highest circles of the ruling Persian nobility in Cius. Mithridates III of Cius fled to Paphlagonia after the murder of his father and his predecessor Mithridates II of Cius, eventually proclaiming the Kingdom of Pontus, and adopting the epithet of "Ktistes". The dynasty reached its greatest extent under the rule of Mithridates VI, who is considered the greatest ruler of the Kingdom of Pontus.
Scribonius was a man of unknown origin, possibly Roman or Hellenistic. He claimed to be a descendant of Mithridates VI of Pontus, the earlier king of Pontus who had also ruled the Bosporus. Through this, he claimed the throne of the Bosporan Kingdom in 17 BC. The real king of the Bosporus, Asander starved himself because of this. He somehow convinced the wife of Asander, Dynamis to marry him. When Augustus learned of what Scribonius had done he sent Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa to remove Scribonius. Agrippa then sent Polemon I of Pontus to remove Scribonius and take the throne himself. Scribonius was executed in 16 BC, and Polemon took the throne. To legitimise his claim he married Dynamis.
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