Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus
|Cause of death||Killed in ambush|
|Occupation||Politician and soldier|
|Relatives||Publius Sempronius Gracchus|
|Rank||Magister equitum, consul, proconsul|
|Wars||Second Punic War|
Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (died 212 BC ) was a Roman republican consul in the Second Punic War. He was son of the Tiberius Sempornius Gracchus who was consul in 238 BC, who was apparently the first man from his branch of the family to become a consul.[ citation needed ]
Gracchus is first mentioned in 216 BC as a curule aedile; he was made magister equitum in the dictatorship of Marcus Junius Pera after the defeat at Cannae.
He was elected consul to serve for 215 BC, at the recommendation of the dictator, whose orders he had faithfully obeyed even when obliged to abandon Italian allies to their fate.[ citation needed ] His colleague-elect Lucius Postumius Albinus being killed in an ambush in Gaul on his way home. Marcus Claudius Marcellus was elected suffect consul, but his election was declared invalid by the augurs, who forced him to resign. The invalidity was supposedly the result of patrician agitation, claiming that two plebeians could not serve as consuls together.[ citation needed ] Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus was then elected suffect consul to serve out the year. During his consulship, Gracchus raised forces and took his forces to garrison Campania and the city of Cumae after conducting the elections for both suffect consuls.
During his first consulship, Fabius and the senate decided to induct volunteer slaves into the Roman army in separate legions in which they could win their freedom. Gracchus was appointed commander of the slave troops. He rapidly became known as an effective general of the volunteer slave troops, winning their loyalty and trust for his clemency when some broke and ran from the field.[ citation needed ]
He was prorogued as proconsul into 214 BC, continuing to lead his slave and freedmen troops. His slave forces captured Cumae and Philip V of Macedon's envoys to Hannibal; after preventing Hanno (Hannibal's nephew) from reinforcing Hannibal's forces in Italy, the slaves were freed for their services.
He was re-elected consul for 213 BC. During his consulship, he appointed Gaius Claudius Centho as dictator to oversee consular elections and held military command near Luceria in northern Italy. In the next year, when he was bringing troops to reinforce Capua, when he and his men were ambushed and killed: a Roman ally defected while leading Gracchus to a place where the Carthaginian commander Mago Barca was waiting in ambush. Hannibal gave the dead general full funeral rites and returned his bones to his soldiers for burial.
[ citation needed ] His brother Publius Sempronius Gracchus was the father of the Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus who was consul in 177 BC,[ citation needed ] whose sons Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Gracchus were the famous reformers.
Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, surnamed Cunctator, was a Roman statesman and general of the third century BC. He was consul five times and was appointed dictator in 221 and 217 BC. He was censor in 230 BC. His agnomen, Cunctator, usually translated as "the delayer", refers to the strategy that he employed against Hannibal's forces during the Second Punic War. Facing an outstanding commander with superior numbers, he pursued a then-novel strategy of targeting the enemy's supply lines, and accepting only smaller engagements on favourable ground, rather than risking his entire army on direct confrontation with Hannibal himself. As a result, he is regarded as the originator of many tactics used in guerrilla warfare.
The Gracchi brothers were two Roman brothers, sons of the Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus who was consul in 177 BC. Tiberius, the elder brother, was tribune of the plebs in 133 BC and Gaius, the younger brother, was tribune a decade later between 123–22 BC.
This article concerns the period 219 BC – 210 BC.
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