The SASM/GNC/SRC romanization of Tibetan, commonly known as Tibetan pinyin or ZWPY (Chinese: 藏文 拼音 , Zàngwén Pīnyīn, "Tibetan Spelling"), is the official transcription system for the Tibetan language in the People's Republic of China for personal names and place names. It is based on pronunciation of China National Radio's Tibetan Radio pronunciation, which is the Lhasa dialect of Standard Tibetan and reflects the pronunciation except that it does not mark tone. It has been used within China as an alternative to the Wylie transliteration for writing Tibetan in the Latin script since 1982.
Tibetan pinyin is a phonetic transcription, as such its spelling is tied to actual pronunciation.Wylie on the other hand is a transliteration system, where mechanical conversion to and from Tibetan and Latin script is possible. Within academic circles, Wylie transliteration (with a v replacing the apostrophe) is more commonly used.
Independent onsets in the initial syllable of a word are transcribed as follows:
For more general case, see #Onsets.
The 17 vowels of the Lhasa dialect are represented in as follows:
Ending a syllable, -r is usually not pronounced, but it lengthens the preceding vowel. In the same place, -n usually nasalises the preceding vowel. Consonants at the end of a syllable are transcribed as follows:
The tone of a syllable depends mostly on its initial consonant. In this table, each initial is given in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) with the vowel a and a tone mark to present tone register (high/low).
Below is a comprehensive transcription table of onsets of an initial syllable of a word. If the syllable to transcribe is not the first syllable of a word, see #Onset variation.
|IPA||Wylie transliteration||Tibetan pinyin|
|pá||p, sp, dp, lp||b|
|pà||rb, sb, sbr||b|
|má||rm, sm, dm, smr||m|
|wà||w , db, b||w|
|tá||t, rt, lt, st, tw, gt, bt, brt, blt, bst, bld||d|
|tà||rd, sd, gd, bd, brd, bsd||d|
|ntà||zl, bzl, ld, md, ’d||d|
|tʰá||th, mth, ’th||t|
|ná||rn, sn, gn, brn, bsn, mn||n|
|lá||kl, gl, bl, rl, sl, brl, bsl||l|
|tsá||ts, rts, sts, rtsw, stsw, gts, bts, brts, bsts||z|
|tsà||rdz, gdz, brdz||z|
|tsʰá||tsh, tshw, mtsh, ’tsh||c|
|sá||s, sr, sw, gs, bs, bsr||s|
|sà||z, zw, gz, bz||s|
|ʈʂá||kr, rkr, lkr, skr, tr, pr, lpr, spr, dkr, dpr, bkr, bskr, bsr||zh|
|ʈʂà||rgr, lgr, sgr, dgr, dbr, bsgr, rbr, lbr, sbr||zh|
|ɳʈʂà||mgr, ’gr, ’dr, ’br||zh|
|ʈʂʰá||khr, thr, phr, mkhr, ’khr, ’phr||ch|
|ʈʂʰà||gr, dr, br, grw||ch|
|cá||ky, rky, lky, sky, dky, bky, brky, bsky||gy|
|cà||rgy, lgy, sgy, dgy, bgy, brgy, bsgy||gy|
|cʰá||khy, mkhy, ’khy||ky|
|tɕá||c, cw, gc, bc, lc, py, lpy, spy, dpy||j|
|tɕà||rby, lby, sby, rj, gj, brj, dby||j|
|ɲtɕà||lj, mj, ’j, ’by||j|
|tɕʰá||ch, mch, ’ch, phy, ’phy||q|
|ɕá||sh, shw, gsh, bsh||x|
|ɕà||zh, zhw, gzh, bzh||x|
|ɲá||rny, sny, gny, brny, bsny, mny, nyw, rmy, smy||ny|
|ká||k, rk, lk, sk, kw, dk, bk, brk, bsk||g|
|kà||rg, lg, sg, dg, bg, brg, bsg||g|
|ŋkà||lg, mg, ’g||g|
|kʰá||kh, khw, mkh, ’kh||k|
|ŋá||rng, lng, sng, dng, brng, bsng, mng||ng|
Below is a comprehensive transcription table of rimes of a final syllable of a word, with IPA transcription for the Lhasa dialect.If the syllable to transcribe is not the final syllable of a word, see Coda variation.
Take "ཨ" to be the consonant (not "◌").
Sometimes there is intersyllablic influence:
|Tibetan script||Tibetan pinyin||Wylie (EWTS)||Lhasa IPA||Explanation|
|མ་ཕམ་གཡུ་མཚོ།||Mapam Yumco||ma-pham g.yu-mtsho||[mapʰam jumtsʰo]||forward shift of prefix མ|
|ཁྲ་འབྲུག་དགོན་པ།||Changzhug Gönba||khra-’brug dgon-pa||[ʈ͡ʂʰaŋʈ͡ʂ˭uk k˭ø̃p˭a]|
|Tibetan Script||Wylie||Tibetan pinyin||THL||other transcriptions|
|བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྷུན་པོ་||Bkra-shis-lhun-po||Zhaxilhünbo||Trashilhünpo||Tashilhunpo, Tashilhümpo, etc.|
|ཆོས་ཀྱི་རྒྱལ་མཚན་||Chos-kyi Rgyal-mtshan||Qoigyi Gyaicain||Chökyi Gyältshän||Choekyi Gyaltsen|
|ཐུབ་བསྟན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་||Thub-bstan Rgya-mtsho||Tubdain Gyaco||Thuptän Gyatsho||Thubten Gyatso, Thubtan Gyatso, Thupten Gyatso|
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