Last updated

Tibouchina semidecandra.jpg
Tibouchina semidecandra at Strybing Arboretum, San Francisco
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Myrtales
Family: Melastomataceae
Genus: Tibouchina
Type species
Tibouchina aspera

About 240

Tibouchina grossa Paramo of Guasca, Colombia Tibouchina grossa.JPG
Tibouchina grossa Páramo of Guasca, Colombia

Tibouchina /ˌtɪbˈknə/ [1] [2] Aubl. is a neoptropical flowering plant genus in Melastomataceae Juss. that contains approximately 240 species. [3] [4] [5] Species of this genus are herbs, shrubs or trees and typically have purple flowers. [6] They are native to Mexico, the Caribbean, and South America where they are found as far south as northern Argentina. [6] [7] Members of this genus are known as glory bushes, glory trees or princess flowers. The name Tibouchina is adapted from a Guianan indigenous name for a member of this genus [2] . A recent systematic study has shown that this genus is paraphyletic. [3]



Members of Tibouchinasensu lato are diagnosed by a number of traits including pentamerous flowers with anthers having developed pedoconnectives (the connective tissue below the anther locules) and anther appendages that are ventrally bi-lobed. [3] These traits are likely plesiomorphic in the core Melastomeae. [3] The magenta or purple flowers are often showy, and the stamens may be dimorphic. [6] Members of Tibouchina have simple leaves that lack stipules with the conspicuous ladder-like venation that is characteristic of most melastomes. [6] [8] As a member of Melastomeae, Tibouchina also has capsular fruit and cochleate seeds. [6]

Distribution and invasive potential

All 240 species of Tibouchina s.l. are native to the Americas as far north as Mexico, with a large proportion found in Brazil. [3] Many species of Tibouchina s.l. are found in the Mata Atlantica in eastern Brazil, while many others are found in the cerrado and camposrupestres. [3] Members of Tibouchina sensu stricto tend to be found in lowland savannas and on the lower slopes of the Andes. [3] [9] All Tibouchina species are considered noxious weeds in Hawaii [10] because of their high potential for being invasive species. [11] [12] [13] Within Tibouchina s.s., many species, such as T. papyrus, T. araguaiensis, T. nigricans and T. mathaei, have narrow distributions, being known from only a handful of locations, while a few other species, including T.aspera, T. barbigera, and T. bipenicillata, have broader distributions.


Several species are cultivated for their large bright flowers. As tropical plants they are rather cold-sensitive, and should be raised in a greenhouse wherever temperatures fall below 8 °C to 10 °C. One species, Tibouchina lepidota ('Alstonville'), known for its brilliant display of flowers in late summer and autumn is common in many parts of Australia. In Australia, both this species and Tibouchina grandiflora and cultivars are commonly known as Lasiandra. They are closely related to a native shrub Melastoma affine also known as Native Lasiandra. All these plants are featured and celebrated in the annual Lasiandra Festival held in the small country town of Wauchope, which is situated in the hinterland of the Central New South Wales Coast, City of Port Macquarie. Bright purple, the colour of the flowers, forms the central theme of the festival [14]


Over 30 species of Tibouchina s.l. have chromosome counts published. [15] There is evidence for polyploidy in this group as the haploid number tends to fall in one of three classes: n=9, n=18 or n=27. [15] This series of x=9 is quite consistent within Tibouchina although there are three documented deviations from this pattern. [15] T. lepidota (Bonpl.) Baillon has been reported to have 2n =122 and n=62 in different studies, while T. semidecandra (DC.) Cogn has 2n =54 and T. urvilleana (DC.) Cogn has 2n =56. [15] For species with chromosome counts, tetraploidy is most common (16 species) while 10 species are diploid and 4 species are hexaploid. [15]


A phylogenetic analysis based on molecular data (2 plastid and 1 nuclear regions) determined that the traditional circumscription of Tibouchina is paraphyletic. [3] Four major clades were resolved within the genus which are supported by morphological, molecular and geographic evidence. [3] The type species, Tibouchina aspera Aubl., was first described in 1775 based on a specimen from French Guiana. [16] [17] Based on the traditional code of nomenclature, the clade that the type species falls in retains the name of the genus; therefore, the clade containing Tibouchina aspera is called Tibouchina sensu stricto. [18] A taxonomic revision of the other clades of Tibouchina s.l. and related genera has not been published. [3]

Tibouchina sensu stricto

Tibouchinas.s. Aubl. is a clade within the paraphyletic genus Tibouchina Aubl. [3] This clade contains 22 species belonging to the traditional sections T. section Tibouchina and T. section Barbigerae. [16] [3] Diagnostic characteristics of Tibouchina s.s. include the presence of scale-like trichomes on the hypanthium and leaves and a long pedoconnective on lilac anthers, and the absence of glandular trichomes. [16] [19] [3] These species are found in savanna habitats. [16] The following species are currently considered to be included within Tibouchina s.s.: [19] [16]

Tibouchina aegopogon

Tibouchina aegopogon Cogn. was described in 1885. There are currently two described varieties: T. aegopogon var. angustifolia Cogn. and T. aegopogon var. aegopogon. [20] T. aegopogon is found in Bolivia and Brazil. [20] The type specimen is located at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris. [20]

Tibouchina albescens

Tibouchinaalbescens Cogn. ex PJF Guimaraes, ALF Oliveira & R Romero was formally described in 2015. [19] The status of this name has been debated. The online resource Tropicos reports that Glaziou published the name in 1908 [21] but according to Oliveira et al., no description or diagnosis was ever published so the name had not previously been validly published. [19] [18] T. albescens is found in Bolivia and Brazil. [21] There is one published homonym for this species (T. albescens Wurdack). [22]

Tibouchina albescens is a shrub from the Brazilian states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Tocantins. [19] It is found on rocky outcrops in the cerrado and campos rupestres at elevations between 600 and 1,400 metres, including in the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park. [19] This species is similar to T. verticillaris but has membranaceously peeling bark which reveals a white or silver wood underneath; there are also differences in the shape and density of trichomes and indumentum. [19]

Tibouchina araguaiensis

Tibouchina araguaiensis PJF Guim is a shrub that has been found only in Araguaia National Park in the state of Tocantins, Brazil and was described in 2014. [16] It grows in the transitional area between forest and meadows at 200 metres in sandy soil. [16] This species is very similar to Tibouchina papyrus [16] Distinguishing characters include the triangular hypanthial scales which cover the entire hypanthium, and the abaxial leaf surface which is only sparsely covered by ciliate scales; in T. papyrus, the prominent scales cover the entire lower leaf surface. [16] These species also differ in their distribution; Tibouchina araguaiensis is found on the flat topography of Araguaia National Park, while T. papyrus is endemic to the higher elevation campos rupestres in southeast Tocantins and western Goiás. [16]

Tibouchina aspera

Tibouchina aspera Aubl. is a subshrub with densely scaly indumentum on the stem, petiole, calyces and hypanthium. [23] [24] T. aspera was described in 1775 and is the type species of the genus Tibouchina. [25] There are currently three synonyms for this species: Rhexia aspera (Aubl.) Willd., Tibouchina belizensis Lundell, and Tibouchina spruceana Cogn. [25] There are also two currently described varieties: T. aspera var. asperrima Cogn. and T. aspera var. aspera. [25] This species was described in 1775 based on a specimen from French Guiana which is currently kept in the herbarium at the Natural History Museum in London. [25] It was found growing in dry, arid and sandy soil close to an abandoned home. [25] In the original description of this species, it was suggested that this plant was inhaled to treat chest pain and dry coughs. [17] Now, this species is known to be widely distributed in Central and South America, including in Belize, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, and in the Brazilian states of Amapá, Roraima, Amazonas, Pará, Acre, Rondônia, Maranháo, and Mato Grosso. [25] [23] It is commonly found in the cerrado, campinas and restingas in humid, sandy soil. [23] In a study of the Melastomataceae of the Brazilian restingas in Pará, T. aspera was found in the herbaceous marsh, fields between dunes and open shrubby fields [23] (Lima et al., 2014).

Tibouchina barbigera

Tibouchinabarbigera Baill was described in 1877. [26] It is a small shrub found in Bolivia and in the cerrado of Central Brazil. [26] [27] The type specimen is kept in the herbarium at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris. [26] T. barbigera is the host to a number of gall-inducing moths. [27]

Tibouchina bipenicillata

Tibouchina bipenicillata (Naudin) Cogn. was described in 1885 and has one synonym: Lasiandra bipenicillata Naudin. [28] It is found in Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama and Venezuela. [28] The type specimen is kept in the herbarium at Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève in Switzerland. [28]

Tibouchina bruniana

Tibouchinabruniana PJF Guim was described in 2014. [16] Distinguishing characteristics of Tibouchina bruniana are the solitary flowers (occasionally in dichasia) and the small leaves (< 2.5 cm long). [16] The anthers have long, simple trichomes which led the authors to place this species in the section Barbigerae. [16] This shrub is found in cerrado vegetation, growing in compacted soil and in swampy areas at around 1,100 metres. [16] This species is only known from one population growing close to a nickel mine in the Brazilian state of Goiás. [16]

Tibouchina catharinae

Tibouchinacatharinae Pittier was described in 1947 and is found in Venezuela. [29]

Tibouchina dissitiflora

Tibouchinadissitiflora Wurdack was described in 1958 and is found in Venezuela. [30]

Tibouchina duidae

Tibouchinaduidae Gleason was described in 1952 and is found in Venezuela. [31]

Tibouchina edmondoi

Tibouchinaedmondoi Brade was described in 1959 and is found in Brazil. [32]

Tibouchina fraterna

Tibouchinafraterna NE Br. was described in 1901. [33] There are currently two described subspecies: T. fraterna subsp. paruana Wurdack and T. fraterna subsp. fraterna. [33] T. fraterna is found in Brazil, Guyana and Venezuela. [33] One chromosome count has been done for this species with a gametophytic count of 9. [34] The type specimen is kept in the herbarium at Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin. [33]

Tibouchina johnwurdackiana

Tibouchinajohnwurdackiana Todzia was described in 1997 and the type specimen is kept in the herbarium at Missouri Botanical Garden. [35]

Tibouchina karstenii

Tibouchinakarstenii Cogn. was described in 1885 and is found in Colombia. The type specimen is kept at the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien in Austria. [36]

Tibouchina llanorum

Tibouchinallanorum Wurdack was described in 1964 and is found in Bolivia, Brazil and Venezuela. [37]

Tibouchina mathaei

Tibouchinamathaei Cogn. was described in 1885 and is found in Peru. [38] There is one synonym for T. mathaei: Lasiandra lepidota Naudin. [38] The type specimen is kept at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris. [38]

Tibouchina melastomoides

Tibouchinamelastomoides Cogn was described in 1885 and is found in Brazil. [39] The type specimen is kept in Naturhistorisches Museum Wien in Austria. [39]

Tibouchina mutabilis

Tibouchina mutabilis is an evergreen tree with an open crown that grows in Brazil, mainly at the Serra do Mar zone. In Brazil, it is named Manacá da Serra. [40]

Tibouchina nigricans

Tibouchinanigricans Cogn ex PJF Guimaraes, ALF Oliveira, R Romero was described in 2015. [19] The type specimens are kept at the Missouri Botanical Gardens and at Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin. [41]

Tibouchina nigricans is a short, unbranched shrub with a dark purple hypanthium and calyx lobes. [19] T. nigricans is similar to T. aegopogon and T. johnwurdackiana as these species each have only a single stem, although there are distinguishing differences in the trichomes and indumentum of the leaves and hypanthium. [19] This species is found in the states of Goiás and Distrito Federal in Brazil. [19] It prefers open grassland including the camposujo and cerradorupestre. [19] It has been found at elevations between 1,100 and 1,200 metres. [19] T. nigricans is classified as endangered (IUCN category EN B2ab(iii)) and is only known from four collections. [19] [42] It has recently been found in Parque Nacional de Brasília and Serra dos Pireneus. [19]

Tibouchina sipapoana

Tibouchinasipapoana Gleason was described in 1950 and is found in Venezuela. [43]

Tibouchina striphnocalyx

Tibouchinastriphnocalyx (DC) Gleason was described in 1950 and is found in Brazil and Venezuela. [44] There are three synonyms for this species: Osbeckia striphnocalyx DC., Pterolepis striphnocalyx Mart., and Tibouchina yavitensis Pittier. [44]

Tibouchina verticillaris

Tibouchinaverticillaris Cogn was described in 1885 and is found in Brazil. [45]

Selected species of Tibouchina sensu lato

Related Research Articles

<i>Hevea</i> genus of plants

Hevea is a genus of flowering plants in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae, with about ten members. It is also one of many names used commercially for the wood of the most economically important rubber tree, H. brasiliensis. The genus is native to tropical South America but is widely cultivated in other tropical countries and naturalized in several of them. It was first described in 1775.

Enriquebeltrania is a plant genus in the family Euphorbiaceae, first described in 1957. It was initially given the name Beltrania, but this turned out to be an illegitimate homonym. In other words, someone else had already applied the name to a different plant, so this one had to be renamed. The genus is native to western and southern Mexico.

  1. Enriquebeltrania crenatifolia(Miranda) Rzed. 1979 - Campeche, Quintana Roo, Yucatán
  2. Enriquebeltrania disjunctaDe-Nova & Sosa 2006 - Jalisco, Sinaloa
<i>Maprounea</i> genus of plants

Maprounea is a plant genus of the family Euphorbiaceae first named as a genus in 1775. It is native to tropical Africa, Trinidad, and tropical Central and South America.

  1. Maprounea africana - W + C + S Africa, from Benin to Zimbabwe
  2. Maprounea amazonica - Colombia, Venezuela, N Brazil
  3. Maprounea brasiliensis - Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia
  4. Maprounea guianensis - Trinidad, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Paraguay
  5. Maprounea membranacea - Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Cabinda, Central African Republic, Congo, Zaire

Garcinia afzelii is a species of small to medium tree in the family Clusiaceae. It is found in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon and Guinea. It is sometimes called "bitter kola", but this name properly refers to G. kola.

Karoo lark species of bird

The Karoo lark should not be confused with the similarly named Karoo long-billed lark.

African red-eyed bulbul species of bird

The African red-eyed bulbul or black-fronted bulbul is a species of songbird in the family Pycnonotidae. It is found in south-western Africa. Its natural habitats are dry savanna, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, and riverine scrub. It feeds on fruit, flowers, nectar, and insects.

Blackish rail Species of bird

The blackish rail is a species of bird in the rail family Rallidae from South America. The species is closely related to the plumbeous rail, and has been treated as being the same species, or placed with that species in the genus Ortygonax. It has also been placed in the genus Rallus.

<i>Memecylon</i> genus of plants

Memecylon is a plant group in Melastomataceae. It consists of 350-400 species of small to medium-sized trees and shrubs occurring in the Old World tropics. Memecylon is a monophyletic group basal to the Melastomataceae clade. Memecylon taxa have more than 600 published basionyms. Diversity of this group is concentrated in tropical Africa, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, India and Malaysia.

<i>Meriania</i> genus of plants

Meriania is a genus of flowering plants in the family Melastomataceae. There are about 93 species distributed from Mexico to Brazil and the Antilles.

<i>Picramnia</i> genus of plants

Picramnia, the bitterbushes, is a genus of plant considered to be in the family Picramniaceae, but sometimes placed in Simaroubaceae. The name is conserved against the genera Pseudo-brasiliumAdans., and TaririAubl., both which have been rejected.

<i>Syringodium</i> genus of plants

Syringodium is a genus in the family Cymodoceaceae described as a genus in 1860. It is found along shorelines of tropical and subtropical marine environments.

<i>Psychotria poeppigiana</i> species of plant

Psychotria poeppigiana is a plant species in the family Rubiaceae; a common name is sore-mouth bush, though it is not very often used. This species is currently accepted as Palicourea tomentosa based on a journal article published in 2011.

<i>Achatocarpus</i> Genus of plants

Achatocarpus is a genus of trees and shrubs belonging to the family Achatocarpaceae. It is distributed throughout tropical South America, predominantly in Argentina. 15 species have been described, but only 9 accepted.

<i>Tibouchina urvilleana</i> species of plant

Tibouchina urvilleana is a species of flowering plant in the family Melastomataceae, native to Brazil. Growing to 3–6 m (10–20 ft) tall by 2–3 m (7–10 ft) wide, it is a sprawling evergreen shrub with longitudinally veined, dark green hairy leaves. Clusters of brilliant purple flowers up to 10 cm (4 in) in diameter, with black stamens, are borne throughout summer and autumn.

<i>Cayaponia</i> genus of plants

Cayaponia is the largest genus in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae, with about 60 species. The plants are referred to as melonleaf. They are common from the southern United States to South America. Some species are also found in western Africa, Madagascar, and Fernando de Noronha, which is about 354 km off the coast of Brazil. It is native the southern United States to central South America and the Caribbean islands. Most species are found in rainforests and have white or yellow-green flowers. The original Cayaponia were pollinated by bats, but at least two shifts to bee pollination have occurred among some of its species. This is apparently the first clade to shift from bat to bee pollination vice bee to bat pollination. A 2011 study based on genetics placed the genus Selysia under this genus.

<i>Tibouchina papyrus</i> Species of plant

Tibouchina papyrus Toledo was described in 1952. Tibouchina papyrus is a narrow endemic to the campos rupestres and is mainly found in three localities in the states of Goiás and Tocantins in central Brazil, including the Serra da Natividade. Abreu et al. found that T. papyrus is a habitat-specialist on rocky outcrop cerrado which typically has shallow substrate and uneven topography, with sandstone soils and quartzite outcrops. This species has been collected at elevations between 500 metres and 1,100 metres. T. papyrus is listed as vulnerable by the IUCN. Tibouchinapapyrus is locally known as “pau-papel”.

<i>Phainantha</i> genus of plants

Phainantha is a small genus of herbaceous climbers restricted to South America. It is a disjunct genus containing five species, four of which are found in the Guyana Shield tepuyes region while the fifth is endemic to the Cordillera del Condor in Ecuador.

Chiroderma vizottoi is a species of frugivorous bat found in the northeast of Brazil.

<i>Myotis lavali</i> Species of mammal

LaVal's myotis is a species of bat found in Brasil and Paraguay.


  1. Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  2. "Tibouchina." Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. Merriam Webster, 1961.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Michelangeli, Fabian; Guimaraes, Paulo J.F.; Penneys, Darin S.; Almeda, Frank; Kriebel, Ricardo (2013). "Phylogenetic relationships and distribution of New World Melastomeae (Melastomataceae)". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 171: 38–60. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2012.01295.x .
  4. "Tropicos - Name Search". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  5. "Search results — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 "Neotropical Melastomataceae - Neotropikey from Kew". www.kew.org. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  7. Renner, Susanne S. (1993). "Phylogeny and classification of the Melastomataceae and Memecylaceae". Nord. J. Bot. 13 (5): 519–540. doi:10.1111/j.1756-1051.1993.tb00096.x.
  8. "Myrtales". www.mobot.org. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
  9. Rojas, Ruilova, Xavier; Isabel, Marques (1 October 2016). "Better common than rare? Effects of low reproductive success, scarce pollinator visits and interspecific gene flow in threatened and common species of Tibouchina (Melastomataceae)". Plant Species Biology. 31 (4): 288. doi:10.1111/1442-1984.12114. ISSN   1442-1984.
  10. Hawaii Administrative Rules, Title 4 Department of Agriculture, Subtitle 6 Division of Plant Industry, Chapter 68, Noxious Weed Rules ( "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 February 2007. Retrieved 17 January 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), cited 5 February 2007)
  11. Tibouchina urvilleana: Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project [PIER] data (http://www.hear.org/pier/species/tibouchina_herbacea.htm, accessed 5 February 2007)
  12. Plants of Hawaii reports: Tibouchina longifolia ( "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 December 2006. Retrieved 11 December 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), accessed 5 February 2007)
  13. Plants of Hawaii reports: Tibouchina urvilleana ( "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 February 2007. Retrieved 23 February 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), accessed 5 February 2007)
  14. "Annual Wauchope Lasiandra Festival". www.lasiandrafestival.com.au. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 Almeda, Frank; Chuang, Tsan Iang (1992). "Chromosome Numbers and Their Systematic Significance in Some Mexican Melastomataceae". Systematic Botany. 17 (4): 583–593. doi:10.2307/2419728. JSTOR   2419728.
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Guimarães, Paulo José Fernandes (2014). "Two New Species of Tibouchina (Melastomataceae) from Brazil". Novon. 23 (1): 42–46. doi:10.3417/2012029.
  17. 1 2 Aublet, Jean Baptiste Christophe Fusée (1775). Histoire des Plantes de la Guiane Françoise 1. pp. 446–448.
  18. 1 2 McNeill, J.; Barrie, F.R.; Buck, W.R.; Demoulin, V.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Herendeen, P.S.; Knapp, S.; Marhold, K. (2012). International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) Regnum Vegetabile 154. Königstein:Koelz Scientific Books. ISBN   978-3-87429-425-6.
  19. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Oliveira, Ana Luiza Freitas; Guimarães, Paulo José Fernandes; Romero, Rosana (2015). "Validation of the Names Tibouchina albescens and Tibouchina nigricans (Melastomataceae), Two New Species from Central Brazil". Systematic Botany. 40 (4): 1003–1011. doi:10.1600/036364415x690049.
  20. 1 2 3 "Tropicos | Name - Tibouchina aegopogon Cogn". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  21. 1 2 "Tropicos | Name - Tibouchina albescens Cogn. ex Glaz". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  22. "Tropicos | Name - **Tibouchina albescens Wurdack". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  23. 1 2 3 4 de Lima, Laìce Fernanda Gomes; dos Santos, Joáo Ubiratan Moreira; do Rosário, Alessandro Silva; Baumgratz, José Fernando Andrade (2014). "Melastomataceae em formações costeiras de restingas no Pará, Brasil". Acta Amazonica. 44 (1): 45–58. doi: 10.1590/s0044-59672014000100005 .
  24. Lima, Jacqueline de Souza; Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; Soares, Thannya Nascimento; Chaves, Lázaro José; Telles, Mariana Pires de Campos (2015). "Fine-scale genetic structure in Tibouchina papyrus (Pohl) Toledo (Melastomataceae), an endemic and habitat-restricted species from Central Brazil". Plant Syst Evol. 301 (4): 1207–1213. doi:10.1007/s00606-014-1144-3.
  25. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Tropicos | Name - Tibouchina aspera Aubl". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  26. 1 2 3 "Tropicos | Name - Tibouchina barbigera Baill". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  27. 1 2 Becker, Vitor O.; Adamski, David (2008). "Three new cecidogenous Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae, Momphinae) associated with Melastomataceae in Brazil". Revista Brasileira de Entomologia. 52 (4): 647–657. doi: 10.1590/s0085-56262008000400017 .
  28. 1 2 3 "Tropicos | Name - Tibouchina bipenicillata (Naudin) Cogn". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  29. "Tropicos | Name - Tibouchina catharinae Pittier". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  30. "Tropicos | Name - Tibouchina dissitiflora Wurdack". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  31. "Tropicos | Name - Tibouchina duidae Gleason". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  32. "Tropicos | Name - Tibouchina edmundoi Brade". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  33. 1 2 3 4 "Tropicos | Name - Tibouchina fraterna N.E. Br". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  34. Solt, M.L.; Wurdack, J.J. (1980). "Chromosome numbers in the Melastomataceae". Phytologia. 47: 199–220.
  35. "Tropicos | Name - Tibouchina johnwurdackiana Todzia". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  36. "Tropicos | Name - Tibouchina karstenii Cogn". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  37. "Tropicos | Name - Tibouchina llanorum Wurdack". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  38. 1 2 3 "Tropicos | Name - Tibouchina mathaei Cogn". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  39. 1 2 "Tropicos | Name - Tibouchina melastomoides Cogn". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  40. Roskov Y.; Kunze T.; Orrell T.; Abucay L.; Paglinawan L.; Culham A.; Bailly N.; Kirk P.; Bourgoin T.; Baillargeon G.; Decock W.; De Wever A. (2014). Didžiulis V. (ed.). "Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2014 Annual Checklist". Species 2000: Reading, UK. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  41. "Tropicos | Name - Tibouchina nigricans Cogn". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  42. "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  43. "Tropicos | Name - Tibouchina sipapoana Gleason". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  44. 1 2 "Tropicos | Name - Tibouchina striphnocalyx (DC.) Gleason". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  45. "Tropicos | Name - Tibouchina verticillaris Cogn". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.