Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis III

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T. J. Rhescuporis III
Coin of Rhescuporis III.png
Electrum stater of Rhescuporis III, legend: ΒΑCΙΛΕΩC ΡΗΣΚΟΥΠΟΡΙΔΟC. (Other side: head of Caracalla, year ΦΙΔ' = 514 = 217/8) 20 mm, 7.49 g.
King of the Bosporus
Reign211 - 228
Predecessor T. J. Sauromates II
Successor T. J. Cotys III
Died228
Issue T. J. Cotys III
T. J. Sauromates III
Dynasty Tiberian-Julian
Father T. J. Sauromates II

Rhescuporis III (Greek : Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Ῥησκούπορις Γ' Φιλοκαῖσαρ Φιλορωμαῖος Eὐσεβής, Tiberios Iulios Rheskouporis Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, flourished 3rd century – died 228) was a Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom. Like many of the other late Bosporan kings, Rhescuporis III is known mainly from coinage, meaning that the historical events of his reign are largely unknown. His coins are known from the period 211–228. [1] He is known from an inscription to have been the son of his predecessor, Sauromates II. [2]

Rhescuporis III is also known from inscriptions to have been the father of his successor, Cotys III, and was perhaps also the father of Sauromates III. [2]

See also

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The Bosporan Kingdom, also known as the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus, was an ancient Greco-Scythian state located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus, the present-day Strait of Kerch. It was the first truly 'Hellenistic' state in the sense that a mixed population adopted the Greek language and civilization, under aristocratic consolidated leadership. Under the Spartocid Monarchs the aristocracy of the kingdom adopted a double nature of presenting as archons to Greek subjects and kings to barbarians which some historians consider unique in ancient history.The Bosporan Kingdom became the longest surviving Roman client kingdom. The 1st and 2nd centuries AD saw a period of a new golden age of the Bosporan state. It was briefly incorporated as part of the Roman province of Moesia Inferior from 63 to 68 AD, under Emperor Nero, before being restored as a Roman client kingdom. At the end of the 2nd century AD, King Sauromates II inflicted a critical defeat on the Scythians and included all the territories of the Crimea in the structure of his state.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis I</span> 1st century Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom

Rhescuporis I, often alternatively enumerated as Rhescuporis II, was a Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tiberius Julius Sauromates I</span> King of the Bosporus

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tiberius Julius Cotys II</span> King of the Bosporus

Cotys II or Kotys II was a prince and Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom. Like many other later Bosporan kings, Cotys II is known mainly from coinage, alongside a few inscriptions and contemporary writings. His coins are known from the period 123–131. Cotys II is known to have been the son of his predecessor Sauromates I. His relationship to later kings is not known for certain, but it is possible that his two immediate successors Rhoemetalces and Eupator were his sons.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tiberius Julius Rhoemetalces</span> King of the Bosporus

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tiberius Julius Eupator</span> King of the Bosporus

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tiberius Julius Sauromates II</span> King of the Bosporan Kingdom from c.174 to c.210)

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Cotys III or Kotys III was a Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom. Like many of the other late Bosporan kings, Cotys III is known mainly from coinage, meaning that the historical events of his reign are largely unknown. His coins are known from the period 228–234. He is known from an inscription to have been the son of his predecessor, Rhescuporis III.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tiberius Julius Sauromates III</span> King of the Bosporus

Sauromates III was a Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom. Like many other late Bosporan kings, Sauromates III is known only from coinage, which means his relationship to the other kings is unknown, as are details of his accession and reign. His coins are known from the period 229–232, meaning that he appears to have co-ruled with Cotys III, who might have been his father.

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Rhescuporis IV was a Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom. Like many other late Bosporan kings, Rhescuporis IV is known only from coinage, which means his relationship to the other kings is unknown, as are details of his accession and reign. His coins are known from the period 233–234, meaning that he appears to have co-ruled with Cotys III.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis V</span> King of the Bosporus

Rhescuporis V, also transliterated as Rheskuporis or Rheskouporis, was the king of the Bosporan Kingdom, a Roman client state, from 240 to 276. The reign of Rhescuporis V overlaps with those of several other Bosporan kings; Pharsanzes (253–254), Sauromates IV (276) and Teiranes (276–278). It is unclear what their relationships and status were relative to each other and if they were co-rulers or rival contenders for the throne.

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Pharsanzes, also known as Farsanza, was the king of the Bosporan Kingdom, a Roman client state, from 253 to 254. Virtually no historical information is known of Pharsanzes's reign on account of the king only being known from coinage. His reign overlaps completely with the reign of Rhescuporis V. As a result, Pharsanzes is most frequently believed to have been a rival claimant or usurper, though some researchers believe he was a co-ruler granted power by Rhescuporis V.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tiberius Julius Teiranes</span> King of the Bosporus

Teiranes was a Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom. Like the other late Bosporan kings, Teiranes is known only from coinage, which means his relationship to the other kings is unknown, as are details of his accession and reign. His coins are known from the period 276–278. In 276, he apparently co-ruled with his predecessor Rhescuporis V and another king, Sauromates IV. It is possible that Teiranes was the son of Sauromates III and a brother Rhescuporis V.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tiberius Julius Sauromates IV</span> King of the Bosporus

Sauromates IV was a Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom. Like the other late Bosporan kings, Sauromates IV is known only from coinage, which means his relationship to the other kings is unknown, as are details of his accession and reign. His coins are known only from 276, when he apparently co-ruled with Rhescuporis V and Teiranes. It is possible that he was a son of Rhescuporis V.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tiberius Julius Rhadamsades</span> King of the Bosporus

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Rhescuporis VI, also transliterated as Rheskuporis or Rheskouporis and sometimes known as Rhescuporis the Last, is the last well-known king of the Bosporan Kingdom, a Roman client state, and the last known representative of its ancient Tiberian-Julian ruling dynasty. Little is known of the background and reign of Rhescuporis VI; he began his tenure as king through either co-rule or competition with his predecessor Rhadamsades until 322. Rhescuporis VI reign came to an end around 341, when he might have been overthrown by the Sarmatians or Alans, groups which at the time were becoming increasingly influential and powerful in Crimea.

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The Mithridatic dynasty, also known as the Pontic dynasty, was a hereditary dynasty of Persian origin, founded by Mithridates I Ktistes in 281 BC. The origins of the dynasty were located in the highest circles of the ruling Persian nobility in Cius. Mithridates III of Cius fled to Paphlagonia after the murder of his father and his predecessor Mithridates II of Cius, eventually proclaiming the Kingdom of Pontus, and adopting the epithet of "Ktistes". The dynasty reached its greatest extent under the rule of Mithridates VI, who is considered the greatest ruler of the Kingdom of Pontus.

References

  1. Mitchiner, Michael (1978). The Ancient & Classical World, 600 B.C.-A.D. 650. Hawkins Publications. p. 69. ISBN   978-0-904173-16-1.
  2. 1 2 Settipani, Christian (2006). Continuité des élites à Byzance durant les siècles obscurs: les princes caucasiens et l'Empire du VI:e au IX:e siècle (in French). Paris: De Boccard. p. 408. ISBN   978-2-7018-0226-8.
Preceded by King of the Bosporus
211-228
Succeeded by