|Tibesti-Jebel Uweinat montane xeric woodlands|
Location of the ecoregion (in yellow)
|Biome||deserts and xeric shrublands|
|Area||82,013 km2 (31,665 sq mi)|
|Countries||Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan|
|Conservation status||Relatively stable/intact|
|Protected||245 km² (>1%)|
The Tibesti-Jebel Uweinat montane xeric woodlands is a deserts and xeric shrublands ecoregion in the eastern Sahara. The woodlands ecoregion occupies two separate highland regions, covering portions of northern Chad, southwestern Egypt, southern Libya, and northwestern Sudan.
The ecoregion covers 82,200 square kilometers (31,700 sq mi) in the volcanic Tibesti Mountains of Chad and Libya, and 1932-m peak of Jebel Uweinat on the border of Egypt, Libya, and Sudan. The climate is arid and subtropical, but can reach 0°C at the highest altitudes during the winter. Rainfall is irregular but more regular than the surrounding desert and many of the lower wadis are watered by rain which falls higher up.
The Tibesti (and to a lesser extent the Jebel Uweinat massif) foster higher, more regular rainfall and cooler temperatures than the surrounding Sahara. This supports woodlands and shrublands of date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera ), acacias, Saharan Myrtle (Myrtus nivellei), oleander (Nerium oleander), tamarix, and several endemic and rare plant species, such as Ficus teloukat . The northern slopes are humid enough to support wetland species such as Juncus maritimus , Typha australis , Scirpus holoschoenus , Phragmites australis and Equisetum ramosissimum .
The ecoregion supports, or supported, populations of several important Saharan large mammals. One, the scimitar-horned oryx Oryx dammah is now believed to be extinct in the wild, while the addax Addax nasomaculatus is critically endangered. Other species include dorcas gazelle Gazella dorcas which is assessed as vulnerable, dama gazelle Nanger dama which is endangered, Barbary sheep Ammotragus lervia which is vulnerable and cheetah Acinonyx jubatus which is vulnerable. In 2000 Barbary sheep and dama gaxelle were recorded in the Jebel Uweinat portion of the ecoregion.
Smaller mammals are abundant, including rock hyrax Procavia capensis, Cape hare Lepus capensis, many mice, gerbils and jirds' and three species of fox, Rüppell's fox Vulpes rueppelli, pale fox Vulpes pallida and fennec fox Fennecus zerda. Other predators are found in the region including a relict population of African wild dog Lycaon pictus as well as striped hyena Hyaena hyaena and golden jackal Canis aureus, primarily in the southern portion of the region.
In habitats dominated by Schouwia and Tribulus terrestris in the wadis of this region, have an important role in the life cycle of the desert locust. This is where the female locusts lay their eggs, as the soil is moist and when the locust nymphs emerge, the leaves of Schouwia and Tribulus are fed on, allowing the nymphs to get enough food and water to mature. In some years, if conditions are right they can amass into large swarms, eventually becoming a plague which can reach distant areas of Africa and Europe, and have a huge economic impact by destroying crops.
The Sahara desert, as defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), includes the hyper-arid center of the Sahara, between latitudes 18° N and 30° N. It is one of several desert and xeric shrubland ecoregions that cover the northern portion of the African continent.
The Tibesti Mountains are a mountain range in the central Sahara, primarily located in the extreme north of Chad, with a small extension into southern Libya. The highest peak in the range, Emi Koussi, lies to the south at a height of 3,445 metres (11,302 ft) and is the highest point in both Chad and the Sahara. Bikku Bitti, the highest peak in Libya, is located in the north of the range. The central third of the Tibesti is of volcanic origin and consists of five shield volcanoes topped by large craters: Emi Koussi, Tarso Toon, Tarso Voon, Tarso Yega and Toussidé. Major lava flows have formed vast plateaus that overlie Paleozoic sandstone. The volcanic activity was the result of a continental hotspot that arose during the Oligocene and continued in some places until the Holocene, creating fumaroles, hot springs, mud pools and deposits of natron and sulfur. Erosion has shaped volcanic spires and carved an extensive network of canyons through which run rivers subject to highly irregular flows that are rapidly lost to the desert sands.
The East Saharan montane xeric woodlands is an ecoregion of central Africa, a number of high mountains in the middle of the huge area of savanna on the edge of the Sahara Desert.
The wildlife of Chad is composed of its flora and fauna. Animal and plant life correspond to the three climatic zones. In the Saharan region, the only flora is the date-palm groves of the oasis. Palms and acacia trees grow in the Sahelian region. The southern, or Sudanic, zone consists of broad grasslands or prairies suitable for grazing. As of 2002, there were at least 134 species of mammals, 532 species of birds, and over 1,600 species of plants throughout the country.
The Atlantic coastal desert is the westernmost ecoregion in the Sahara Desert of North Africa. It occupies a narrow strip along the Atlantic coast, where the more frequent fog and haze generated offshore by the cool Canary Current provides sufficient moisture to sustain a variety of lichens, succulents, and shrubs.
The North Saharan steppe and woodlands is a desert ecoregion, in the Deserts and xeric shrublands biome, that forms the northern edge of the Sahara. It extends east and west across Northern Africa, south of the Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe ecoregion of the Maghreb and Cyrenaica, which is part of the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome. Winter rains sustain shrublands and dry woodlands that form an ecotone between the Mediterranean climate regions to the north and the hyper-arid Sahara Desert ecoregion to the south.
El Kouf National Park, established in 1975, is one of the seven national parks of Libya. El Kouf is located along Libya's northeastern Mediterranean coastline and has both marine and terrestrial biodiversity. Libya also has five other reserves, twenty four protected areas and two wetlands, Ain Elshakika Wetland and Ain Elzarga Wetland, protected under the Ramsar Convention since 2000.
The Red Sea coastal desert is deserts and xeric shrublands ecoregion of Egypt and Sudan.