Tibia

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Tibia
Tibia - frontal view.png
Position of tibia (shown in red)
Braus 1921 293.png
Cross section of the leg showing the different compartments (latin terminology)
Details
Articulations Knee, ankle, superior and
inferior tibiofibular joint
Identifiers
Latin (os) tibia
MeSH D013977
TA A02.5.06.001
FMA 24476
Anatomical terms of bone

The tibia /ˈtɪbiə/ (plural tibiae /ˈtɪbii/ or tibias), also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior (frontal) of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates (the other being the fibula, behind and to the outside of the tibia), and it connects the knee with the ankle bones. The tibia is found on the medial side of the leg next to the fibula and closer to the median plane or centre-line. The tibia is connected to the fibula by the interosseous membrane of the leg, forming a type of fibrous joint called a syndesmosis with very little movement. The tibia is named for the flute tibia . It is the second largest bone in the human body next to the femur. The leg bones are the strongest long bones as they support the rest of the body.

Bone rigid organs that constitute part of the endoskeleton of vertebrates

A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton. Bones protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells, store minerals, provide structure and support for the body, and enable mobility. Bones come in a variety of shapes and sizes and have a complex internal and external structure. They are lightweight yet strong and hard, and serve multiple functions.

Leg weight bearing and locomotive anatomical structure, usually having a columnar shape, function as "extensible struts"

A leg is a weight-bearing and locomotive anatomical structure, usually having a columnar shape. During locomotion, legs function as "extensible struts". The combination of movements at all joints can be modeled as a single, linear element capable of changing length and rotating about an omnidirectional "hip" joint.

Knee region around the knee joint

In humans and other primates, the knee joins the thigh with the leg and consists of two joints: one between the femur and tibia, and one between the femur and patella. It is the largest joint in the human body. The knee is a modified hinge joint, which permits flexion and extension as well as slight internal and external rotation. The knee is vulnerable to injury and to the development of osteoarthritis.

Contents

Structure

In human anatomy, the tibia is the second largest bone next to the femur. As in other vertebrates the tibia is one of two bones in the lower leg, the other being the fibula, and is a component of the knee and ankle joints. The leg bones (femur, tibia and fibula) are the strongest long bones as they have to support the rest of the body.

Femur most proximal bone of the leg for tetrapode vertebrates, longest bone for humans

The femur or thigh bone, is the proximal bone of the hindlimb in tetrapod vertebrates. The head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum in the pelvic bone forming the hip joint, while the distal part of the femur articulates with the tibia and kneecap forming the knee joint. By most measures the femur is the strongest bone in the body. The femur is also the longest bone in the human body.

Long bone

The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide. They are one of five types of bones: long, short, flat, irregular and sesamoid. Long bones, especially the femur and tibia, are subjected to most of the load during daily activities and they are crucial for skeletal mobility. They grow primarily by elongation of the diaphysis, with an epiphysis at each end of the growing bone. The ends of epiphyses are covered with hyaline cartilage. The longitudinal growth of long bones is a result of endochondral ossification at the epiphyseal plate. Bone growth in length is stimulated by the production of growth hormone (GH), a secretion of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.

The ossification or formation of the bone starts from three centers; one in the shaft and one in each extremity.

The tibia is categorized as a long bone and is as such composed of a diaphysis and two epiphyses. The diaphysis is the midsection of the tibia, also known as the shaft or body. While the epiphyses are the two rounded extremities of the bone; an upper (also known as superior or proximal) closest to the thigh and a lower (also known as inferior or distal) closest to the foot. The tibia is most contracted in the lower third and the distal extremity is smaller than the proximal.

Diaphysis

The diaphysis is the main or midsection (shaft) of a long bone. It is made up of cortical bone and usually contains bone marrow and adipose tissue (fat).

Epiphysis end part of long bones

The epiphysis is the rounded end of a long bone, at its joint with adjacent bone(s). Between the epiphysis and diaphysis lies the metaphysis, including the epiphyseal plate. At the joint, the epiphysis is covered with articular cartilage; below that covering is a zone similar to the epiphyseal plate, known as subchondral bone.

Thigh area between the pelvis and the knee; upper leg

In human anatomy, the thigh is the area between the hip (pelvis) and the knee. Anatomically, it is part of the lower limb.

Upper extremity

Upper surface of right tibia. (Anterior is at top.) Gray257.png
Upper surface of right tibia. (Anterior is at top.)
Knee Knee diagram.svg
Knee

The proximal or upper extremity of the tibia is expanded in the transverse plane with a medial and lateral condyle, which are both flattened in the horizontal plane. The medial condyle is the larger of the two and is better supported over the shaft. The upper surfaces of the condyles articulate with the femur to form the tibiofemoral joint, the weightbearing part of the kneejoint. [1]

Medial condyle of tibia

The medial condyle is the medial portion of the upper extremity of tibia.

Lateral condyle of tibia

The lateral condyle is the lateral portion of the upper extremity of tibia.

The medial and lateral condyle are separated by the intercondylar area, where the cruciate ligaments and the menisci attach. Here the medial and lateral intercondylar tubercle forms the intercondylar eminence. Together with the medial and lateral condyle the intercondylar region forms the tibial plateau, which both articulates with and is anchored to the lower extremity of the femur. The intercondylar eminence divides the intercondylar area into an anterior and posterior part. The anterolateral region of the anterior intercondylar area are perforated by numerous small openings for nutrient arteries. [1] The articular surfaces of both condyles are concave, particularly centrally. The flatter outer margins are in contact with the menisci. The medial condyles superior surface is oval in form and extends laterally onto the side of medial intercondylar tubercle. The lateral condyles superior surface is more circular in form and its medial edge extends onto the side of the lateral intercondylar tubercle. The posterior surface of the medial condyle bears a horizontal groove for part of the attachment of the semimembranosus muscle, whereas the lateral condyle has a circular facet for articulation with the head of the fibula. [1] Beneath the condyles is the tibial tuberosity which serves for attachment of the patellar ligament, a continuation of the quadriceps femoris muscle. [1]

Intercondylar area

The intercondylar area is the separation between the medial and lateral condyle on the upper extremity of the tibia. The anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments and the menisci attach to the intercondylar area.

Cruciate ligament type of ligament shaped like an X

Cruciate ligaments are pairs of ligaments arranged like a letter X. They occur in several joints of the body, such as the knee joint and the atlanto-axial joint. In a fashion similar to the cords in a toy Jacob's ladder, the crossed ligaments stabilize the joint while allowing a very large range of motion.

Meniscus (liquid)

The meniscus is the curve in the upper surface of a liquid close to the surface of the container or another object, caused by surface tension. It can be either concave or convex, depending on the liquid and the surface.

Facets

The superior articular surface presents two smooth articular facets.

  • The medial facet, oval in shape, is slightly concave from side to side, and from before backward.
  • The lateral, nearly circular, is concave from side to side, but slightly convex from before backward, especially at its posterior part, where it is prolonged on to the posterior surface for a short distance.

The central portions of these facets articulate with the condyles of the femur, while their peripheral portions support the menisci of the knee joint, which here intervene between the two bones.

Intercondyloid eminence

Between the articular facets in the intercondylar area, but nearer the posterior than the anterior aspect of the bone, is the intercondyloid eminence (spine of tibia), surmounted on either side by a prominent tubercle, on to the sides of which the articular facets are prolonged; in front of and behind the intercondyloid eminence are rough depressions for the attachment of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments and the menisci.

Surfaces

The anterior surfaces of the condyles are continuous with one another, forming a large somewhat flattened area; this area is triangular, broad above, and perforated by large vascular foramina; narrow below where it ends in a large oblong elevation, the tuberosity of the tibia, which gives attachment to the patellar ligament; a bursa intervenes between the deep surface of the ligament and the part of the bone immediately above the tuberosity.

Posteriorly, the condyles are separated from each other by a shallow depression, the posterior intercondyloid fossa, which gives attachment to part of the posterior cruciate ligament of the knee-joint. The medial condyle presents posteriorly a deep transverse groove, for the insertion of the tendon of the semimembranosus.

Its medial surface is convex, rough, and prominent; it gives attachment to the medial collateral ligament.

The lateral condyle presents posteriorly a flat articular facet, nearly circular in form, directed downward, backward, and lateralward, for articulation with the head of the fibula. Its lateral surface is convex, rough, and prominent in front: on it is an eminence, situated on a level with the upper border of the tuberosity and at the junction of its anterior and lateral surfaces, for the attachment of the iliotibial band. Just below this a part of the extensor digitorum longus takes origin and a slip from the tendon of the biceps femoris is inserted.

Shaft

Bones of the right leg. Anterior surface Gray258.png
Bones of the right leg. Anterior surface

The shaft or body of the tibia is triangular in cross-section and forms three borders: An anterior, medial and lateral or interosseous border. These three borders form three surfaces; the medial, lateral and posterior. [2] The forward flat part of the tibia is called the fibia, often confused with the fibula. [3]

Borders

The anterior crest or border, the most prominent of the three, commences above at the tuberosity, and ends below at the anterior margin of the medial malleolus. It is sinuous and prominent in the upper two-thirds of its extent, but smooth and rounded below; it gives attachment to the deep fascia of the leg.

The medial border is smooth and rounded above and below, but more prominent in the center; it begins at the back part of the medial condyle, and ends at the posterior border of the medial malleolus; its upper part gives attachment to the tibial collateral ligament of the knee-joint to the extent of about 5 cm., and insertion to some fibers of the popliteus muscle; from its middle third some fibers of the soleus and flexor digitorum longus muscles take origin.

The interosseous crest or lateral border is thin and prominent, especially its central part, and gives attachment to the interosseous membrane; it commences above in front of the fibular articular facet, and bifurcates below, to form the boundaries of a triangular rough surface, for the attachment of the interosseous ligament connecting the tibia and fibula.

Surfaces

The medial surface is smooth, convex, and broader above than below; its upper third, directed forward and medialward, is covered by the aponeurosis derived from the tendon of the sartorius, and by the tendons of the Gracilis and Semitendinosus, all of which are inserted nearly as far forward as the anterior crest; in the rest of its extent it is subcutaneous.

The lateral surface is narrower than the medial; its upper two-thirds present a shallow groove for the origin of the Tibialis anterior; its lower third is smooth, convex, curves gradually forward to the anterior aspect of the bone, and is covered by the tendons of the Tibialis anterior, Extensor hallucis longus, and Extensor digitorum longus, arranged in this order from the medial side.

The posterior surface presents, at its upper part, a prominent ridge, the popliteal line, which extends obliquely downward from the back part of the articular facet for the fibula to the medial border, at the junction of its upper and middle thirds; it marks the lower limit of the insertion of the Popliteus, serves for the attachment of the fascia covering this muscle, and gives origin to part of the Soleus, Flexor digitorum longus, and Tibialis posterior. The triangular area, above this line, gives insertion to the Popliteus. The middle third of the posterior surface is divided by a vertical ridge into two parts; the ridge begins at the popliteal line and is well-marked above, but indistinct below; the medial and broader portion gives origin to the Flexor digitorum longus, the lateral and narrower to part of the Tibialis posterior. The remaining part of the posterior surface is smooth and covered by the Tibialis posterior, Flexor digitorum longus, and Flexor hallucis longus. Immediately below the popliteal line is the nutrient foramen, which is large and directed obliquely downward.

Lower extremity

Lower extremity of tibia seen from the front Tibia - inferior epiphysis (anterior view).jpg
Lower extremity of tibia seen from the front
Lower extremity of tibia seen from the back Tibia - inferior epiphysis (posterior view).jpg
Lower extremity of tibia seen from the back

The distal end of the tibia is much smaller than the proximal end and presents five surfaces; it is prolonged downward on its medial side as a strong pyramidal process, the medial malleolus. The lower extremity of the tibia together with the fibula and talus forms the ankle joint.

Surfaces

The inferior articular surface is quadrilateral, and smooth for articulation with the talus. It is concave from before backward, broader in front than behind, and traversed from before backward by a slight elevation, separating two depressions. It is continuous with that on the medial malleolus.

The anterior surface of the lower extremity is smooth and rounded above, and covered by the tendons of the Extensor muscles; its lower margin presents a rough transverse depression for the attachment of the articular capsule of the ankle-joint.

The posterior surface is traversed by a shallow groove directed obliquely downward and medialward, continuous with a similar groove on the posterior surface of the talus and serving for the passage of the tendon of the Flexor hallucis longus.

The lateral surface presents a triangular rough depression for the attachment of the inferior interosseous ligament connecting it with the fibula; the lower part of this depression is smooth, covered with cartilage in the fresh state, and articulates with the fibula. The surface is bounded by two prominent borders (the anterior and posterior colliculi), continuous above with the interosseous crest; they afford attachment to the anterior and posterior ligaments of the lateral malleolus.

The medial surface -- see medial malleolus for details.

Fractures

Ankle fractures of the tibia have several classification systems based on location or mechanism:

Blood supply

The tibia is supplied with blood from two sources: A nutrient artery, as the main source, and periosteal vessels derived from the anterior tibial artery. [4]

Joints

The tibia is a part of four joints; the knee, ankle, superior and inferior tibiofibular joint.

In the knee the tibia forms one of the two articulations with the femur, often referred to as the tibiofemoral components of the knee joint. [5] [6] This is the weightbearing part of the knee joint. [2] The tibiofibular joints are the articulations between the tibia and fibula which allows very little movement.[ citation needed ] The proximal tibiofibular joint is a small plane joint. The joint is formed between the undersurface of the lateral tibial condyle and the head of fibula. The joint capsule is reinforced by anterior and posterior ligament of the head of the fibula. [2] The distal tibiofibular joint (tibiofibular syndesmosis) is formed by the rough, convex surface of the medial side of the distal end of the fibula, and a rough concave surface on the lateral side of the tibia. [2] The part of the ankle joint known as the talocrural joint, is a synovial hinge joint that connects the distal ends of the tibia and fibula in the lower limb with the proximal end of the talus. The articulation between the tibia and the talus bears more weight than between the smaller fibula and the talus.[ citation needed ]

Development

Plan of ossification of the tibia. From three centers. Gray260.png
Plan of ossification of the tibia. From three centers.
Epiphysial lines of tibia and fibula in a young adult. Anterior aspect. Gray261.png
Epiphysial lines of tibia and fibula in a young adult. Anterior aspect.

The tibia is ossified from three centers; a primary center for the diaphysis (shaft) and a secondary center for each epiphysis (extremity). Ossification begins in the center of the body, about the seventh week of fetal life, and gradually extends toward the extremities.

The center for the upper epiphysis appears before or shortly after birth at close to 34 weeks gestation; it is flattened in form, and has a thin tongue-shaped process in front, which forms the tuberosity; that for the lower epiphysis appears in the second year.

The lower epiphysis fuses with the tibial shaft at about the eighteenth, and the upper one fuses about the twentieth year.

Two additional centers occasionally exist, one for the tongue-shaped process of the upper epiphysis, which forms the tuberosity, and one for the medial malleolus.

Function

Muscle attachments

MuscleDirectionAttachment [7]
Tensor fasciae latae muscle Insertion Gerdy's tubercle
Quadriceps femoris muscle Insertion Tuberosity of the tibia
Sartorius muscle Insertion Pes anserinus
Gracilis muscle Insertion Pes anserinus
Semitendinosus muscle Insertion Pes anserinus
Horizontal head of the semimembranosus muscle Insertion Medial condyle
Popliteus muscle InsertionPosterior side of the tibia over the soleal line
Tibialis anterior muscle OriginLateral side of the tibia
Extensor digitorum longus muscle Origin Lateral condyle
Soleus muscle OriginPosterior side of the tibia under the soleal line
Flexor digitorum longus muscle OriginPosterior side of the tibia under the soleal line

Strength

The tibia has been modeled as taking an axial force during walking that is up to 4.7 bodyweight. Its bending moment in the sagittal plane in the late stance phase is up to 71.6 bodyweight times millimetre. [8]

Clinical significance

Fracture

Fractures of the tibia can be divided into those that only involve the tibia; bumper fracture, Segond fracture, Gosselin fracture, toddler's fracture, and those including both the tibia and fibula; trimalleolar fracture, bimalleolar fracture, Pott's fracture.

Society and culture

In Judaism, the tibia, or shankbone, of a goat is used in the Passover Seder plate.

Other animals

The structure of the tibia in most other tetrapods is essentially similar to that in humans. The tuberosity of the tibia, a crest to which the patellar ligament attaches in mammals, is instead the point for the tendon of the quadriceps muscle in reptiles, birds, and amphibians, which have no patella. [9]

Additional images

See also

Related Research Articles

Foot anatomical structure found in vertebrates

The foot is an anatomical structure found in many vertebrates. It is the terminal portion of a limb which bears weight and allows locomotion. In many animals with feet, the foot is a separate organ at the terminal part of the leg made up of one or more segments or bones, generally including claws or nails.

Human leg lower extremity or limb of the human body (foot, lower leg, thigh and hip)

The human leg, in the general word sense, is the entire lower limb of the human body, including the foot, thigh and even the hip or gluteal region. However, the definition in human anatomy refers only to the section of the lower limb extending from the knee to the ankle, also known as the crus. Legs are used for standing, and all forms of locomotion including recreational such as dancing, and constitute a significant portion of a person's mass. Female legs generally have greater hip anteversion and tibiofemoral angles, but shorter femur and tibial lengths than those in males.

Peroneus longus

In human anatomy, the peroneus longus is a superficial muscle in the lateral compartment of the leg, and acts to evert and plantarflex the ankle.

Fibula bone of the leg

The fibula or calf bone is a leg bone located on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below. It is the smaller of the two bones and in proportion to its length, the slenderest of all the long bones. Its upper extremity is small, placed toward the back of the head of the tibia, below the level of the knee joint, and excluded from the formation of this joint. Its lower extremity inclines a little forward, so as to be on a plane anterior to that of the upper end; it projects below the tibia, and forms the lateral part of the ankle-joint.

Ankle Region where the foot and the leg meet

The ankle, or the talocrural region, is the region where the foot and the leg meet. The ankle includes three joints: the ankle joint proper or talocrural joint, the subtalar joint, and the inferior tibiofibular joint. The movements produced at this joint are dorsiflexion and plantarflexion of the foot. In common usage, the term ankle refers exclusively to the ankle region. In medical terminology, "ankle" can refer broadly to the region or specifically to the talocrural joint.

Extensor hallucis longus muscle

The extensor hallucis longus is a thin muscle, situated between the tibialis anterior and the extensor digitorum longus, that functions to extend the big toe and dorsiflects the foot, and assists with foot eversion and inversion.

Radius (bone) one of the two long bones of the forearm

The radius or radial bone is one of the two large bones of the forearm, the other being the ulna. It extends from the lateral side of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist and runs parallel to the ulna. The radius is shorter and smaller than the ulna. It is a long bone, prism-shaped and slightly curved longitudinally.

Tibialis posterior muscle

The tibialis posterior is the most central of all the leg muscles, and is located in the deep posterior compartment of the leg.

Tibialis anterior muscle

The tibialis anterior is a muscle in humans that originates in the upper two-thirds of the lateral (outside) surface of the tibia and inserts into the medial cuneiform and first metatarsal bones of the foot. It acts to dorsiflex and invert the foot. This muscle is mostly located near the shin.

Tibial nerve

The tibial nerve is a branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve passes through the popliteal fossa to pass below the arch of soleus.

Talus bone bone of the ankle

The talus, talus bone, astragalus, or ankle bone is one of the group of foot bones known as the tarsus. The tarsus forms the lower part of the ankle joint through its articulations with the lateral and medial malleoli of the two bones of the lower leg, the tibia and fibula. Within the tarsus, it articulates with the calcaneus below and navicular in front within the talocalcaneonavicular joint. Through these articulations, it transmits the entire weight of the body to the foot.

The semimembranosus is the most medial of the three hamstring muscles. It is so named because it has a flat tendon of origin. It lies posteromedially in the thigh, deep to the semitendinosus.

Extensor digitorum longus muscle

The extensor digitorum longus is a pennate muscle, situated at the lateral part of the front of the leg.

Lateral meniscus

The lateral meniscus is a fibrocartilaginous band that spans the lateral side of the interior of the knee joint. It is one of two menisci of the knee, the other being the medial meniscus. It is nearly circular and covers a larger portion of the articular surface than the medial. It can occasionally be injured or torn by twisting the knee or applying direct force, as seen in contact sports.

Lower extremity of femur lower end of the thigh bone in human and other animals

The lower extremity of femur is the lower end of the thigh bone in human and other animals, closer to the knee. It is larger than the upper extremity of femur, is somewhat cuboid in form, but its transverse diameter is greater than its antero-posterior; it consists of two oblong eminences known as the condyles.

Malleolus

A malleolus is the bony prominence on each side of the human ankle.

Deep fascia of leg

The deep fascia of leg, or crural fascia forms a complete investment to the muscles, and is fused with the periosteum over the subcutaneous surfaces of the bones.

Crus fracture Traumatic or pathological injury to the tibia in which the continuity of the bone is broken

A crus fracture is a fracture of the lower legs bones meaning either or both of the tibia and fibula.

References

This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 256 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

  1. 1 2 3 4 Drake, Richard L.; Vogl, A. Wayne; Mitchell, Adam W. M. (2010). Gray´s Anatomy for Students (2nd ed.). pp. 558–560. ISBN   978-0-443-06952-9.[ page needed ]
  2. 1 2 3 4 Drake, Richard L.; Vogl, A. Wayne; Mitchell, Adam W. M. (2010). Gray´s Anatomy for Students (2nd ed.). pp. 584–588. ISBN   978-0-443-06952-9.
  3. "Chapter 12: THE BONES OF THE LOWER LIMB". www.dartmouth.edu. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
  4. Nelson G, Kelly P, Peterson L, Janes J (1960). "Blood supply of the human tibia". J Bone Joint Surg Am. 42-A: 625–36. PMID   13854090.
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  6. Gill TJ, Van de Velde SK, Wing DW, Oh LS, Hosseini A, Li G (December 2009). "Tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics after reconstruction of an isolated posterior cruciate ligament injury: in vivo analysis during lunge". Am J Sports Med. 37 (12): 2377–85. doi:10.1177/0363546509341829. PMC   3832057 . PMID   19726621.
  7. Bojsen-Møller, Finn; Simonsen, Erik B.; Tranum-Jensen, Jørgen (2001). Bevægeapparatets anatomi[Anatomy of the Locomotive Apparatus] (in Danish) (12th ed.). pp. 364–367. ISBN   978-87-628-0307-7.
  8. Wehner, T; Claes, L; Simon, U (2009). "Internal loads in the human tibia during gait". Clin Biomech. 24 (3): 299–302. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2008.12.007. PMID   19185959.
  9. Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. p. 205. ISBN   0-03-910284-X.