Tibetan Plateau

Last updated

Tibetan Plateau
青藏高原 (Qīng–Zàng Gāoyuán, Qinghai–Tibet Plateau)
Himalaya composite.jpg
The Tibetan Plateau lies between the Himalayan range to the south and the Taklamakan Desert to the north. (Composite image)
Dimensions
Length2,500 km (1,600 mi)
Width1,000 km (620 mi)
Area2,500,000 km2 (970,000 sq mi)
Geography
Tibet and surrounding areas topographic map.png
Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas above 1600 m
LocationFlag of the People's Republic of China.svg  People's Republic of China (Tibet, Qinghai, Western Sichuan, Northern Yunnan, Southern Xinjiang, Western Gansu)
Flag of India.svg  India (Ladakh, Lahaul & Spiti, Northern Arunachal Pradesh, Northern Sikkim)
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan (Baltistan)
Flag of the Taliban.svg  Afghanistan (Wakhan Corridor)
Flag of Nepal.svg  Nepal (Northern Nepal)
Flag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan
Flag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan (Eastern Tajikistan)
Flag of Kyrgyzstan (2023).svg  Kyrgyzstan (Southern Kyrgyzstan)
Range coordinates 33°N88°E / 33°N 88°E / 33; 88
Tibetan Plateau

The Tibetan Plateau, [lower-alpha 1] also known as Qinghai–Tibet Plateau [lower-alpha 2] and Qing–Zang Plateau, [lower-alpha 3] is a vast elevated plateau located at the intersection of Central, South, and East Asia [lower-alpha 4] covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region, most of Qinghai, western half of Sichuan, Southern Gansu provinces in Western China, southern Xinjiang, Bhutan, the Indian regions of Ladakh and Lahaul and Spiti (Himachal Pradesh) as well as Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan, northwestern Nepal, eastern Tajikistan and southern Kyrgyzstan. It stretches approximately 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) north to south and 2,500 kilometres (1,600 mi) east to west. It is the world's highest and largest plateau above sea level, with an area of 2,500,000 square kilometres (970,000 sq mi) (about five times the size of Metropolitan France). [13] With an average elevation exceeding 4,500 metres (14,800 ft)[ citation needed ] and being surrounded by imposing mountain ranges that harbor the world's two highest summits, Mount Everest and K2, the Tibetan Plateau is often referred to as "the Roof of the World".

Contents

The Tibetan Plateau contains the headwaters of the drainage basins of most of the streams and rivers in surrounding regions. This includes the three longest rivers in Asia (the Yellow, Yangtze, and Mekong). Its tens of thousands of glaciers and other geographical and ecological features serve as a "water tower" storing water and maintaining flow. It is sometimes termed the Third Pole because its ice fields contain the largest reserve of fresh water outside the polar regions. The impact of climate change on the Tibetan Plateau is of ongoing scientific interest. [14] [15] [16] [17]

Description

The Tibetan Plateau is surrounded by the massive mountain ranges [18] of high-mountain Asia. The plateau is bordered to the south by the inner Himalayan range, to the north by the Kunlun Mountains, which separate it from the Tarim Basin, and to the northeast by the Qilian Mountains, which separate the plateau from the Hexi Corridor and Gobi Desert. To the east and southeast the plateau gives way to the forested gorge and ridge geography of the mountainous headwaters of the Salween, Mekong, and Yangtze rivers in northwest Yunnan and western Sichuan (the Hengduan Mountains). In the west, the curve of the rugged Karakoram range of northern Kashmir embraces the plateau. The Indus River originates in the western Tibetan Plateau in the vicinity of Lake Manasarovar.

The Tibetan Plateau is bounded in the north by a broad escarpment where the altitude drops from around 5,000 metres (16,000 ft) to 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) over a horizontal distance of less than 150 kilometres (93 mi). Along the escarpment is a range of mountains. In the west, the Kunlun Mountains separate the plateau from the Tarim Basin. About halfway across the Tarim the bounding range becomes the Altyn-Tagh and the Kunluns, by convention, continue somewhat to the south. In the 'V' formed by this split is the western part of the Qaidam Basin. The Altyn-Tagh ends near the Dangjin pass on the DunhuangGolmud road. To the west are short ranges called the Danghe, Yema, Shule, and Tulai Nanshans. The easternmost range is the Qilian Mountains. The line of mountains continues east of the plateau as the Qinling, which separates the Ordos Plateau from Sichuan. North of the mountains runs the Gansu or Hexi Corridor which was the main silk-road route from China proper to the West.

The plateau is a high-altitude arid steppe interspersed with mountain ranges and large brackish lakes. Annual precipitation ranges from 100 to 300 millimetres (3.9 to 11.8 in) and falls mainly as hail. The southern and eastern edges of the steppe have grasslands that can sustainably support populations of nomadic herdsmen, although frost occurs for six months of the year. Permafrost occurs over extensive parts of the plateau. Proceeding to the north and northwest, the plateau becomes progressively higher, colder, and drier, until reaching the remote Changtang region in the northwestern part of the plateau. Here the average altitude exceeds 5,000 metres (16,000 ft) and winter temperatures can drop to −40 °C (−40 °F). As a result of this extremely inhospitable environment, the Changtang region (together with the adjoining Kekexili region) is the least populous region in Asia and the third least populous area in the world after Antarctica and northern Greenland.

Geology and geological history

Yamdrok Lake is one of the four largest lakes in Tibet. All four lakes are considered sacred pilgrimage sites in the local tradition. Yamdrok Lake, Tibet 2.jpg
Yamdrok Lake is one of the four largest lakes in Tibet. All four lakes are considered sacred pilgrimage sites in the local tradition.

The geological history of the Tibetan Plateau is closely related to that of the Himalayas. The Himalayas belong to the Alpine Orogeny and are therefore among the younger mountain ranges on the planet, consisting mostly of uplifted sedimentary and metamorphic rock. Their formation is a result of a continental collision or orogeny along the convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate.

The collision began in the Upper Cretaceous period about 70 million years ago, when the north-moving Indo-Australian Plate, moving at about 15 cm (6 in) per year, collided with the Eurasian Plate. About 50 million years ago, this fast-moving Indo-Australian plate had completely closed the Tethys Ocean, the existence of which has been determined by sedimentary rocks settled on the ocean floor, and the volcanoes that fringed its edges. Since these sediments were light, they crumpled into mountain ranges rather than sinking to the floor. During this early stage of its formation in the Late Palaeogene, Tibet consisted of a deep palaeovalley bounded by multiple mountain ranges rather than the more topographically uniform elevated flatland that it is today. [20] The Tibetan Plateau's mean elevation continued to vary since its initial uplift in the Eocene; isotopic records show the plateau's altitude was around 3,000 metres above sea level around the Oligocene-Miocene boundary and that it fell by 900 metres between 25.5 and 21.6 million years ago, attributable to tectonic unroofing from east–west extension or to erosion from climatic weathering. The plateau subsequently rose by 500 to 1,000 metres between 21.6 and 20.4 million years ago. [21]

Natural-colour satellite image of the Tibetan Plateau. Jewel-Toned Lakes of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.jpg
Natural-colour satellite image of the Tibetan Plateau.

Palaeobotanical evidence indicates that the Nujiang Suture Zone and the Yarlung-Zangpo Suture Zone remained tropical or subtropical lowlands until the latest Oligocene or Early Miocene, enabling biotic interchange across Tibet. [22] The age of east–west grabens in the Lhasa and Himalaya terranes suggests that the plateau's elevation was close to its modern altitude by around 14 to 8 million years ago. [23] Erosion rates in Tibet decreased significantly around 10 million years ago. [24] The Indo-Australian plate continues to be driven horizontally below the Tibetan Plateau, which forces the plateau to move upwards; the plateau is still rising at a rate of approximately 5 mm (0.2 in) per year (although erosion reduces the actual increase in height). [25]

Much of the Tibetan Plateau is of relatively low relief. The cause of this is debated among geologists. Some argue that the Tibetan Plateau is an uplifted peneplain formed at low altitude, while others argue that the low relief stems from erosion and infill of topographic depressions that occurred at already high elevations. [26] The current tectonics of the plateau are also debated. The best-regarded explanations are provided by the block model and the alternative continuum model. According to the former, the crust of the plateau is formed of several blocks with little internal deformation separated by major strike-slip faults. In the latter, the plateau is affected by distributed deformation resulting from flow within the crust. [27]

Environment

Yangbajain valley to the north of Lhasa YangpachenValley.jpg
Yangbajain valley to the north of Lhasa

The Tibetan Plateau supports a variety of ecosystems, most of them classified as montane grasslands. While parts of the plateau feature an alpine tundra-like environment, other areas feature monsoon-influenced shrublands and forests. Species diversity is generally reduced on the plateau due to the elevation and low precipitation. The Tibetan Plateau hosts the Tibetan wolf, [28] and species of snow leopard, wild yak, wild donkey, cranes, vultures, hawks, geese, snakes, and water buffalo. One notable animal is the high-altitude jumping spider, that can live at elevations of over 6,500 metres (21,300 ft). [29]

Ecoregions found on the Tibetan Plateau, as defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature, are as follows:

Pastoral nomads camping near Namtso. Nomads near Namtso.jpg
Pastoral nomads camping near Namtso.

Human history

Tibetan Buddhist stupa and houses outside the town of Ngawa, on the Tibetan Plateau. Aba County Aba Prefecture Sichuan China.jpg
Tibetan Buddhist stupa and houses outside the town of Ngawa, on the Tibetan Plateau.

Nomads on the Tibetan Plateau and in the Himalayas are the remainders of nomadic practices historically once widespread in Asia and Africa. [30] Pastoral nomads constitute about 40% of the ethnic Tibetan population. [31] The presence of nomadic peoples on the plateau is predicated on their adaptation to survival on the world's grassland by raising livestock rather than crops, which are unsuitable to the terrain. Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest human occupation of the plateau occurred between 30,000 and 40,000 years ago. [32] Since colonization of the Tibetan Plateau, Tibetan culture has adapted and flourished in the western, southern, and eastern regions of the plateau. The northern portion, the Changtang, is generally too high and cold to support permanent population. [33] One of the most notable civilizations to have developed on the Tibetan Plateau is the Tibetan Empire from the 7th century to the 9th century AD.

Impact on other regions

NASA satellite image of the south-eastern area of Tibetan Plateau. Brahmaputra River is in the lower right. TibetplateauA2002144.0440.500m.jpg
NASA satellite image of the south-eastern area of Tibetan Plateau. Brahmaputra River is in the lower right.

Role in monsoons

Monsoons are caused by the different amplitudes of surface temperature seasonal cycles between land and oceans. This differential warming occurs because heating rates differ between land and water. Ocean heating is distributed vertically through a "mixed layer" that may be 50 meters deep through the action of wind and buoyancy-generated turbulence, whereas the land surface conducts heat slowly, with the seasonal signal penetrating only a meter or so. Additionally, the specific heat capacity of liquid water is significantly greater than that of most materials that make up land. Together, these factors mean that the heat capacity of the layer participating in the seasonal cycle is much larger over the oceans than over land, with the consequence that the land warms and cools faster than the ocean. In turn, air over the land warms faster and reaches a higher temperature than does air over the ocean. [34] The warmer air over land tends to rise, creating an area of low pressure. The pressure anomaly then causes a steady wind to blow toward the land, which brings the moist air over the ocean surface with it. Rainfall is then increased by the presence of the moist ocean air. The rainfall is stimulated by a variety of mechanisms, such as low-level air being lifted upwards by mountains, surface heating, convergence at the surface, divergence aloft, or from storm-produced outflows near the surface. When such lifting occurs, the air cools due to expansion in lower pressure, which in turn produces condensation and precipitation.

The Himalayas as seen from space looking south from over the Tibetan Plateau. Himalayas.jpg
The Himalayas as seen from space looking south from over the Tibetan Plateau.

In winter, the land cools off quickly, but the ocean maintains the heat longer. The hot air over the ocean rises, creating a low-pressure area and a breeze from land to ocean while a large area of drying high pressure is formed over the land, increased by wintertime cooling. [34] Monsoons are similar to sea and land breezes, a term usually referring to the localized, diurnal cycle of circulation near coastlines everywhere, but they are much larger in scale, stronger and seasonal. [35] The seasonal monsoon wind shift and weather associated with the heating and cooling of the Tibetan plateau is the strongest such monsoon on Earth.

Glaciology: the Ice Age and at present

Midui Glacier in Nyingchi Tibet Midui Glacier,Autumn colour.jpg
Midui Glacier in Nyingchi

Today, Tibet is an important heating surface of the atmosphere. However, during the Last Glacial Maximum, an approximately 2,400,000 square kilometres (930,000 sq mi) ice sheet covered the plateau. [36] [37] [38] Due to its great extent, this glaciation in the subtropics was an important element of radiative forcing. With a much lower latitude, the ice in Tibet reflected at least four times more radiation energy per unit area into space than ice at higher latitudes. Thus, while the modern plateau heats the overlying atmosphere, during the Last Ice Age it helped to cool it. [39]

This cooling had multiple effects on regional climate. Without the thermal low pressure caused by the heating, there was no monsoon over the Indian subcontinent. This lack of monsoon caused extensive rainfall over the Sahara, expansion of the Thar Desert, more dust deposited into the Arabian Sea, and a lowering of the biotic life zones on the Indian subcontinent. Animals responded to this shift in climate, with the Javan rusa migrating into India. [40]

In addition, the glaciers in Tibet created meltwater lakes in the Qaidam Basin, the Tarim Basin, and the Gobi Desert, despite the strong evaporation caused by the low latitude. Silt and clay from the glaciers accumulated in these lakes; when the lakes dried at the end of the ice age, the silt and clay were blown by the downslope wind off the Plateau. These airborne fine grains produced the enormous amount of loess in the Chinese lowlands. [40]

Frozen biological samples

The location where ice core was taken, and the age of the dead microorganisms found at different depths. Zhong-2021 Guliya ice cap.png
The location where ice core was taken, and the age of the dead microorganisms found at different depths.

Ice of the plateau provides a valuable window to the past. In 2015, researchers studying the Plateau reached the top of the Guliya glacier, with ice thickness of 310 m (1,020 ft), and drilled to a depth of 50 m (160 ft) in order to recover ice core samples. Due to the extremely low biomass in those 15,000-year-old samples, it had taken around 5 years of research to extract 33 viruses, of which 28 were new to science. None had survived the extraction process. Phylogenetic analysis suggests those viruses infected plants or other microorganisms. [41] [42]

Climate change

The Tibetan Plateau contains the world's third-largest store of ice. Qin Dahe, the former head of the China Meteorological Administration, issued the following assessment in 2009:

Temperatures are rising four times faster than elsewhere in China, and the Tibetan glaciers are retreating at a higher speed than in any other part of the world. In the short term, this will cause lakes to expand and bring floods and mudflows. In the long run, the glaciers are vital lifelines for Asian rivers, including the Indus and the Ganges. Once they vanish, water supplies in those regions will be in peril. [43]

The Tibetan Plateau contains the largest area of low-latitude glaciers and is particularly vulnerable to global warming. Over the past five decades, 80% of the glaciers in the Tibetan Plateau have retreated, losing 4.5% of their combined areal coverage. [44]

This region is also liable to suffer damages from permafrost thaw caused by climate change.

Detailed map of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau infrastructure at risk from permafrost thaw under the SSP2-4.5 scenario. Ran 2022 QTP Permafrost damages 2050.png
Detailed map of Qinghai–Tibet Plateau infrastructure at risk from permafrost thaw under the SSP2-4.5 scenario.
Outside of the Arctic, Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (sometimes known as "the Third Pole"), also has an extensive permafrost area. It is warming at twice the global average rate, and 40% of it is already considered "warm" permafrost, making it particularly unstable. Qinghai–Tibet Plateau has a population of over 10 million people – double the population of permafrost regions in the Arctic – and over 1 million m2 of buildings are located in its permafrost area, as well as 2,631 km of power lines, and 580 km of railways. [45] There are also 9,389 km of roads, and around 30% are already sustaining damage from permafrost thaw. [46] Estimates suggest that under the scenario most similar to today, SSP2-4.5, around 60% of the current infrastructure would be at high risk by 2090 and simply maintaining it would cost $6.31 billion, with adaptation reducing these costs by 20.9% at most. Holding the global warming to 2 °C (3.6 °F) would reduce these costs to $5.65 billion, and fulfilling the optimistic Paris Agreement target of 1.5 °C (2.7 °F) would save a further $1.32 billion. In particular, fewer than 20% of railways would be at high risk by 2100 under 1.5 °C (2.7 °F), yet this increases to 60% at 2 °C (3.6 °F), while under SSP5-8.5, this level of risk is met by mid-century. [45]

See also

The old town of Gyantse and surrounding fields. Gyantse.jpg
The old town of Gyantse and surrounding fields.

Notes

  1. Tibetan: བོད་ས་མཐོ།, Wylie: bod sa mtho
  2. [1]
  3. [2] Burmese: တိဘက်ကုန်းပြင်မြင့်; Myaeglish: Tibak Kone Byin Myint, Chinese :青藏高原; pinyin :Qīng–Zàng Gāoyuán; or as the Himalayan Plateau in India [3] [4]
  4. [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Himalayas</span> Mountain range in Asia, separating Indo-Gangetic plain from Tibetan Plateau

The Himalayas, or Himalaya is a mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The range has some of the Earth's highest peaks, including the highest, Mount Everest; more than 100 peaks exceeding elevations of 7,200 m (23,600 ft) above sea level lie in the Himalayas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tian Shan</span> System of mountain ranges in Central Asia

The Tian Shan(Chinese: 天山), also known as the Tengri Tagh or Tengir-Too, meaning the "Mountains of God/Heaven", is a large system of mountain ranges in Central Asia. The highest peak is Jengish Chokusu at 7,439 metres (24,406 ft) high. Its lowest point is the Turpan Depression, which is 154 m (505 ft) below sea level.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Karakoram</span> Major mountain range spanning the borders between India Pakistan and China

The Karakoram is a mountain range in the Kashmir region spanning the border of Pakistan and China. Most of the Karakoram mountain range falls under the jurisdiction of Gilgit-Baltistan, which is administered by Pakistan. Its highest peak, K2, is located in Gilgit-Baltistan. It begins in the Wakhan Corridor (Afghanistan) in the west, encompasses the majority of Gilgit-Baltistan, and extends into Ladakh and Aksai Chin.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Geography of Tibet</span> Geographical features of Tibet

The geography of Tibet consists of the high mountains, lakes and rivers lying between Central, East and South Asia. Traditionally, Western sources have regarded Tibet as being in Central Asia, though today's maps show a trend toward considering all of modern China, including Tibet, to be part of East Asia. Tibet is often called "the roof of the world," comprising tablelands averaging over 4,950 metres above the sea with peaks at 6,000 to 7,500 m, including Mount Everest, on the border with Nepal.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pamir Mountains</span> Mountain range in Central Asia

The Pamir Mountains are a range of mountains between Central Asia and South Asia. They are located at a junction with other notable mountains, namely the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush and the Himalaya mountain ranges. They are among the world's highest mountains.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kunlun Mountains</span> Mountain range in China

The Kunlun Mountains constitute one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending for more than 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi). In the broadest sense, the chain forms the northern edge of the Tibetan Plateau south of the Tarim Basin. Located in Western China, the Kunlun Mountains have been known as the "Forefather of Mountains" in China.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Last Glacial Period</span> Period of major glaciations of the Northern Hemisphere (115,000–12,000 years ago)

The Last Glacial Period (LGP), also known colloquially as the Last Ice Age or simply Ice Age, occurred from the end of the Last Interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period c. 115,000 – c. 11,700 years ago.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Qilian Mountains</span> Mountain range in China

The Qilian Mountains, together with the Altyn-Tagh also known as Nan Shan, as it is to the south of Hexi Corridor, is a northern outlier of the Kunlun Mountains, forming the border between Qinghai and the Gansu provinces of northern China.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Altyn-Tagh</span> Mountain range

Altyn-Tagh is a mountain range in Northwestern China that separates the Eastern Tarim Basin from the Tibetan Plateau. The western third is in Xinjiang while the eastern part forms the border between Qinghai to the south and Xinjiang and Gansu to the north.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tanggula Mountains</span> Mountain range in Tibet

The Tanggula, Tangla, Tanglha, or Dangla Mountains is a mountain range in the central part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in Tibet. Administratively, the range is in the Nagqu Prefecture of the Tibet Autonomous Region, with the central section extending into the Tanggula Town and the eastern section entering the Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai province.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Matthias Kuhle</span>

Matthias Kuhle was a German geographer and professor at the University of Göttingen. He edited the book series Geography International published by Shaker Verlag.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Qilian County</span> County in Qinghai, China

Qilian County, in Tibetan Dhola County, is a county of Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, China. The Haibei Qilian Airport is located in the county.

Chang Tang National Nature Reserve lies in the northern Tibetan Plateau. It is the third-largest land nature reserve in the world, after the Northeast Greenland National Park and Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area, with an area of over 334,000 km2 (129,000 sq mi), making it bigger than 183 countries. Administratively, it lies in Xainza County and Biru County of the Nagqu Prefecture. With the more recently established adjoining reserves listed below there is now a total of 496,000 km2 of connected Nature Reserves, which represents an area almost as large as Spain and bigger than 197 other countries.

Kunlun Volcanic Group, also known as Ashikule Volcanic Field, is a volcanic field in northwestern Tibet. Eight other volcanic fields are also in the area. The field is within a basin that also contains three lakes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">High-mountain Asia</span>

High-Mountain Asia (HMA) is a high-elevation geographic region in central-south Asia that includes numerous cordillera and highland systems around the Tibetan Plateau, encompassing regions of East, Southeast, Central and South Asia. The region was orogenically formed by the continental collision of the Indian Plate into the Eurasian Plate.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows</span> Ecoregion in the Tibetan Plateau

The Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows are a montane grassland ecoregion that cover the southeast and eastern parts of the Tibetan Plateau in China. The meadows in this region of Tibet are in the path of the monsoon rains and are wetter than the other upland areas of the Tibetan Plateau. The "high cold" alpine terrain is one of high species diversity, due to the relatively high levels of precipitation for the region. Precipitation is lower in the northwest, and hence the vegetation thins from shrub to meadow or even desert.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lake Heihai</span>

Lake Heihai is a small mesosaline lake in Golmud County, Haixi Prefecture, Qinghai Province, in western China.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Paleogeography of the India–Asia collision system</span>

The paleogeography of the India–Asia collision system is the reconstructed geological and geomorphological evolution within the collision zone of the Himalayan orogenic belt. The continental collision between the Indian and Eurasian plate is one of the world's most renowned and most studied convergent systems. However, many mechanisms remain controversial. Some of the highly debated issues include the onset timing of continental collision, the time at which the Tibetan plateau reached its present elevation and how tectonic processes interacted with other geological mechanisms. These mechanisms are crucial for the understanding of Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic evolution, paleoclimate and paleontology, such as the interaction between the Himalayas orogenic growth and the Asian monsoon system, as well as the dispersal and speciation of fauna. Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain how the paleogeography of the collision system could have developed. Important ideas include the synchronous collision hypothesis, the Lhasa-plano hypothesis and the southward draining of major river systems.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North Tibetan Plateau–Kunlun Mountains alpine desert</span> Ecoregion in the Tibetan Plateau

The North Tibetan Plateau-Kunlun Mountains alpine desert ecoregion covers a long stretch of mostly treeless alpine terrain across the northern edge of the Tibet Plateau. A variety of cold, dry habitats are found, including alpine meadows, steppe, desert, and cushion plant floral areas.

References

Citations

  1. Wang, Zhaoyin; Li, Zhiwei; Xu, Mengzhen; Yu, Guoan (30 March 2016). River Morphodynamics and Stream Ecology of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. CRC Press.
  2. Jones, J.A.; Liu, Changming; Woo, Ming-Ko; Kung, Hsiang-Te (6 December 2012). Regional Hydrological Response to Climate Change. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 360.
  3. "हिमालयी क्षेत्र में जीवन यापन पर रिसर्च करेंगे अमेरिका और भारत".
  4. "In Little Tibet, a story of how displaced people rebuilt life in a distant land". 18 February 2020.
  5. Illustrated Atlas of the World (1986) Rand McNally & Company. ISBN   0-528-83190-9 pp. 164–65
  6. Atlas of World History (1998 ) HarperCollins. ISBN   0-7230-1025-0 p. 39
  7. "The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia (Christopher Beckwith)" . Retrieved 19 February 2009.
  8. Hopkirk 1983, p. 1
  9. Peregrine, Peter Neal & Melvin Ember, etc. (2001). Encyclopedia of Prehistory: East Asia and Oceania, Volume 3. Springer. p. 32. ISBN   978-0-306-46257-3.
  10. Morris, Neil (2007). North and East Asia. Heinemann-Raintree Library. p.  11. ISBN   978-1-4034-9898-4.
  11. Webb, Andrew Alexander Gordon (2007). Contractional and Extensional Tectonics During the India-Asia Collision. ProQuest LLC. p. 137. ISBN   978-0-549-50627-0.
  12. Marston, Sallie A.; Paul L. Knox, Diana M. Liverman (2002). World regions in global context: peoples, places, and environments . Prentice Hall. p.  430. ISBN   978-0-13-022484-2.
  13. "Natural World: Deserts". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 12 January 2006.
  14. Leslie Hook (30 August 2013). "Tibet: life on the climate front line". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 10 December 2022. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
  15. Liu, Xiaodong; Chen (2000). "Climatic warming in the Tibetan Plateau during recent decades". International Journal of Climatology. 20 (14): 1729–1742. Bibcode:2000IJCli..20.1729L. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.669.5900 . doi:10.1002/1097-0088(20001130)20:14<1729::aid-joc556>3.0.co;2-y via Academia.edu.
  16. Ni, Jian (2000). "A Simulation of Biomes on the Tibetan Plateau and Their Responses to Global Climate Change". Mountain Research and Development. 20 (1): 80–89. doi: 10.1659/0276-4741(2000)020[0080:ASOBOT]2.0.CO;2 . S2CID   128916992.
  17. Cheng, Guodong; Wu (8 June 2007). "Responses of permafrost to climate change and their environmental significance, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau". Journal of Geophysical Research. 112 (F2): F02S03. Bibcode:2007JGRF..112.2S03C. doi: 10.1029/2006JF000631 . S2CID   14450823.
  18. Yang, Qinye; Zheng, Du (2004). A Unique Geographical Unit. 五洲传播出版社. p. 6. ISBN   978-7-5085-0665-4.
  19. Petra Seibert and Lorne Stockman. "The Yamdrok Tso Hydropower Plant in Tibet: A Multi-facetted and Highly Controversial Project". Archived from the original on 5 August 2007. Retrieved 29 June 2007.
  20. Su, T.; Farnsworth, A.; Spicer, R. A.; Huang, J.; Wu, F.-X.; Liu, J.; Li, S.-F.; Xing, Y.-W.; Huang, Y.-J.; Deng, W.-Y.-D.; Tang, H.; Xu, C.-L.; Zhao, F.; Strivastava, G.; Valdes, P. J.; Deng, T.; Zhou, Z.-K. (6 March 2019). "No high Tibetan Plateau until the Neogene". Science Advances . 5 (3): eaav2189. Bibcode:2019SciA....5.2189S. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aav2189. PMC   6402856 . PMID   30854430.
  21. Jia, Guodong; Bai, Yang; Ma, Yongjia; Sun, Jimin; Peng, Ping'an (March 2015). "Paleoelevation of Tibetan Lunpola basin in the Oligocene–Miocene transition estimated from leaf wax lipid dual isotopes". Global and Planetary Change . 126: 14–22. Bibcode:2015GPC...126...14J. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.12.007 . Retrieved 24 December 2022.
  22. Liu, Jia; Su, Tao; Spicer, Robert A.; Tang, He; Deng, Wei-Yu-Dong; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Srivastava, Gaurav; Spicer, Teresa; Do, Truong Van; Deng, Tao; Zhou, Zhe-Kun (15 June 2019). "Biotic interchange through lowlands of Tibetan Plateau suture zones during Paleogene". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology . 524: 33–40. Bibcode:2019PPP...524...33L. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2019.02.022. S2CID   135460949 . Retrieved 6 November 2022.
  23. Xu, Qiang; Ding, Lin; Zhang, Liyun; Cai, Fulong; Lai, Qingzhou; Yang, Di; Liu-Zeng, Jing (15 January 2013). "Paleogene high elevations in the Qiangtang Terrane, central Tibetan Plateau". Earth and Planetary Science Letters . 362: 31–42. Bibcode:2013E&PSL.362...31X. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2012.11.058 . Retrieved 13 December 2022.
  24. Tremblay, Marissa M.; Fox, Matthew; Schmidt, Jennifer L.; Tripathy-Lang, Alka; Wielicki, Matthew M.; Harrison, T. Mark; Zeitler, Peter K.; Shuster, David L. (14 September 2015). "Erosion in southern Tibet shut down at ~10 Ma due to enhanced rock uplift within the Himalaya". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America . 112 (39): 12030–12035. Bibcode:2015PNAS..11212030T. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1515652112 . PMC   4593086 . PMID   26371325.
  25. Sanyal, Sanjeev (10 July 2013). Land of the seven rivers : a brief history of India's geography. Penguin Books. ISBN   978-0-14-342093-4. OCLC   855957425.
  26. Lia, Jijun; Ma, Zhenhua; Li, Xiaomiao; Peng, Tingjiang; Guo, Benhong; Zhang, Jun; Song, Chunhui; Liu, Jia; Hui, Zhengchuang; Yu, Hao; Ye, Xiyan; Liu, Shanpin; Wang Xiuxi (2017). "Late Miocene-Pliocene geomorphological evolution of the Xiaoshuizi peneplain in the Maxian Mountains and its tectonic significance for the northeastern Tibetan Plateau". Geomorphology . 295: 393–405. Bibcode:2017Geomo.295..393L. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2017.07.024.
  27. Shi, F.; He, H.; Densmore, A.L.; Li, A.; Yang, X.; Xu, X. (2016). "Active tectonics of the Ganzi–Yushu fault in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau" (PDF). Tectonophysics . 676: 112–124. Bibcode:2016Tectp.676..112S. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2016.03.036.
  28. Werhahn, Geraldine; Senn, Helen; Ghazali, Muhammad; Karmacharya, Dibesh; Sherchan, Adarsh Man; Joshi, Jyoti; Kusi, Naresh; López-Bao, José Vincente; Rosen, Tanya; Kachel, Shannon; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; MacDonald, David W. (2018). "The unique genetic adaptation of the Himalayan wolf to high-altitudes and consequences for conservation". Global Ecology and Conservation. 16: e00455. doi: 10.1016/j.gecco.2018.e00455 . hdl: 10651/50748 .
  29. "Wild China: The Tibetan Plateau". The Nature of Things. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  30. David Miller. "Nomads of Tibet and Bhutan". asinart.com. Retrieved 10 February 2008.
  31. In pictures: Tibetan nomads BBC News
  32. Zhang, X. L.; Ha, B. B.; Wang, S. J.; Chen, Z. J.; Ge, J. Y.; Long, H.; He, W.; Da, W.; Nian, X. M.; Yi, M. J.; Zhou, X. Y. (30 November 2018). "The earliest human occupation of the high-altitude Tibetan Plateau 40 thousand to 30 thousand years ago". Science. 362 (6418): 1049–1051. Bibcode:2018Sci...362.1049Z. doi: 10.1126/science.aat8824 . ISSN   0036-8075. PMID   30498126.
  33. Ryavec, Karl (2015). A Historical Atlas of Tibet . University of Chicago Press. ISBN   9780226732442.
  34. 1 2 Oracle Thinkquest Education Foundation. monsoons: causes of monsoons. Archived 16 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 22 May 2008.
  35. "The Asian Monsoon". BBC Weather. Archived from the original on 1 November 2004.
  36. Kuhle, Matthias (1998). "Reconstruction of the 2.4 Million km2 Late Pleistocene Ice Sheet on the Tibetan Plateau and its Impact on the Global Climate". Quaternary International. 45/46: 71–108. Bibcode:1998QuInt..45...71K. doi:10.1016/S1040-6182(97)00008-6.
  37. Kuhle, M (2004). "The High Glacial (Last Ice Age and LGM) ice cover in High and Central Asia". In Ehlers, J.; Gibbard, P.L. (eds.). Development in Quaternary Science 2c (Quaternary Glaciation – Extent and Chronology, Part III: South America, Asia, Africa, Australia, Antarctica). pp. 175–99.
  38. Kuhle, M. (1999). "Tibet and High Asia V. Results of Investigations into High Mountain Geomorphology, Paleo-Glaciology and Climatology of the Pleistocene". GeoJournal. 47 (1–2): 3–276. doi:10.1023/A:1007039510460. S2CID   128089823. See chapter entitled: "Reconstruction of an approximately complete Quaternary Tibetan Inland Glaciation between the Mt. Everest and Cho Oyu Massifs and the Aksai Chin. – A new glaciogeomorphological southeast-northwest diagonal profile through Tibet and its consequences for the glacial isostasy and Ice Age cycle".
  39. Kuhle, M. (1988). "The Pleistocene Glaciation of Tibet and the Onset of Ice Ages – An Autocycle Hypothesis". GeoJournal. 17 (4): 581–96. doi:10.1007/BF00209444. S2CID   129234912. Tibet and High-Asia I. Results of the Sino-German Joint Expeditions (I).
  40. 1 2 Kuhle, Matthias (2001). "The Tibetan Ice Sheet; its Impact on the Palaeomonsoon and Relation to the Earth's Orbital Variations". Polarforschung. 71 (1/2): 1–13.
  41. Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Tian, Funing; Roux, Simon; Gazitúa, M. Consuelo; Solonenko, Natalie E.; Li, Yueh-Fen; Davis, Mary E.; Van Etten, James L.; Mosley-Thompson, Ellen; Rich, Virginia I.; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Thompson, Lonnie G. (20 July 2021). "Glacier ice archives nearly 15,000-year-old microbes and phages". Microbiology. 9 (1): 160. doi: 10.1186/s40168-021-01106-w . PMC   8290583 . PMID   34281625.
  42. "15,000-year-old viruses discovered in Tibetan glacier ice". ScienceDaily . 20 July 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2023.
  43. "Global warming benefits to Tibet: Chinese official". Agence France-Presse. 18 August 2009.
  44. Liu, Yongqin; Ji, Mukan; Yu, Tao; Zaugg, Julian; Anesio, Alexandre M.; Zhang, Zhihao; Hu, Songnian; Hugenholtz, Philip; Liu, Keshao; Liu, Pengfei; Chen, Yuying; Luo, Yingfeng; Yao, Tandong (September 2022). "A genome and gene catalog of glacier microbiomes". Nature Biotechnology. 40 (9): 1341–1348. doi:10.1038/s41587-022-01367-2. ISSN   1546-1696. PMID   35760913. S2CID   250091380.
  45. 1 2 Ran, Youhua; Cheng, Guodong; Dong, Yuanhong; Hjort, Jan; Lovecraft, Amy Lauren; Kang, Shichang; Tan, Meibao; Li, Xin (13 October 2022). "Permafrost degradation increases risk and large future costs of infrastructure on the Third Pole". Communications Earth & Environment. 3 (1): 238. Bibcode:2022ComEE...3..238R. doi:10.1038/s43247-022-00568-6. S2CID   252849121.
  46. Hjort, Jan; Streletskiy, Dmitry; Doré, Guy; Wu, Qingbai; Bjella, Kevin; Luoto, Miska (11 January 2022). "Impacts of permafrost degradation on infrastructure". Nature Reviews Earth & Environment. 3 (1): 24–38. Bibcode:2022NRvEE...3...24H. doi:10.1038/s43017-021-00247-8. hdl: 10138/344541 . S2CID   245917456.

Sources