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Tiberius Julius Rhoemetalces Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Rhoemetalces or Rhoimetalces (Greek : Τιβέριος Ιούλιος Ροιμητάλκης Φιλοκαισαρ Φιλορώμαίος Ευσεβής, Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, means lover of Caesar, lover of Rome who is the Pius one, flourished 2nd century, died 153) was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. It had a government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, and West Asia. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome. The Roman Empire was then divided between a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and later Ravenna, and an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and later Constantinople, and it was ruled by multiple emperors.
The Bosporan Kingdom, also known as the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus, was an ancient state located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus, the present-day Strait of Kerch. It was the first truly 'Hellenistic' state in the sense that a mixed population adopted the Greek language and civilization. The Bosporan Kingdom became the longest surviving Roman client kingdom. The 1st and 2nd centuries BC saw a period of renewed golden age of the Bosporan state. It was a Roman province from 63 to 68 AD, under Emperor Nero. At the end of the 2nd century AD, King Sauromates II inflicted a critical defeat on the Scythians and included all the territories of the Crimea in the structure of his state.
Rhoemetalces was the son and heir of the Bosporan King Cotys II by an unnamed wife. He was of Greek, Iranian and Roman ancestry. Rhoemetalces is the only King from the Bosporan Kingdom to bear this name. His father named him in honor of his ancestor, King Rhoemetalces I from the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace, who was the father of the Roman Client King Cotys VIII of Thrace.
Tiberius Julius Cotys II Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Cotys II or Kotys II was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
The Greeks or Hellenes are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.
The Iranian peoples, or the Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
When Cotys II died in 132, Rhoemetalces succeeded him. Rhoemetalces ruled as Bosporan King from 132 until his death in 153. He was a contemporary to the rule of the Roman Emperors Hadrian and Antoninus Pius. On coinage his royal title is in Greek: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΡΟΙΜΗΤΑΛΚΑΣ or of King Rhoemetalces.
Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus in Italica, near Santiponce, Spain into a Hispano-Roman family. His father was of senatorial rank and was a first cousin of Emperor Trajan. He married Trajan's grand-niece Vibia Sabina early in his career, before Trajan became emperor and possibly at the behest of Trajan's wife Pompeia Plotina. Plotina and Trajan's close friend and adviser Lucius Licinius Sura were well disposed towards Hadrian. When Trajan died, his widow claimed that he had nominated Hadrian as emperor immediately before his death.
Antoninus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. He was one of the Five Good Emperors in the Nerva–Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii.
According to the Augustan History, at an unknown date in the reign of Antoninus Pius, Rhoemetalces had travelled to Rome for a hearing of a dispute between him and the imperial commissioner. The nature and causes leading to this dispute are unknown. After the hearing had concluded, the emperor sent Rhoemetalces back to the Bosporan.
The Augustan History is a late Roman collection of biographies, written in Latin, of the Roman Emperors, their junior colleagues, designated heirs and usurpers of the period 117 to 284. Supposedly modeled on the similar work of Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, it presents itself as a compilation of works by six different authors, written during the reigns of Diocletian and Constantine I and addressed to those emperors or other important personages in Rome. The collection, as extant, comprises thirty biographies, most of which contain the life of a single emperor, while some include a group of two or more, grouped together merely because these emperors were either similar or contemporaneous.
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.
Like his paternal grandfather Sauromates I, Rhoemetalces appeared to be a religious person and was involved in the worship of the Goddess Aphrodite and her cult. This can be confirmed by an inscription found on a statue base from Phanagoria.
Tiberius Julius Sauromates I Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Sauromates I was a prince and Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Aphrodite is an ancient Greek goddess associated with love, beauty, pleasure, passion and procreation. She is identified with the planet Venus, which is named after the Roman goddess Venus, with whom Aphrodite was extensively syncretized. Aphrodite's major symbols include myrtles, roses, doves, sparrows, and swans.
Phanagoria was the largest ancient Greek city on the Taman peninsula, spread over two plateaus along the eastern shore of the Cimmerian Bosporus.
|“||Tiberius Julius, king Rhoimetalces, a friend of the Caesar and of the Romans, pious, having gathered and augmented the lands of Thianneoi that were dedicated to by Letodoros, and pelatoi, according to the record on the monument that stands nearby, that decreased with time, restored them safe to the goddess, by the concern of Alexandros, son of Myreimos, the minister of religion, in 448, in the month of Apellaios, 20.||”|
Not much more is otherwise known on the reign and life of Rhoemetalces. Rhoemetalces married an unnamed woman, and from this marriage; he had a son called Eupator, who succeeded him on his death.
Tiberius Julius Eupator Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Eupator, was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
| King of the Bosporus |
| Succeeded by|
Antonia Tryphaena also known as Tryphaena of Thrace or Tryphaena was a Princess of the Bosporan, Pontus, Cilicia, Cappadocia and a Roman Client Queen of Thrace.
Gepaepyris was a Thracian princess, and a Roman Client Queen of the Bosporan Kingdom, the longest known surviving Roman Client Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Aspurgus Philoromaios was a Prince and Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Mithridates Philogermanicus Philopatris, sometimes known as Mithridates III of the Bosporan was a Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Rhoemetalces II was a Client Ruler in association with his mother Antonia Tryphaena of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace under the Romans from 18 to 38. On coinage his royal title is in Greek:ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΡΟΙΜΗΤΑΛΚΑΣ or of King Rhoemetalces. Rhoemetalces II and Tryphaena succeeded his paternal great-uncle Rhescuporis II, who had usurped the throne from Rhoemetalces II's father Cotys VIII. The Roman Emperor Tiberius deposed Rhescuporis II and installed Rhoemetalces II and Tryphaena on the throne in his place. They served as loyal client rulers, even in 26 putting down Thracian malcontents for Tiberius. Rhoemetalces II never married and had no children. After his death in 38, his cousin Rhoemetalces III, the son of Rhescuporis II, was appointed king, while his mother retired to live as a private citizen in Cyzicus.
Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis I Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Rhescuporis I was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Sauromates II Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Sauromates II, was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis II Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Rhescuporis II was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis III Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Rhescuporis III was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Cotys III Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Cotys III or Kotys III was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Ininthimeus Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Ininthimaeus, Ininthimeus or Inithimeus was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis V Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Rhescuporis V was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Pharsanzes, also known as Pharsanzes was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Cotys III, also known in dynastic terms as Cotys VIII was the Sapaean Roman client king of eastern Thrace from 12 to 19.
Eunice was the wife of the Roman Client King, Cotys I and through her marriage was a Roman Client Queen of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Rhoemetalces Philocaesar was a prince from Anatolia who lived in the Roman Empire in the 1st century.