Tiberius Julius Sauromates II

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Sauromates II
King of the Bosporan Kingdom
Tiberius Julius Sauromates II.jpg
Marble bust of Sauromates II
Reign174 - 210 AD
Predecessor Eupator
Successor Rhescuporis II
Bornprior to 170 AD
Bosporan Kingdom
Died210 AD
Bosporan Kingdom
Issue
Full name
Tiberius Julius Sauromates II Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes
Greek?Σαυρομάτης Β
House Mithridatid
FatherEupator
MotherUnknown
Religion Greek Polytheism

Tiberius Julius Sauromates II Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Sauromates II (Greek : Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Σαυρομάτης Β΄ Φιλόκαισαρ Φιλορώμαιος Eὐσεβής, Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, the epithets meaning "friend of Caesar, friend of Rome, pious one," [1] r. 173/174 - 210/211 AD), [2] was a prince regnant and the Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.

Contents

Lineage

Tiberius Julius Sauromates II was the son and heir of the Bosporan King Eupator by an unnamed woman. Sauromates II was named in honor of Sauromates I, a paternal ancestor of his and a previous Bosporan King. Although his surname "Sauromates" indicates alleged Sarmatian ancestry by marriages to Sarmatian princesses, this does not necessarily mean those who bore the title were actual Sarmatians. [3] His Bosporan royal dynasty had been established in the 1st century AD by Tiberius Julius Aspurgus and his son Mithridates (i.e. the son and grandson, respectively, of Bosporan ruler Asander and his queen Dynamis). [4] [5] Aspurgus and Mithridates were not only related to the ruling house of Thrace, but were also descendants of both Mithridates VI Eupator of Pontus (both a Persian and Seleucid-Greek by lineage) [6] and the Roman triumvir Mark Antony through Antonia Tryphaena, Queen of Thrace and her mother Pythodorida of Pontus. [7] [5] [8] [9]

Life

When Eupator died in 173/174, Sauromates II succeeded his father. Sauromates II reigned as Bosporan King from that date until his death in 210/211. [2] He expressed his royal title in Greek on his coinage: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΑΥΡΟΜΑΤΟΥ or of King Sauromates. He was a contemporary of the Roman Emperors Marcus Aurelius, Commodus, Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Septimius Severus and Caracalla.

Gold coin of Sauromates II. Obv: head of Sauromates II. Rev: heads of Septimius Severus and Caracalla Coin of Sauromates II of the Bosporan Kingdom, including depiction of Septimius Severus and Caracalla.jpg
Gold coin of Sauromates II. Obv: head of Sauromates II. Rev: heads of Septimius Severus and Caracalla

Little is known of the life and reign of Sauromates II. According to surviving coinage, he appeared to be a religious person who was involved in the worship of the Goddess Aphrodite and her cult. In 193, Sauromates II finished a military campaign against the Scythians and Sirachi tribes, and successfully defeated them. [10] These victories are known from an inscription found in Tanais, dedicating and celebrating the King's military victories. [10] This military campaign perhaps began in 186, when it spurred a financial crisis within the Bosporan Kingdom. [10] In order to improve the flagging economy of his kingdom, Sauromates II initiated a series of monetary reforms in 186 that, over the course of a decade, gradually reduced the weight of his bronze coinage while increasing the circulation of the golden stater. [11] In the last decade of the 2nd century AD, the coins of Sauromates II also commonly featured the portrait of Septimius Severus; it is not known whether or not this was a command given by the Roman emperor to his client or if the Bosporan king did this on his own volition. [12]

Sauromates II married an unnamed woman. From this marriage he had two sons Rhescuporis II and Cotys III. Rhescuporis II succeeded Sauromates II in 210/211, while Cotys III succeeded him.

See also

Related Research Articles

Bosporan Kingdom Former country

The Bosporan Kingdom, also known as the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus, was an ancient Greco-Scythian state located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus, the present-day Strait of Kerch. It was the first truly 'Hellenistic' state in the sense that a mixed population adopted the Greek language and civilization. The Bosporan Kingdom became the longest surviving Roman client kingdom. The 1st and 2nd centuries BC saw a period of renewed golden age of the Bosporan state. It was a Roman province from 63 to 68 AD, under Emperor Nero. At the end of the 2nd century AD, King Sauromates II inflicted a critical defeat on the Scythians and included all the territories of the Crimea in the structure of his state.

Gepaepyris was a Thracian princess, and a Roman Client Queen of the Bosporan Kingdom, the longest known surviving Roman Client Kingdom.

Tiberius Julius Aspurgus Philoromaios was a Prince and Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom.

Tiberius Julius Cotys I

Tiberius Julius Cotys I Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Cotys I or Kotys I was a prince and Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom.

Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis I Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Rhescuporis I was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.

Dynamis, nicknamed Philoromaios, was a Roman client queen of the Bosporan Kingdom during the Late Roman Republic and part of the reign of Augustus, the first Roman Emperor. Dynamis is an ancient Greek name which means the “powerful one”. She was a monarch of Iranian and Greek Macedonian ancestry. She was the daughter of King Pharnaces II of Pontus and his Sarmatian wife. She had an older brother called Darius and a younger brother called Arsaces. Her paternal grandparents had been the monarchs of the Kingdom of Pontus, Mithridates VI of Pontus and his first wife Laodice, who was also his sister. Dynamis married three times. Her husbands were Asander, a certain Scribonius and Polemon I of Pontus. According to Rostovtzeff, she also had a fourth husband, Aspurgos.

Tiberius Julius Sauromates I Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Sauromates I was a prince and Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom.

Tiberius Julius Cotys II Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Cotys II or Kotys II was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.

Tiberius Julius Rhoemetalces Roman clietn king

Tiberius Julius Rhoemetalces Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Rhoemetalces or Rhoimetalces was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.

Tiberius Julius Eupator Ruler of the Bosporan Kingdom

Tiberius Julius Eupator Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Eupator, was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.

Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis II Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Rhescuporis II was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.

Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis III Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Rhescuporis III was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.

Tiberius Julius Cotys III Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Cotys III or Kotys III was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.

Tiberius Julius Sauromates III, sometimes known as Sauromates III was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.

Tiberius Julius Ininthimeus Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Ininthimaeus, Ininthimeus or Inithimeus was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.

Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis V Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Rhescuporis V was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.

Crimea in the Roman era

The Crimean Peninsula was under partial control of the Roman Empire during the period of 47 BC to c. 340 AD. The territory under Roman control mostly coincided with the Bosporan Kingdom . Rome lost its influence in Taurica in the mid third century AD, when substantial parts of the peninsula fell to the Goths, but at least nominally the kingdom survived until the 340s AD. Byzantium, the eastern continuation of the Roman Empire, later regained Crimea under Justinian I. The Byzantine Greeks controlled portions of the peninsula well into the Late Middle Ages.

Eunice was a Roman Client Queen of the Bosporan Kingdom by marriage to the Roman Client King, Cotys I. She appears to have been regent during the minority of her son Rhescuporis I in 68-69.

References

Citations

  1. Ivantchik (2014), pp. 168-170.
  2. 1 2 Myzgin & Beidin (2012), p. 75.
  3. Mommsen (2005), p. 314 footnote 1.
  4. Sullivan (1990), p. 324-325.
  5. 1 2 Mommsen (2005), pp. 312-314, 314 footnote 1.
  6. Engels (2017), p. 75.
  7. Sullivan (1990), pp. 323-325.
  8. Mayor (2011), pp. xviii, 417 footnote 54.
  9. Huzar (1978), pp. 230-231.
  10. 1 2 3 Zograph (1938), p. 108.
  11. Zograph (1938), pp. 106-111.
  12. Zograph (1938), p. 108, 110-111.

Sources

Further reading

Preceded by
Eupator
King of the Bosporus
174-210
Succeeded by
Rhescuporis II and Rhescuporis III