|Occupation||paramount chief of Piratininga (modern São Paulo)|
|Children||Bartira and others|
Chief Tibiriçá (died 1562) baptized as Martim Afonso was an Amerindian leader who converted to Christianity under the auspices of José de Anchieta.He led the Tupiniquim people of Piratininga and other tribes. His daughter, Bartira, took the name Isabel and married a Portuguese man named João Ramalho. After his conversion to Christianity he became a strategic ally and protector of the Jesuits and the Portuguese; his name appears on letters to Saint Ignatius of Loyola and King João III of Portugal. Tibiriçá chose to side with the Jesuits and against his own brother Piquerobi with help of his nephew and his son-in-law João Ramalho. His granddaughters and their descendants married Portuguese noblemen that led the colonization of São Paulo under Martim Afonso de Sousa, including Jorge Ferreira, Domingos Luiz (a knight of the Order of Christ), and Tristão de Oliveira, son of capitão-mor Antonio de Oliveira and Genebra Leitão de Vasconcelos, both of important noble families.
The writer Eduardo Bueno, based on Teodoro Sampaio, says that "Tibiriçá" means "watchman of the land" in Tupi, also fitting the expression "sentinel of the mountains" . The writer and researcher Clóvis Chiaradia states that Tibiriçá comes from the Tupi Tibi-r-eçá (tibi, "your land" + eçá, "eye", "to see" or "seen"), meaning "the watchman of the land", agreeing with Eduardo Bueno and Teodoro Sampaio . Tupinologist Eduardo de Almeida Navarro argues that "Tibiriçá" and "Tebireçá" come from the Tupi tebiresá, which means "eye of the buttocks" (tebira, "buttock" + esá, "eye").
He was converted and baptized by the Jesuits José de Anchieta and Leonardo Nunes. His Christian baptismal name was Martim Afonso, in honor of the founder of São Vicente, Martim Afonso de Sousa, changing his name to Martim Afonso Tibiriçá. He was head of a part of the indigenous nation established in the fields of Piratininga, based in the village of Inhampuambuçu. He was the brother of Piquerobi and Caiubi, indigenous men who stood out during the Portuguese colonization of Brazil: the first, as an enemy of the Portuguese; and the second, as a great collaborator of the Jesuits. He had many children. With the Indian Potira, he had Ítalo, Ará, Pirijá, Aratá, Toruí, Bartira and Maria da Gra.
Bartira would marry João Ramalho, of whom Tibiriçá was a great friend and at the request of which he defended the Portuguese when they arrived in São Vicente. In 1554, he accompanied Manuel da Nóbrega and Anchieta in the work of founding São Paulo and established himself in the place where the São Bento Monastery is now located, scattering the natives throughout the vicinity. The current Rua de São Bento was, for this reason, originally called Martim Afonso (the name in which the cacique was baptized). Thanks to his influence, the Jesuits were able to group the first neophyte huts in the vicinity of the college. In the attack known as the Siege of Piratininga, Tibiriçá gave the Jesuits the greatest proof of fidelity on July 9, 1562 (not the 10th as is usually written), when, while raising the flag and a wooden sword painted and decorated in different colors, he bravely repelled the attack on the village of São Paulo carried out by the Tupi, Guaianás and Carijós Indians and led by his nephew Jaguaranho (son of Piquerobi). During the fighting, Tibiriçá killed his brother Piquerobi and his nephew Jaguaranho.
Tibiriçá died on December 25, 1562, as José de Anchieta attests in his letter sent to Father Diogo Laínes, due to a plague that devastated the village. His remains are found in the crypt of the Catedral da Sé (São Paulo Cathedral).
In his honor, the state highway SP-031, linking Ribeirão Pires to Suzano, was named Índio Tibiriçá, in addition to having his name on two streets in the capital, one in Luz and the other in Brooklin Paulista.
Tibiriçá has left many descendants in Brazil and elsewhere, via his daughters, who had offspring with Portuguese settlers. The author Amador Bueno and his descendants, for example.
In 1580, Susana Dias, his granddaughter, founded a farm on the banks of the Tietê River, west of the city of São Paulo, near the waterfall called "Parnaíba" by the indigenous people: today it is the city of Santana de Parnaíba.
Queen Silvia of Sweden is one of numerous descendants of Susana Dias.
His ancestry is described in the Genealogia Paulistana, by Luís Gonzaga da Silva Leme.
Old Tupi or classical Tupi is an extinct Tupian language which was spoken by the aboriginal Tupi people of Brazil, mostly those who inhabited coastal regions in South and Southeast Brazil. It belongs to the Tupi–Guarani language family, and has a written history spanning the 16th, 17th, and early 18th centuries. In the early colonial period, Tupi was used as a lingua franca throughout Brazil by Europeans and aboriginal Americans, and had literary usage, but it was later suppressed almost to extinction, leaving only one modern descendant with an appreciable number of speakers, Nheengatu.
The War of the Emboabas was a conflict in colonial Brazil waged in 1706-1707 and 1708-1709 over newly discovered gold fields, which had set off a rush to the region between two generations of Portuguese settlers in the viceroyalty of Brazil - then the Captaincy of São Vicente. The discovery of gold set off a rush to the region, Paulistas asserted rights of discovery and non-Paulistas challenged their claims. Although the Portuguese crown sought more control in the area and the Paulistas sought protection of their claims, the Emoboabas won. The crown re-assessed its position in the region and made administrative changes subsequently.
The Bandeirantes, literally "flag-carriers", were slavers, explorers, adventurers, and fortune hunters in early Colonial Brazil. They are largely responsible for Brazil's great expansion westward, far beyond the Tordesillas Line of 1494, by which Pope Alexander VI divided the new continent into a western, Castilian section, and an eastern, Portuguese section.
São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga was the village that developed as São Paulo, Brazil in the region known as Campos de Piratininga. It was founded as a religious mission and a Jesuit Royal College by priests José de Anchieta and Manuel da Nóbrega on January 25, 1554. The village was initially populated by Portuguese colonists and two tribes of the Guaianás Amerindians. Later, São Paulo was the base of the Bandeirantes who explored the interior in search of slaves and gold.
Itapecerica da Serra is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. It is part of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo. The population is 177,662 in an area of 150.74 km². It is located 23 miles southwest of São Paulo and at an altitude of 920m above sea level. The name Itapecerica is believed to come from the Tupi language for slippery stone, and da Serra means of the Mountains in Portuguese.
Itaquaquecetuba, also simply called Itaquá, is a municipality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. It is part of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo. The population is 375,011 in an area of 82.62 square kilometres (31.90 sq mi). It sits at an elevation of 790 metres (2,592 ft).
José de Anchieta y Díaz de Clavijo was a Spanish Jesuit missionary to the Portuguese colony of Brazil in the second half of the 16th century. A highly influential figure in Brazil's history in the first century after its European discovery, Anchieta was one of the founders of São Paulo in 1554 and of Rio de Janeiro in 1565. He is the first playwright, the first grammarian and the first poet born in the Canary Islands, and the father of Brazilian literature. Anchieta was also involved in the religious instruction and conversion to the Catholic faith of the Indian population. His efforts along with those of another Jesuit missionary, Manuel da Nóbrega, at Indian pacification were crucial to the establishment of stable colonial settlements in the colony.
Manuel da Nóbrega was a Portuguese Jesuit priest and first Provincial of the Society of Jesus in colonial Brazil. Together with José de Anchieta, he was very influential in the early history of Brazil and participated in the founding of several cities, such as Recife, Salvador, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo, as well as many Jesuit colleges and seminaries.
Martim Afonso de Sousa was a Portuguese fidalgo, explorer and colonial administrator.
The São Paulo Metropolitan Cathedral, also known as the See Cathedral, is the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of São Paulo, Brazil. Its current and seventh Metropolitan Archbishop is Dom Odilo Pedro Cardinal Scherer, appointed by Pope Benedict XVI on March 21, 2007, and installed on April 29 of the same year. The existing cathedral's construction, in a Gothic revival style, began in 1913 and ended four decades later. It was ready for its dedication on the 400th anniversary of the foundation of the then humble villa of São Paulo by Chief or Cacique Tibiriçá and the Jesuit priests Manuel da Nóbrega and José de Anchieta. Despite its Renaissance-style dome, the São Paulo Metropolitan Cathedral is considered by some to be the fourth largest neo-Gothic cathedral in the world.
Brás Cubas was a Portuguese nobleman, explorer and the founder of the village of Santos. The son of João Pires Cubas and Isabel Nunes, he was twice governor of the Captaincy of São Vicente.
Pátio do Colégio is the name given to the historical Jesuit church and school in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The name is also used to refer to the square in front of the church. The Pátio do Colégio marks the site where the city was founded in 1554.
Genealogia Paulistana is a São Paulo historical-genealogical work written by Luís Gonzaga da Silva Leme, published in nine volumes between 1903 and 1905. It is perhaps the largest Brazilian genealogical compilation, with more than two thousand pages.
Events in the year 1890 in Brazil.
Olívia Guedes Penteado was a Brazilian art patron and philanthropist who established the Salón de Arte Moderna in São Paulo. She was a motivating force for the country's modernism movement. Penteado was a friend of key artists of this movement, such as Anita Malfatti, Tarsila do Amaral, and Heitor Villa-Lobos. Her niece, Yolanda Penteado, was also an art patron.
Quatrocentão is a term used to designate members of elite families descendant from the early settlers and explorers of São Paulo. This term was first used in the early 20th century, in the past they were referred to as primeiros povoadores or nobreza da terra. These families had occupied important positions as governors, military commanders, aldermen and explorers of early colonial South America. They received large land grants from the Portuguese Crown and originated mostly in Portugal and Spain, but some in Flanders and other places in Europe. A portion of the original settlers were noblemen of the Royal House of Portugal. Under the rule of the Habsburgs and the Iberian Union, they were joined by Spanish families, some also of noble origin. The earliest of these settlers married descendants of the Amerindian Chief of Piratininga, Martim Afonso Tibiriçá, and after intermarried frequently among the families in the Genealogia Paulistana, forming an endogamous group. They were first listed in a genealogical study in the 1700s by Pedro Taques de Almeida Paes Leme and last listed in the classical genealogical work Genealogia Paulistana, published in 1905.
Bartira (1497-1580) was the daughter of Tibiriçá, Chief of the Tupiniquim people of Piratininga and other tribes.
João Ramalho (1493–1582) was a Portuguese explorer and adventurer known as the first bandeirante. He lived much of his life among Tupiniquim natives in Brazil after he arrived there in 1515. He even became the leader of an Indian village after he developed a friendship with Tibiriçá, an important native chief at the time. Ramalho played an important role in the pacific interaction between the Portuguese and the natives, especially after the arrival of Martim Afonso de Sousa, with whom he became friends after meeting him in São Vicente, the first Portuguese settlement in the Americas. Some historians agree that his ancestors were Jews from Covilhã.
Fundadores de São Paulo is a monument located in the Vila Mariana neighbourhood of São Paulo, Brazil. It was created by the Brazilian sculptor Luis Morrone to honour the city's founders, and after ten years of construction it was inaugurated on 25 January 1963.