Tibet Vernacular Paper

Last updated

Front cover of August 1910 21 issue in Chinese and Tibetan Xizang baihua bao.1910.8.jpg
Front cover of August 1910 21 issue in Chinese and Tibetan
Page of the Paper in Tibetan Tibet Vernacular Paper.jpg
Page of the Paper in Tibetan

The Tibet Vernacular Paper (simplified Chinese :西藏白话报; traditional Chinese :西藏白話報; pinyin :Xīzàng báihuà bào, Tibetan : ནུབ་བོད་ཀྱི་ཕལ་སྐད་ཚགས་པར, Wylie : nub bod kyi phal skad tshags par), [1] also translated as The Tibetan Vernacular Paper, is the first newspaper to have been established in Tibet. Written in both Tibetan (藏文) and vernacular Chinese (Baihua 白话), it was founded in April 1909 by amban Lian Yu, and his deputy Zhang Yintang, in the final years of the Qing Dynasty. The first issue was lithographically printed, with a print-run fewer than 100 copies a day. [2] [3] It was disestablished in 1911. [4] The mission of the newspaper was mainly educational, [4] but also propagandistic. [4] [5] Nothing is known about how the paper was received by Tibetans. [6]

Contents

Goals

Lian Yu and Zhang Yintang felt that publishing a newspaper in the vernacular language would advance their administrative reforms far more than just making speeches to restricted audiences. They took the Sichuan Yun Bao and other government-funded newspapersd as its models. [7] As few Tibetans could read Chinese and few Chinese could read Tibetan at the time, they plumped for a bilingual newspaper. According to Bai Runsheng, the newspaper was warmly welcomed by the Tibetan people. [8]

Printing, circulation and frequency

The Tibet Vernacular Paper was first printed lithographically (at the rate of fewer than 100 copies a day) on a stone printing machine brought to Tibet by Zhang Yintang. [9] In order to achieve larger print runs, printing machines were later bought in India and brought to Tibet. [10] The newspaper appeared once every ten days, with 300 to 400 copies per issue. [11] It stopped appearing in 1911. [4]

Announcing the arrival of Zhao Erfeng army

Tibetan historian K. Dhondup wrote that one of the first issue of the newspaper was published while the 13th Dalai Lama came back to Lhasa after his first exile, just before his second exile. The paper announced in August 1909 the arrival of Chao Erh-feng army: "Don't be afraid of Amban Chao and his soldiers. They are not intended to do harm to Tibetans, but to other people. If you consider, you will remember how you felt ashamed when the foreign soldiers arrived in Lhasa and oppressed you with much tyranny. We must all be strengthen ourselves on this account, otherwise our religion will be destroyed in 100 or perhaps 1,000 years." [12] On 3 January 1910, the Chinese army entered in Lhasa, shooting at random in the city, resulting in a number of wounded and killed policemen and people. [13]

See also

Related Research Articles

Dalai Lama Tibetan Buddhist spiritual teacher

Dalai Lama is a title given by the Tibetan people for the foremost spiritual leader of the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" school of Tibetan Buddhism, the newest of the classical schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The 14th and current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso, who lives as a refugee in India.

Tibet Plateau region in Asia

Tibet is a region in Asia covering much of the Tibetan Plateau. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpa, Tamang, Qiang, Sherpa, and Lhoba peoples and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of Han Chinese and Hui people. Tibet is the highest region on Earth, with an average elevation of 5,000 m (16,000 ft). The highest elevation in Tibet is Mount Everest, Earth's highest mountain, rising 8,848 m (29,029 ft) above sea level.

Lhasa District in Tibet, Peoples Republic of China

Lhasa or Chengguan is a district and administrative capital of Lhasa City in the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. The inner urban area of Lhasa City is equivalent to the administrative borders of Chengguan District, which is part of the wider prefectural Lhasa City.

Bhrikuti Nepalese princess

The Licchavi Princess Bhrikuti Devi, known to Tibetans as Bal-mo-bza' Khri-btsun, Bhelsa Tritsun or, simply, Khri bTsun, is traditionally considered to have been the first wife of the earliest emperor of Tibet, Songtsen Gampo, and an incarnation of Tara. She was also known as "Besa", and was a princess of the Licchavi kingdom of Nepal.

History of Tibet aspect of history

Tibetan history, as it has been recorded, is particularly focused on the history of Buddhism in Tibet. This is partly due to the pivotal role this religion has played in the development of Tibetan and Mongol cultures and partly because almost all native historians of the country were Buddhist monks.

Samzhubzê District District in Tibet Autonomous Region, Peoples Republic of China

Samzhubzê District is a district in the Tibet Autonomous Region of the China, and the administrative center of the prefecture-level city of Shigatse. Prior to 2014 it was known as the county-level city of Shigatse. It was the ancient capital of Ü-Tsang province and is the second largest city in Tibet with an estimated population of 117,000 in 2013. Samzhubzê is located at the confluence of the Yarlung Tsangpo River and the Nyang River, about 250 km (160 mi) southwest of Lhasa and 90 km (56 mi) northwest of Gyantse, at an altitude of 3,840 metres (12,600 ft).

Amban Ranks of officials in the Qing dynasty

Amban is a Manchu language word meaning "high official," which corresponds to a number of different official titles in the Qing imperial government. For instance, members of the Grand Council were called Coohai nashūn-i amban in Manchu and Qing governor-generals were called Uheri kadalara amban.

Standard Tibetan is a widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages that has many commonalities with the speech of Lhasa, an Ü-Tsang dialect. For this reason, Standard Tibetan is often called Lhasa Tibetan. Tibetan is an official language of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. The written language is based on Classical Tibetan and is highly conservative.

Zhao Erfeng Chinese politician

Zhao Erfeng (1845–1911), courtesy name Jihe, was a Qing Dynasty official and Han Chinese bannerman, who belonged to the Plain Blue Banner. He is known for being the last amban in Tibet, appointed in March, 1908. Lien Yu, a Manchu, was appointed as the other amban. Formerly Director-General of the Sichuan - Hubei Railway and acting viceroy of Sichuan province, Zhao was the much-maligned Chinese general of the late imperial era who led military campaigns throughout Kham and eventually reaching Lhasa in 1910, thus earning himself the nickname "Zhao the Butcher".

This is a list of topics related to Tibet.

Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme Tibetan politician

Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme was a Tibetan senior official who assumed various military and political responsibilities both before and after 1951 in Tibet. He is often known simply as Ngapo in English sources.

Kashag Tibetan council created by Qing dynasty in Tibet in 1721 to replace civil council

The Kashag, was the governing council of Tibet during the rule of the Qing dynasty and post-Qing period until the 1950s. It was created in 1721, and set by Qianlong Emperor in 1751 for the Ganden Phodrang in the 13-Article Ordinance for the More Effective Governing of Tibet《酌定西藏善后章程十三条》. In that year the Tibetan government was reorganized after the riots in Lhasa of the previous year. The civil administration was represented by Council (Kashag) after the post of Desi was abolished by the Qing imperial court. The Qing imperial court wanted the 7th Dalai Lama to hold both religious and administrative rule, while strengthening the position of the High Commissioners.

Historical money of Tibet aspect of history

The use of historical money in Tibet started in ancient times, when Tibet had no coined currency of its own. Bartering was common, gold was a medium of exchange, and shell money and stone beads were used for very small purchases. A few coins from other countries were also occasionally in use.

Tibet (1912–1951) Historical de facto independent region of Republic of China

The polity of Tibet between the collapse of the Qing Empire in 1912 and its incorporation into the People's Republic of China in 1951 was an autonomous protectorate of the Republic of China.

The Tibet Mirror was a Tibetan-language newspaper published in Kalimpong, India, from 1925 to 1963 and circulated primarily in Tibet but eventually with subscribers worldwide. Its originator was Gergan Tharchin who was at the same time its journalist, editor, and manager.

Jigme Gyatso Tibetan filmmaker

Jigme Gyatso is a Tibetan filmmaker and human rights activist. After assisting with the documentary Leaving Fear Behind, he was arrested by Chinese authorities on at least three occasions. He alleges that he was tortured following his March 2008 arrest.

Lhasa–Xigazê railway railway line in China

The Lhasa–Xigazê railway, or La'ri railway, is a high-elevation railway that connects Lhasa to Xigazê, in the Tibet Autonomous Region. The travel time between Lhasa and Xigazê on this line is roughly three hours.

Polhané Sönam Topgyé Tibetan ruler

Polhané Sönam Topgyé was one of the most important political personalities of Tibet in the first half of the 18th century. Between 1728 and 1747 he was effectively the ruling prince of Tibet and carried royal titles during the period of Qing rule of Tibet. He is known as an excellent administrator, a fearsome warrior and a grand strategist. After the troubled years under the reign of Lhazang Khan, the bloody invasion of Tsering Dhondup and the civil war, his government ushered in a relatively long period of stability and internal and external peace for Tibet.

Tibet under Qing rule

Tibet under Qing rule refers to the Qing dynasty's rule over Tibet from 1720 to 1912. During the Qing rule of Tibet, the region was controlled by the Qing dynasty established by the Manchus in China. In the history of Tibet, Qing administrative rule was established after a Qing army defeated the Dzungars who occupied Tibet in 1720, and lasted until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912, although the region retained a degree of political autonomy under the Dalai Lamas. The Qing emperors appointed imperial residents known as the Ambans to Tibet, who commanded over 2,000 troops stationed in Lhasa and reported to the Lifan Yuan, a Qing government body that oversaw the empire's frontier regions.

Choenyi Tsering is a Chinese actress and singer of Tibetan descent. Choenyi Tsering is best known for her roles as Princess Aliya on Love Yunge from the Desert (2013) and Zhang Lihua/ Zhu Gui'er on Heroes in Sui and Tang Dynasties (2013) and has also starred in a number of films, including Zhanian Instrument (1999), Women Who Know How to Flirt Are the Luckiest (2013), Zhong Kui: Snow Girl and the Dark Crystal (2014), and Soul on a String (2017).

References

  1. Fabienne Jagou, Les traductions tibétaines des discours politiques chinois de Sun Yat-sen sur les « Trois principes du peuple » en tant qu’exemples de traductions modernes d’un texte politique, in Édition, Éditions: L'écrit Au Tibet, Évolution et Devenir, Volume 3 de Collectanea Himalayica, Anne Chayet, Éditeur Indus, 2010, ISBN   9783940659026, p. 169
  2. Protection and Development of Tibetan Culture (White Paper), China Daily, 25-09-2008, p. 7: Old Tibet had only one lithographically printed newspaper in the Tibetan language in the last years of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), titled The Tibet Vernacular Newspaper, and its print-run was fewer than 100 copies a day.
  3. Thubten Samphel, Virtual Tibet: The Media, in Exile as challenge: the Tibetan diaspora (Dagmar Bernstorff, Hubertus von Welck eds.), Orient Blackswan, 2003, 488 pages, especially pp. 171-172 ISBN   978-81-250-2555-9: Tibet's first newspaper, Vernacular Paper, was started by the Manchu amban, Lian Yu, and his deputy, Zhang Yintong in April 1909. The newspaper was bilingual, in Tibetan and Chinese.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Amy Holmes-Tagchungdarpa, Representations of Religion in The Tibet Mirror, in History and Material Culture in Asian Religions: Text, Image, Object, eds. Benjamin Fleming, Richard Mann, p. 77.
  5. Françoise Robin, Le vers libre au Tibet : une forme littéraire de l'intime au service d'un projet collectif, dans D'un Orient l'autre, actes des 3es journées de l'Orient, Bordeaux, 2-4 octobre 2002 (sous la direction de Jean-Louis Bacqué-Grammont, A. Pino, S. Khoury), Peeters Publishers, 2005, 606 p., pp. 573-601, en part. p. 583, note 31 : "un journal de propagande publié à Lhas[s]a par les autorités mandchoues à la fin de 1909 (Dhondup 1976: 33)".
  6. Anna Sawerthal (2011). The Melong: An Example of the Formation of a Tibetan Language Press (PDF) (MA thesis). University of Vienna, Austria. p. 55. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
  7. Bai Runsheng, The earliest Tibetan newspaper in Tibet Archived 2015-11-17 at the Wayback Machine , China Tibet Information Center, 2005-07-01: "But in Tibet the old customs had taken such a deep root that it was difficult to get effective results through administrative reformation. So Lian Yu and Zhang Yintang thought that to publish a newspaper in the vernacular language would get better results than to make speeches in narrow spheres. This was why they founded the "Vernacular Paper in Tibet." Aiming at educating people in patriotism and intelligence. The paper took "Xun Bao", a newspaper of Sichuan, and other government-funded newspaper of other provinces as its models, It was the first modern newspaper in Tibetan areas."
  8. Bai Runsheng, op. cit.: "At that time few Tibetans knew Chinese, and the same was true for the Chinese. So the newspaper was published in Tibetan and Chinese. The bilingual newspaper was warmly welcomed by the Tibetan people. It was said that many readers came to buy the newspaper."
  9. Xinhua, Protection and Development of Tibetan Culture (White Paper), China Daily, 25-09-2008, p. 7:"Old Tibet had only one lithographically printed newspaper in the Tibetan language in the last years of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), titled The Tibet Vernacular Newspaper, and its print-run was fewer than 100 copies a day."
  10. Bai Runsheng, op. cit.: "The first issue of the paper was printed with the stone printing machine brought to Tibet by the deputy amban Zhang Yintang. In order to run the newspaper for long, Lian Yu sent men to Calcutta to buy printing machines."
  11. Bai Rusheng, op. cit.: "The "Vernacular Paper in Tiber" was a publication appearing once every ten days, with 300 to 400 copies per issue."
  12. Elliot Sperling, "The Chinese Venture into K'am, 1904–11 and the Role of Chao Erhfeng", in The History of Tibet: The modern period:1895-1959, the encounter with modernity, ed Alex McKay
  13. K. Dhondup, The water-bird and other years: a history of the Thirteenth Dalai Lama and after, 1986, Rangwang Publishers, p. 33 "But his stay in Lhasa was to be short. A second exile was in front of him. As a prelude to this, there appeared in Lhasa for the first time a newspaper published by the Chinese in Tibetan. One of the issues said: […] On 3rd January 1910, the advance unit of the Chinese army reached the banks of Kyichu river where the Manchu Amban waiting for them. That very afternoon they burst into Lhasa. They randomly fired in the city, wounding and killing a number of policemen and people"