Tibetan pinyin

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The SASM/GNC/SRC romanization of Tibetan, commonly known as Tibetan pinyin or ZWPY (Chinese:  藏文 拼音 , Zàngwén Pīnyīn, "Tibetan Spelling"), is the official transcription system for the Tibetan language in the People's Republic of China for personal names and place names. [1] It is based on pronunciation of China National Radio's Tibetan Radio pronunciation, [1] which is the Lhasa dialect of Standard Tibetan and reflects the pronunciation except that it does not mark tone. It has been used within China as an alternative to the Wylie transliteration for writing Tibetan in the Latin script since 1982. [2]

Contents

Tibetan pinyin is a phonetic transcription, as such its spelling is tied to actual pronunciation. [3] Wylie on the other hand is a transliteration system, where mechanical conversion to and from Tibetan and Latin script is possible. Within academic circles, Wylie transliteration (with a v replacing the apostrophe) is more commonly used.

Overview

Onsets overview

Independent onsets in the initial syllable of a word are transcribed as follows:

ཀ་ཁ་
ག་
ང་ཅ་ཆ་
ཇ་
ཉ་ཏ་ཐ་
ད་
ན་པ་ཕ་
བ་
མ་ཙ་ཚ་
ཛ་
ཝ་ཞ་
ཤ་
ཟ་
ས་
ཡ་ར་ལ་ཧ་ཀྱ་ཁྱ་
གྱ་
ཧྱ་ཀྲ་ཁྲ་
གྲ་
ཧྲ་ལྷ་རྷ་
gkngjqnydtnbpmzcwxsyrlhgykyhyzhchshlhrh

For more general case, see #Onsets.

Vowels and final consonant

The 17 vowels of the Lhasa dialect are represented in as follows:

IPATibetan
pinyin
IPATibetan
pinyin
iiĩin
eêen
ɛai/äɛ̃ain/än
aaãan
uuũun
oôõon
ɔoɔ̃ǒn
yüün
øoi/öø̃oin/ön

Ending a syllable, -r is usually not pronounced, but it lengthens the preceding vowel. In the same place, -n usually nasalises the preceding vowel. Consonants at the end of a syllable are transcribed as follows:

IPATibetan
pinyin
ʔ̞b/•
ʔg/—
rr
mm
ŋng

Single syllable orthography

The tone of a syllable depends mostly on its initial consonant. In this table, each initial is given in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) with the vowel a and a tone mark to present tone register (high/low).

Onsets

Below is a comprehensive transcription table of onsets of an initial syllable of a word. If the syllable to transcribe is not the first syllable of a word, see #Onset variation.

IPA Wylie transliteration Tibetan pinyin
p, sp, dp, lpb
rb, sb, sbrb
mpàlb, ’bb
pʰáph, ’php
pʰàbp
rm, sm, dm, smrm
m, mrm
w [note 1] , db, bw
t, rt, lt, st, tw, gt, bt, brt, blt, bst, bldd
ntálthd
rd, sd, gd, bd, brd, bsdd
ntàzl, bzl, ld, md, ’dd
tʰáth, mth, ’tht
tʰàd, dwt
rn, sn, gn, brn, bsn, mnn
nn
kl, gl, bl, rl, sl, brl, bsll
l, lwl
l̥álhlh
tsáts, rts, sts, rtsw, stsw, gts, bts, brts, bstsz
tsàrdz, gdz, brdzz
ntsàmdz, ’dzz
tsʰátsh, tshw, mtsh, ’tshc
tsʰàdzc
s, sr, sw, gs, bs, bsrs
z, zw, gz, bzs
ʈʂákr, rkr, lkr, skr, tr, pr, lpr, spr, dkr, dpr, bkr, bskr, bsrzh
ʈʂàrgr, lgr, sgr, dgr, dbr, bsgr, rbr, lbr, sbrzh
ɳʈʂàmgr, ’gr, ’dr, ’brzh
ʈʂʰákhr, thr, phr, mkhr, ’khr, ’phrch
ʈʂʰàgr, dr, br, grwch
ʂáhrsh
r, rwr
r̥árhrh
ky, rky, lky, sky, dky, bky, brky, bskygy
rgy, lgy, sgy, dgy, bgy, brgy, bsgygy
ɲcàmgy, ’gygy
cʰákhy, mkhy, ’khyky
cʰàgyky
çáhyhy
tɕác, cw, gc, bc, lc, py, lpy, spy, dpyj
tɕàrby, lby, sby, rj, gj, brj, dbyj
ɲtɕàlj, mj, ’j, ’byj
tɕʰách, mch, ’ch, phy, ’phyq
tɕʰàj, byq
ɕásh, shw, gsh, bshx
ɕàzh, zhw, gzh, bzhx
ɲárny, sny, gny, brny, bsny, mny, nyw, rmy, smyny
ɲàny, myny
g.yy
yy
k, rk, lk, sk, kw, dk, bk, brk, bskg
rg, lg, sg, dg, bg, brg, bsgg
ŋkàlg, mg, ’gg
kʰákh, khw, mkh, ’khk
kʰàg, gwk
ŋárng, lng, sng, dng, brng, bsng, mngng
ŋàngng
ʔá—, db
ʔ̞à
h, hwh

Rimes

Below is a comprehensive transcription table of rimes of a final syllable of a word, with IPA transcription for the Lhasa dialect. [4] If the syllable to transcribe is not the final syllable of a word, see Coda variation.

Take "ཨ" to be the consonant (not "◌").

ཨ།ཨའུ།ཨར།ཨལ།
ཨའི།
ཨད།
ཨས།
ཨག།
ཨགས།
ཨབ།
ཨབས།
ཨང༌།
ཨངས།
ཨམ།
ཨམས།
ཨན།
aauarai/äagabangamain/än
[a][au̯][aː][ɛ:][ɛ][aʡ][əʡ̆][aŋ][am][ɛ̃ː]
ཨི།ཨིའུ།
ཨེའུ།
ཨིར།ཨིལ།
ཨའི།
ཨིད།
ཨིས།
ཨིག།
ཨིགས།
ཨིབ།
ཨིབས།
ཨིང༌།
ཨིངས།
ཨིམ།
ཨིམས།
ཨིན།
iiuiriigibingimin
[i][iu̯][iː][iː][i][iʡ][ɪʡ̆][iŋ][im][ĩː]
ཨུ།ཨུར།ཨུལ།
ཨུའི།
ཨུད།
ཨུས།
ཨུག།
ཨུགས།
ཨུབ།
ཨུབས།
ཨུང༌།
ཨུངས།
ཨུམ།
ཨུམས།
ཨུན།
uurüugubungumün
[u][uː][yː][y][uʡ][ʊʡ̆][uŋ][um][ỹː]
ཨེ།ཨེར།ཨེལ།
ཨེའི།
ཨེད།
ཨེས།
ཨེག།
ཨེགས།
ཨེབ།
ཨེབས།
ཨེང༌།
ཨེངས།
ཨེམ།
ཨེམས།
ཨེན།
êêrêêgêbêngêmên
[e][eː][eː][e][eʡ][eʡ̆][eŋ][em][ẽː]
ཨོ།ཨོར།ཨོལ།
ཨོའི།
ཨོད།
ཨོས།
ཨོག།
ཨོགས།
ཨོབ།
ཨོབས།
ཨོང༌།
ཨོངས།
ཨོམ།
ཨོམས།
ཨོན།
ôôroi/öôgôbôngômoin/ön
[o][oː][øː][ø][oʡ][oʡ̆][oŋ][om][ø̃ː]

Intersyllable influence

Onset variation

Bare low aspirated variation

Coda variation

Ngoinjug of next syllable
Prenasalization of next syllable

Examples

Sometimes there is intersyllablic influence:

Tibetan script Tibetan pinyin Wylie (EWTS)Lhasa IPA Explanation
མ་ཕམ་གཡུ་མཚོ། Mapam Yumcoma-pham g.yu-mtsho [mapʰam jumtsʰo] forward shift of prefix མ
ཁྲ་འབྲུག་དགོན་པ། Changzhug Gönbakhra-’brug dgon-pa [ʈ͡ʂʰaŋʈ͡ʂ˭uk k˭ø̃p˭a]

Examples

Tibetan ScriptWylieTibetan pinyin THL other transcriptions
གཞིས་ཀ་རྩེGzhis-ka-rtse Xigazê Zhikatse Shigatse, Shikatse
བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྷུན་པོ་Bkra-shis-lhun-poZhaxilhünboTrashilhünpo Tashilhunpo, Tashilhümpo, etc.
འབྲས་སྤུང་’Bras-spungZhaibungDräpungDrebung
ཆོས་ཀྱི་རྒྱལ་མཚན་Chos-kyi Rgyal-mtshanQoigyi GyaicainChökyi Gyältshän Choekyi Gyaltsen
ཐུབ་བསྟན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་Thub-bstan Rgya-mtshoTubdain GyacoThuptän Gyatsho Thubten Gyatso, Thubtan Gyatso, Thupten Gyatso

See also

Notes

  1. as in Namjagbarwa

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References

Citations

  1. 1 2 "少数民族语地名汉语拼音字母音译转写法" [Transliteration of Chinese Pinyin Letters of Place Names in Minority Languages] (in Chinese). Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China. 2012-06-29. Retrieved 11 January 2020. 少数民族语地名汉语拼音字母音译转写法...(三)藏语...说明:(1)藏语地名的音译转写,以中央人民广播电台藏语广播的语音为依靠。
  2. Romanization of Tibetan Geographical NamesUNGEGN
  3. "Geographical names of Tibet AR (China)". Institute of the Estonian Language. 2018-06-03. Retrieved 7 July 2020. Tibetan names have been romanized according to the official scheme, the so-called Tibetan pinyin. The romanization is based on actual pronunciation and is not always predictable if only written form is known.
  4. Brush, Beaumont. "The Status of Coronal in the Historical Development of Lhasa Tibetan Rhymes" (PDF). SIL. Retrieved 9 May 2015.

Sources