Tibetan National Anthem

Last updated

Contents

Gyallu

National anthem of Flag of Tibet.svg  Tibet
Lyrics Trijang Rinpoche, 1950
Adopted1950
Audio sample

The Tibetan National Anthem (Tibetan: བོད་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་ཆེན་པོའི་རྒྱལ་གླུ།, Bod Rgyal Khab Chen Po'i Rgyal Glu), known as "Gyallu", is the anthem of the Tibetan Government in Exile and is strictly banned by the People's Republic of China, especially in the Tibet Autonomous Region. [1] It was written by Trijang Rinpoche in 1950.

Tibet's first national anthem was, according to Tashi Tsering, written by a Tibetan scholar during the epoch of the seventh Dalai Lama and under the reign of the Pholanas in between 1745 and 1746.

Gyallu

"Gyallu" is the national anthem of the Tibetan exile government and focuses on the radiance of the Buddha. [2] The words were written by Trijang Rinpoche around 1950 but it is unclear exactly whether it was first used before the Annexation of Tibet by the People's Republic of China in 1951 or after the 14th Dalai Lama went into exile in India in 1960.

The earliest report of a state anthem (presumably Gyallu) is from the period of 1949 to 1950 (when Tibet was already facing the threat of a Communist Chinese invasion), introduced under reforms set in place to strengthen patriotism among the Tibetan people. Another report states that the anthem was presented to the 14th Dalai Lama in 1960 in exile.

The melody is said to be based on a very old piece of Tibetan sacred music, and the lyrics are by the Dalai Lama's tutor, Trijang Rinpoche. It has been used by Tibetans in exile ever since the introduction of the state anthem although it is banned in Tibet.

Lyrics

Tibetan script

Tibetan lyrics Wylie transliteration

སྲིད་ཞིའི་ཕན་བདེའི་འདོད་རྒུ་འབྱུང་བའི་གཏེར།
ཐུབ་བསྟན་བསམ་འཕེལ་ནོར་བུའི་འོད་སྣང་འབར།
བསྟན་འགྲོའི་ནོར་འཛིན་རྒྱ་ཆེར་སྐྱོང་བའི་མགོན།
འཕྲིན་ལས་ཀྱི་རོལ་མཚོ་རྒྱས།
རྡོ་རྗེའི་ཁམས་སུ་བརྟན་པས་ཕྱོགས་ཀུན་བྱམས་བརྩེས་སྐྱོང།
གནམ་བསྐོས་དགའ་བ་བརྒྱ་ལྡན་དབུ་འཕང་དགུང་ལ་རེག
ཕུན་ཚོགས་སྡེ་བཞིའི་མངའ་ཐང་རྒྱས།
བོད་ལྗོངས་ཆོལ་ཁ་གསུམ་གྱི་ཁྱོན་ལ་བདེ་སྐྱིད་རྫོགས་ལྡན་གསར་པས་ཁྱབ།
ཆོས་སྲིད་ཀྱི་དཔལ་ཡོན་དར།
ཐུབ་བསྟན་ཕྱོགས་བཅུར་རྒྱས་པས་འཛམ་གླིང་ཡངས་པའི་ སྐྱེ་རྒུ་ཞི་བདེའི་དཔལ་ལ་སྦྱོར།
བོད་ལྗོངས་བསྟན་འགྲོའི་དགེ་མཚན་ཉི་འོད་ཀྱིས།
བཀྲ་ཤིས་འོད་སྣང་འབུམ་དུ་འཕྲོ་བའི་གཟིས།
ནག་ཕྱོགས་མུན་པའི་གཡུལ་ལས་རྒྱལ་གྱུར་ཅིག།

srid zhi'i phan bde'i 'dod rgu 'byung ba'i gter
thub bstan bsam 'phel nor bu'i 'od snang 'bar
bstan 'gro'i nor 'dzin rgya cher skyong ba'i mgon
'phrin las kyi rol mtsho rgyas
rdo rje'i khams su brtan pas phyogs kun byams brtses skyong
gnam bskos dga' ba brgya ldan dbu 'phang dgung la reg
phun tshogs sde bzhi'i mnga' thang rgyas
bod ljongs chol kha gsum gyi khyon la bde skyid rdzogs ldan gsar pas khyab
chos srid kyi dpal yon dar
thub bstan phyogs bcur rgyas pas 'dzam gling yangs pa'i skye rgu zhi bde'i dpal la sbyor
bod ljongs bstan 'gro'i dge mtshan nyi 'od kyis
bkra shis 'od snang 'bum du 'phro ba'i gzis
nag phyogs mun pa'i g.yul las rgyal gyur cig

TranscriptionEnglish translationAlternative English translation

Si Zhi Phen De Dö Gu Jungwae Ter
Thubten Samphel Norbue Onang Bar.
Tendroe Nordzin Gyache Kyongwae Gön,
Trinley Kyi Rol Tsö Gye,

Dorje Khamsu Ten Pey,
Chogkün Jham Tse Kyong,
Namkö Gawa Gyaden,
ü-Phang Gung la Regh

Phutsong Dezhii Nga-Thang Gye
Bhod Jong Chul Kha,
Sum Gyi Khyön La
Dekyi Dzogden Sarpe Khyap.

Chösi Kyi Pel Yon Dhar
Thubten Chog Chur Gyepe
Dzamling Yangpae Kyegu
Zhidae Pel La Jör.

Bhöd Jong Tendrö Getzen Nyi-ö-Kyi
Trashi O-Nang Bumdutrowae Zi,
Nag Chog Munpae Yul Ley,
Gyal Gyur Chig.

Let the radiant light shine of Buddha's wish-fulfilling gem teachings,
the treasure chest of all hopes for happiness and benefit
in both secular life and liberation.
O Protectors who hold the jewel of the teachings and all beings,
nourishing them greatly,
may the sum of your karmas grow full.
Firmly enduring in a diamond-hard state, guard all directions with
Compassion and love.
Above our heads may divinely appointed rule abide
endowed with a hundred benefits and let the power increase
of fourfold auspiciousness,
May a new golden age of happiness and bliss spread
throughout the three provinces of Tibet
and the glory expand of religious-secular rule.
By the spread of Buddha's teachings in the ten directions,
may everyone throughout the world
enjoy the glories of happiness and peace.
In the battle against negative forces
may the auspicious sunshine of the teachings and beings of
Tibet and the brilliance of a myriad radiant prosperities
be ever triumphant.

The source of temporal and spiritual wealth of joy and boundless benefits
The Wish-fulfilling Jewel of the Buddha's Teaching, blazes forth radiant light
The all-protecting Patron of the Doctrine and of all sentient beings
By his actions stretches forth his influence like an ocean
By his eternal Vajra-nature
His compassion and loving care extend to beings everywhere
May the celestially appointed Government of Gawa Gyaden achieve the heights of glory
And increase its fourfold influence and prosperity
May a golden age of joy and happiness spread once more through these regions of Tibet
And may its temporal and spiritual splendour shine again
May the Buddha's Teaching spread in all the ten directions and lead all beings in the universe to glorious peace
May the spiritual Sun of the Tibetan faith and People
Emitting countless rays of auspicious light
Victoriously dispel the strife of darkness

18th-century Tibetan national anthem

The first Tibetan national anthem was created in the 18th century. According to eminent Tibetan scholar Tashi Tsering, it was composed by Pholanas in 1745/46, at the time of the 7th Dalai Lama. Sir Charles Bell described it as Tibet's "national hymn". [3] Also part of a Tibetan Buddhist prayer, namely Prayer for long life of the Dalai Lama. The Prayer mentioned below is the prayer for long life of 14th Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso, so it could not possibly be the national anthem before his (re)birth. In Tibetan Buddhism it is customary to write by highly realized Masters long life prayers for new reincarnations and other greatly recognized Masters of the time. It is said that reciting such prayers that spontaneously appeared in the minds of reincarnated masters (Living Buddhas) brings great benefits to those who recite them, not to mention of course the addressees of them.

Lyrics

Tibetan lyricsTransliterationEnglish translation

གངས་རིས་སྐོར་བའི་ཞིང་ཁམས་འདི།
ཕན་ཐང་བདེ་བ་མ་ལུས་འབྱུང་བའི་གནས་།
སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་བ་བསྟན་འཛིན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་ཡིན།
ཞབས་པད་སྲིད་མཐའི་བར་དུ་བརྟན་གྱུར་ཅིག་།།

Ghang ri rawe kor we shingkham di
Phen thang dewa ma loe jungwae ne
Chenrezig wa Tenzin Gyatso yin
Shelpal se thae bhardu
Ten gyur chik

Circled by ramparts of snow-mountains,
This sacred realm,
This wellspring of all benefits and happiness
Tenzin Gyatso, enlighted existence of Compassion.
May his reign endure
Till the end of all existence

Related Research Articles

Gelug Dominant school of Tibetan Buddhism

The Gelug is the newest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. It was founded by Je Tsongkhapa (1357–1419), a Tibetan philosopher, tantric yogi and lama and further expanded and developed by his disciples.

Panchen Lama Prominent figure in Tibetan Buddhism

The Panchen Lama, is a tulku of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism. Panchen Lama is one of the most important figures in the Gelug tradition, with its spiritual authority second only to Dalai Lama. Along with the council of high lamas, he is in charge of seeking out the next Dalai Lama. "Panchen" is a portmanteau of "Pandita" and "Chenpo", meaning "Great scholar".

There are currently two, separately enthroned 17th Gyalwang Karmapas: Ogyen Trinley Dorje and Trinley Thaye Dorje. The Karmapa is the spiritual leader of the nine-hundred-year-old Karma Kagyu lineage of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism.

Gyaincain Norbu 11th Panchen Lama according to the Chinese government

Chökyi Gyalpo, also referred to by his secular name Gyaincain Norbu or Gyaltsen Norbu, is considered the 11th Panchen Lama by the government of the People's Republic of China (PRC). He is also the vice president of the Buddhist Association of China. Gyalpo is considered by some to be a proxy of the Chinese government.

The Dorje Shugden controversy is a controversy over Dorje Shugden, also known as Dolgyal, who some consider to be one of several protectors of the Gelug school, the school of Tibetan Buddhism to which the Dalai Lamas belong. Dorje Shugden has become the symbolic centre-point of a conflict over the "purity" of the Gelug school and the inclusion of non-Gelug teachings, especially Nyingma ones.

Tibetan Americans are Americans of Tibetan ancestry. As of 2020, more than 26,700 Americans are estimated to have Tibetan ancestry. The majority of Tibetan Americans reside in Queens, New York.

Lobsang Chökyi Gyaltsen, 4th Panchen Lama

Losang Chö kyi Gyaltsen (1570–1662) was the fourth Panchen Lama of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism and the first to be accorded this title during his lifetime.

Dakpo Tashi Namgyal was a lineage holder of the Dagpo Kagyu lineage of Tibetan Buddhism. He was also trained in the Sakya lineage, and "was renowned as both a scholar and yogi."

Reting Rinpoche

Reting Rinpoche was a title held by abbots of Reting Monastery, a Buddhist monastery in central Tibet.

Khunu Lama Tenzin Gyaltsen, 1894–1977, known also as Negi Lama Tenzin Gyaltsen, Tenzin Gyaltsen, and various other names like Kunu Rinpoche, Kunu Lama and Negi Lama, was born in 1894 in the village of Sunam which lies in the forest-clad Kinnaur district of India in the western Himalayas. Khunu Rinpoche was neither a tulku nor a Buddhist monk but a layman who took the lay practitioner's vows.

Palyul Monastery

Palyul Monastery, also known as Palyul Namgyal Jangchub Choling Monastery and sometimes romanized as Pelyul Monastery, is one of the "Six Mother Monasteries" of the Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. It was founded in 1665 by Rigzin Kunzang Sherab in Dege, on the eastern edge of Tibet in Kham, a town in today's Baiyü County, Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in China's Sichuan province. The monastery is the seat of the Nam Chö Terma of Terton Migyur Dorje. Drubwang Padma Norbu was the 11th throneholder of the Palyul lineage. Upon his mahaparinirvana in March, 2009, Karma Kuchen Rinpoche became the 12th throneholder.

Zong Rinpoche

Zong Rinpoche was a Gelug Lama and disciple of the third Trijang Rinpoche, junior tutor of the 14th Dalai Lama. He was famous as a sharp analyst and master of philosophical debate, as well as a powerful Tantric practitioner. He was the Abbot of Ganden Shartse monastery.

Tempa Tsering

Tempa Tsering.

Tsepon W. D. Shakabpa

Tsepon Wangchuk Deden Shakabpa was a Tibetan nobleman, scholar, statesman and former Finance Minister of the government of Tibet.

Lodi Gyari

Lodi Gyaltsen Gyari Rinpoche, Kasur Lodi Gyari or "as he is universally known to the Tibetan-speaking world, Gyari Rinpoche" was a Tibetan politician, and journalist who served as the 14th Dalai Lama's special envoy to the United States. Exiled to India in 1959, he was also the executive chairman of the International Campaign for Tibet.

Diskit Monastery Buddhist monastery in Ladakh, India

Diskit Monastery also known as Deskit Gompa or Diskit Gompa is the oldest and largest Buddhist monastery (gompa) in the Nubra Valley of Ladakh, northern India.

Trijang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso

The Third Trijang Rinpoche, Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso (1901–1981) was a Gelugpa Lama and a direct disciple of Pabongkhapa Déchen Nyingpo. He succeeded Ling Rinpoche as the junior tutor of the 14th Dalai Lama when the Dalai Lama was nineteen years old. He was also a lama of many Gelug Lamas who taught in the West including Zong Rinpoche, Geshe Rabten and Lama Yeshe. Trijang Rinpoche's oral teachings were recorded by Zimey Rinpoche in a book called the Yellow Book.

Geshe Ngawang Kalsang, later known as, Domo Geshe Rinpoche is a Geluk tradition reincarnate Lama of Tibetan Buddhism. The lineage includes Je Pabongka Rinpoche, Kyabje Trijang Rinpoche, and Geshe Jampa Chombe.

Lobsang Dolma Khangkar

Lobsang Dolma Khangkar also called Lobsang Dolma or Ama Lobsang Dolma was a 13th generation doctor of traditional Tibetan medicine. She travelled with the Dalai Lama in 1959 from Tibet to India. She was the First woman to become chief physician of the Men-Tsee-Khang. She and the others carried her daughters on their backs into what is now Dharamsala, India: Tsewang Dolkar Khangkar and Pasang Gyalmo Khangkar, succeeded her in the family line of doctors, the Khangkar.

Rizong Rinpoche Indian cleric (born 1928)

Rizong Sras Rinpoche is an Indian cleric from Ladakh born in 1928 who was the 102nd Ganden Tripa - now known as Ganden TrisurRizong Rinpoche. Prior to becoming the Ganden Tripa, he was the Jangtse Chöje Rinpoche from Gyüme Tantric College.

References

  1. "Oops: China State Media Website Plays Banned Tibetan National Anthem". VOA . 6 November 2013.
  2. Tibet - nationalanthems.info
  3. Freedom Wind, Freedom Song About the origins of Tibet anthems, by Jamyang Norbu.