Tibni

Last updated
Tibni
King of Northern Israel
Predecessor Zimri
Successor Omri

Tibni (Hebrew : תִּבְנִיTīḇnī) was a claimant to the throne of Israel and the son of Ginath. Albright has dated his reign to 876–871 BC, while Thiele offers the dates 885–880 BC.

Contents

Ancestry

Tomoo Ishida instead suggested that the narrative of dynastic instability in the Kingdom of Israel suggests an underlying rivalry between tribes for its throne. [1] In the biblical narrative, the House of Jeroboam was from the Tribe of Ephraim, while the House of Baasha was from the Tribe of Issachar. [1] The Omrides are connected in this narrative with the city of Jezreel, where they maintained a second palace. According to the Book of Joshua, Jezreel was controlled by the Tribe of Issachar. Ishida views the narrative as suggesting that the Omrides themselves were members of the Tribe of Issachar. [1] The assassinated king Elah and Omri thus shared a "common tribal origin", and were possibly kinsmen. Omri and the Tribe of Issachar's opposition to Zimri indicates that Zimri was not a member of their tribe. [1]

Ishida views both Zimri and his successor Tibni as likely members of the Tribe of Ephraim, its candidates in an attempt to reclaim the throne. [1] But he also suggests another hypothesis, that Tibni originated from the city of Gina (also known as Beth-haggan) mentioned in the Amarna letters (14th century BC). In the Biblical narrative, this city was under the control of the Tribe of Manasseh. So Tibni could instead be the Tribe of Manasseh's candidate for the throne. [1]

Similarly, genealogist David Hughes speculated that Zimri and Tibni were members of the Tribe of Ephraim, and siblings to each other. [2] He further speculated that they were descendants of Hoshea, son of Azaziah, one of the rulers of the Tribe of Ephraim. [2] Hoshea and Azaziah are characters briefly mentioned in the Books of Chronicles (I Chronicles 27:20), where Hoshea is a contemporary of David:

...of the children of Ephraim, Hoshea the son of Azaziah [3]

In the Bible

After Zimri had ended his life after a reign of seven days, the people of Israel were divided into two factions, one siding with Omri, and the other with Tibni. They and their forces fought each other for several years until Omri's forces prevailed and Tibni's death. It appears that Tibni was regent over half the kingdom of Israel for a period of four years. Tibni had a brother named Joram, who seconded him in the dispute over the throne and who died at the same time as himself, probably at the hands of Omri's party. [4] Tibni's death is recorded but not explained.

History

Tibni appears to have been of Jerahmeelite origin as his rival Omri. [5]

It was suggested that Tibni is a nickname meaning "man of straw". [6]

Related Research Articles

Jehu

Jehu was the tenth king of the northern Kingdom of Israel since Jeroboam I, noted for exterminating the house of Ahab. He was the son of Jehoshaphat, grandson of Nimshi, and possibly great-grandson of Omri. His reign lasted for 28 years.

Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) Israelite kingdom, c. 930–c. 720 BCE

According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel, was one of two successor states to the former United Kingdom of Israel and Judah. Historians often refer to the Kingdom of Israel as the "Northern Kingdom" or as the "Kingdom of Samaria" to differentiate it from the Southern Kingdom of Judah.

Omri

Omri was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the sixth king of Israel. He was a successful military campaigner who extended the northern kingdom of Israel. Other monarchs from the House of Omri are Ahab, Ahaziah, Joram, and Athaliah. Like his predecessor, king Zimri, who ruled for only seven days, Omri is the second king mentioned in the Bible without a statement of his tribal origin. One possibility, though unproven, is that he was of the tribe of Issachar.

Tribe of Ephraim

According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Ephraim was one of the Tribes of Israel. The Tribe of Manasseh together with Ephraim formed the House of Joseph. It is one of the ten lost tribes. The etymology of the name is disputed.

According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Manasseh was one of the Tribes of Israel. It is one of the ten lost tribes. Together with the Tribe of Ephraim, Manasseh also formed the House of Joseph.

Tribe of Issachar

According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Issachar was one of the twelve tribes of Israel and one of the ten lost tribes. In Jewish tradition, the descendants of Issachar were seen as being dominated by religious scholars and influential in proselytism. The sons of Issachar, ancestors of the tribe, were Tola, Phuvah, Job and Shimron.

Hoshea

Hoshea was the nineteenth and last king of the Israelite Kingdom of Israel and son of Elah. William F. Albright dated his reign to 732–721 BC, while E. R. Thiele offered the dates 732–723 BC.

Ephraim

Ephraim was, according to the Book of Genesis, the second son of Joseph and Asenath. Asenath was an Egyptian woman whom Pharaoh gave to Joseph as wife, and the daughter of Potipherah, a priest of On. Ephraim was born in Egypt before the arrival of the children of Israel from Canaan.

The Twelve Tribes of Israel are, according to Judeo-Christian texts, the descendants of the Biblical patriarch Jacob, also known as Israel, through his twelve sons by various women, who collectively form the Israelite nation. Within ancient Judaism, one's tribal affiliation had a great impact on their practices and opportunities, as some tribes enjoyed privileges others did not and some tribes received more blessings than others.

The Omrides, Omrids or House of Omri were a ruling dynasty of the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) founded by King Omri. According to the Bible, the Omride rulers of Israel were Omri, Ahab, Ahaziah and Jehoram. Ahab's daughter Athaliah also became queen regnant of the Kingdom of Judah.

Zimri (king)

Zimri, was the fifth king of Israel. His reign lasted only seven days. William F. Albright has dated his reign to 876 BCE, while E. R. Thiele offers the date 885 BCE. His story is told in 1 Kings, Chapter 16.

Kings of Israel and Judah

This article is an overview of the kings of the United Kingdom of Israel as well as those of its successor states and classical period kingdoms ruled by the Hasmonean dynasty and Herodian dynasty.

Assyrian captivity

The Assyrian captivity is the period in the history of Ancient Israel and Judah during which several thousand Israelites of ancient Samaria were resettled as captives by Assyria. This is one of the many instances of forcible relocations implemented by the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The Northern Kingdom of Israel was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian monarchs, Tiglath-Pileser III (Pul) and Shalmaneser V. The later Assyrian rulers Sargon II and his son and successor, Sennacherib, were responsible for finishing the twenty-year demise of Israel's northern ten-tribe kingdom, although they did not overtake the Southern Kingdom. Jerusalem was besieged, but not taken. The tribes forcibly resettled by Assyria later became known as the Ten Lost Tribes.

The House of Baasha or Baasha dynasty was a reigning dynasty of the Kingdom of Israel. They are depicted in the first of the Books of Kings. Their estimated reign is placed in the 10th century BCE.

The House of Zimri or the Zimri dynasty was a short-lived reigning dynasty of the Kingdom of Israel. It is depicted in the first of the Books of Kings, where it represents a transitional period between the reigns House of Baasha and the Omrides.

The House of Jehu or Jehu dynasty was a reigning dynasty of the Kingdom of Israel. They are depicted in both of the Books of Kings. Their estimated reign is placed from the 9th century to the 8th century BCE.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ishida (1977), p. 171-183
  2. 1 2 Hughes, David (2006). "Israel". Angelfire. Retrieved May 11, 2019. TIBNI, rival king, the brother of Zimri, asserting himself as his brother's successor, is usually not numbered in the king-list.
  3. Bible (World English)/1 Chronicles.
  4. "Tibni", Jewish Encyclopedia
  5. Encyclopaedia Biblica : a critical dictionary of the literary, political, and religious history, the archaeology, geography, and natural history of the Bible, ed. T.K. Cheyne, London: Macmillan Company, 1903, volume 4, p. 5068.
  6. Tibni, in: The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1988, vol. 4, p. 848.

Further reading

Tibni
Contemporary King of Judah: Asa
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Zimri
King of Samarian Israel
882 BCE
Succeeded by
Omri