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Tibet Area (red) in the Republic of China
|1,221,600 km2 (471,700 sq mi)|
|Historical era||20th century|
|23 May 1951|
• Establishment of the
Tibet Autonomous Region
|22 April 1965|
|Today part of|| China |
The Tibet Area was a province-level administrative division of the Republic of China and early People's Republic of China.
[ citation needed ]
The People's Republic of China invaded Chamdo (not part of Tibet Area until 1951) in 1950 and incorporated the [ citation needed ] regions in 1951.
Following the 1959 Tibetan rebellion, the State Council of the PRC ordered to replace the Kashag government with the "Preparatory Committee for the Tibet Autonomous Region" which was established in 1956. The current Tibet Autonomous Region was established in 1965.
|Division (专区)||Tibetan||Simplified Chinese||Hanyu Pinyin||County (宗)|
|Lhasa Division Office||拉萨办事处||Lāsà Bànshìchù||9 counties|
|Xigazê Division Office||日喀则办事处||Rìkāzé Bànshìchù||12 counties|
|Heihe Division Office||黑河办事处||Hēihé Bànshìchù||4 counties|
|Ngari Division Office||阿里办事处||Ālǐ Bànshìchù||8 counties|
|Shannan Division Office||山南办事处||Shānnán Bànshìchù||10 counties|
|Tagong Division Office||塔工办事处||Tǎgōng Bànshìchù||6 counties|
|Gyangzê Division Office||江孜办事处||Jiāngzī Bànshìchù||6 counties|
|Qamdo Division Office||昌都办事处||Chāngdū Bànshìchù||18 counties|
The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region in Southwest China. It was overlayed on the traditional Tibetan regions of Ü-Tsang and Kham.
Kham or Do Kham, is one of the three traditional provinces of Tibet, the others being Amdo in the north-east, and U-Tsang in the west which incorporated Ngari in the north-west. Kham covers a land area largely divided between five regions in present-day China: Tibet Autonomous Region and Sichuan, with smaller portions located within Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan provinces.
Xikang was a province of the Republic of China and early People's Republic of China. It comprised most of the Kham region of traditional Tibet, where the Khampa, a subgroup of the Tibetan people, live. The eastern part of the province was inhabited by a number of different ethnic groups, such as Han Chinese, Yi, Qiang people and Tibetan, while the western part of the province was inhabited by Tibetans. Xikang, then known as Chuanbian (川邊), was a special administrative region of the Republic of China until 1939, when it became an official province. The provincial capital was Kangding from 1939 to 1951 and Ya'an from 1951 to 1955. The province had a population of some 3.4 million in 1954.
Nagqu is a prefecture-level city in the north of the Chinese autonomous region of Tibet. On May 7, 2018, the former Nagqu Prefecture was officially declared the sixth prefecture-level city in Tibet after Lhasa, Shigatse, Chamdo, Nyingchi and Shannan. The regional area, covering an area of 450,537 km2 (173,953 sq mi), is bordered by Bayingolin and Hotan Prefectures of Xinjiang to the north, Haixi, Yushu Prefectures of Qinghai and Chamdo to the east, Nyingchi, Lhasa and Shigatse to the south, Ngari Prefecture to the west. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 462,381.
The history of Tibet from 1950 to the present includes the Chinese invasion of Tibet in 1950, and the Battle of Chamdo. Before then, Tibet had been a "de-facto" independent state/province under the governance of the Republic of China. In 1951, Tibetan representatives in Beijing signed the Seventeen-point Agreement under duress, which affirmed China's sovereignty over Tibet while it simultaneously provided for an autonomous administration led by Tibet's spiritual leader, and then-political leader, the 14th Dalai Lama. During the 1959 Tibetan uprising, when Tibetans arose to prevent his possible assassination, the Dalai Lama escaped from Tibet to northern India where he established the Central Tibetan Administration, which rescinded the Seventeen-point Agreement. The majority of Tibet's land mass, including all of U-Tsang and areas of Kham and Amdo, was officially established in 1965 as Tibet Autonomous Region, within China.
Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme was a Tibetan senior official who assumed various military and political responsibilities both before and after 1951 in Tibet. He is often known simply as Ngapo in English sources.
Lhalu Tsewang Dorje (January 1914- September 15, 2011, commonly known as Lhalu, Lhalu Se, or Lhalu Shape, was a Tibetan aristocrat and politician who held a variety of positions in various Tibetan governments before and after 1951.
The 1959 Tibetan uprising or the 1959 Tibetan rebellion began on 10 March 1959, when a revolt erupted in Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, which had been under the effective control of the People's Republic of China since the Seventeen Point Agreement was reached in 1951. Armed conflict between Tibetan guerillas and the People's Liberation Army (PLA) had started in 1956 in the Kham and Amdo regions, which had been subjected to socialist reform. The guerrilla warfare later spread to other areas of Tibet and lasted through 1962. Some regard the Xunhua Incident in 1958 as a precursor of the Tibetan uprising.
The annexation of Tibet by the People's Republic of China was the process by which the People's Republic of China (PRC) gained control of Tibet.
Batang County is a county located in western Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China. Government address: Xiaqiong Town, Batang County, Ganzi, Sichuan 627650. Area code: 0836. The main administrative centre is known as Batang Town or Xiaqiong Town.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Tibet:
The serfdom in Tibet controversy is a prolonged public disagreement over the extent and nature of serfdom in Tibet prior to the incorporation of Tibet into the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1951. The debate is political in nature with the ultimate goal on the Chinese side of legitimizing Chinese control of the territory now known as the Tibet Autonomous Region or Xizang Autonomous Region. The pro-PRC argument is that Tibetan culture, government, and society were barbaric prior to the Chinese takeover of Tibet and that this only changed due to Chinese influence in the region. The pro-Tibetan independence movement argument is that this is a misrepresentation of history created as a political tool in order to justify the Sinicization of Tibet. This argued distortion of history is believed by those seeking Tibetan independence to prove that Chinese claims to the region are not legitimate.
The polity of Tibet between the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1912 and the annexation by the People's Republic of China in 1951 was a de facto independent state comprising the western half of the Tibetan Plateau.
The Battle of Chamdo occurred from 6 through 19 October 1950. It was a military campaign by the People's Republic of China (PRC) to take the Chamdo Region from a de facto independent Tibetan state after months of failed negotiations on the status of Tibet. The campaign resulted in the capture of Chamdo and further negotiations between the PRC and Tibetan representatives that eventually resulted in the annexation of Tibet by the People's Republic of China.
The Tibetan Army was the military force of Tibet after its de facto independence in 1912 until the 1950s. As a ground army modernised with the assistance of British training and equipment, it served as the de facto armed forces of the Tibetan government.
The Ganden Phodrang or Ganden Podrang was the Tibetan government that was established by the 5th Dalai Lama with the help of the Güshi Khan of the Khoshut in 1642. Lhasa became the capital of Tibet in the beginning of this period, with all temporal power being conferred to the 5th Dalai Lama by Güshi Khan in Shigatse. After the expulsion of the Dzungars, Tibet was under administrative rule of the Qing dynasty between 1720 and 1912, but the Ganden Phodrang government lasted until the 1950s, when Tibet was incorporated into the People's Republic of China. Kashag became the governing council of the Ganden Phodrang regime during the early Qing rule.
The 1720 Chinese expedition to Tibet or the Chinese conquest of Tibet in 1720 was a military expedition sent by the Qing empire to expel the invading forces of the Dzungar Khanate from Tibet and establish a Chinese protectorate over the country. The expedition occupied Lhasa and marked the beginning of Qing rule in Tibet, which lasted until the empire's fall in 1912.
Thubten Kunphel, commonly known as Kunphela, was a Tibetan politician and one of the most powerful political figures in Tibet during the later years of the 13th Dalai Lama's rule, known as the "strong man of Tibet". Kunphela was arrested and exiled after the death of the Dalai Lama in 1933. He later escaped to India and became a co-founder of the India-based Tibet Improvement Party with the aim of establishing a secular government in Tibet. He worked in Nanking after the attempt to start a revolution in Tibet failed, and returned to Tibet in 1948.
Sampho Tsewang Rigzin was a Tibetan politician who served as Kalön of the Kashag from 1957 to 1959. He was a soldier in the People's Liberation Army in the 1950s and was the Chinese equivalent of a major general (shaojiang).