Ticarcillin

Last updated
Ticarcillin
Ticarcillin.svg
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a685037
Pregnancy
category
  • AU:B2
Routes of
administration
Intravenous
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding 45%
Elimination half-life 1.1 hours
Excretion Renal
Identifiers
  • (2S,5R,6R)-6-{[(2R)-2-carboxy-2-(3-thienyl)acetyl]amino}-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.047.451 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
Chemical and physical data
Formula C15H16N2O6S2
Molar mass 384.42 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • O=C(O)[C@@H]2N3C(=O)[C@@H](NC(=O)[C@@H](c1ccsc1)C(=O)O)[C@H]3SC2(C)C
  • InChI=1S/C15H16N2O6S2/c1-15(2)9(14(22)23)17-11(19)8(12(17)25-15)16-10(18)7(13(20)21)6-3-4-24-5-6/h3-5,7-9,12H,1-2H3,(H,16,18)(H,20,21)(H,22,23)/t7-,8-,9+,12-/m1/s1 Yes check.svgY
  • Key:OHKOGUYZJXTSFX-KZFFXBSXSA-N Yes check.svgY
   (verify)

Ticarcillin is a carboxypenicillin. It can be sold and used in combination with clavulanate as ticarcillin/clavulanic acid. Because it is a penicillin, it also falls within the larger class of beta-lactam antibiotics. Its main clinical use is as an injectable antibiotic for the treatment of Gram-negative bacteria, particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. It is also one of the few antibiotics capable of treating Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections.

Contents

It is provided as a white or pale-yellow powder. It is highly soluble in water, but should be dissolved only immediately before use to prevent degradation.

It was patented in 1963. [1]

Mechanism of action

Ticarcillin's antibiotic properties arise from its ability to prevent cross-linking of peptidoglycan during cell wall synthesis, when the bacteria try to divide, causing cell death.

Ticarcillin, like penicillin, contains a β-lactam ring that can be cleaved by beta-lactamases, resulting in inactivation of the antibiotic. Those bacteria that can express β-lactamases are, therefore, resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. Due, at least in part, to the common β-lactam ring, ticarcillin can cause reactions in patients allergic to penicillin. Ticarcillin is also often paired with a β-lactamase inhibitor such as clavulanic acid (co-ticarclav).

Other uses

In molecular biology, ticarcillin is used to as an alternative to ampicillin to test the uptake of marker genes into bacteria. It prevents the appearance of satellite colonies that occur when ampicillin breaks down in the medium. It is also used in plant molecular biology to kill Agrobacterium , which is used to deliver genes to plant cells.

Dosing and administration

Ticarcillin is not absorbed orally, so must be given by intravenous or intramuscular injection.

Trade names and preparations

However Timentin contains clavulanate unlike Ticar

Synthesis

Carbenicillin is used in the clinic primarily because of its low toxicity and its utility in treating urinary tract infections due to susceptible Pseudomonas species. Its low potency, low oral activity, and susceptibility to bacterial beta-lactamases make it vulnerable to replacement by agents without these deficits. One contender in this race is ticaricillin. Its origin depended on the well-known fact that a divalent sulfur is roughly equivalent to a vinyl group (cf methiopropamine, sufentanil, pizotyline etc.).

Ticarcillin synthesis: GEORGE BRAIN EDWARD, CHARLES NAYLER JOHN HERBERT;
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BE 646991  (1964 to Beecham). Ticarcillin synthesis.svg
Ticarcillin synthesis: GEORGE BRAIN EDWARD, CHARLES NAYLER JOHN HERBERT; BE 646991   (1964 to Beecham).

One synthesis began by making the monobenzyl ester of 3-Thienylmalonic acid, converting this to the acid chloride with SOCl2, and condensing it with 6-Aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA). Hydrogenolysis (Pd/C) completed the synthesis of ticarcillin.

Related Research Articles

Ampicillin Antibiotic

Ampicillin is an antibiotic used to prevent and treat a number of bacterial infections, such as respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, meningitis, salmonellosis, and endocarditis. It may also be used to prevent group B streptococcal infection in newborns. It is used by mouth, by injection into a muscle, or intravenously. Common side effects include rash, nausea, and diarrhea. It should not be used in people who are allergic to penicillin. Serious side effects may include Clostridium difficile colitis or anaphylaxis. While usable in those with kidney problems, the dose may need to be decreased. Its use during pregnancy and breastfeeding appears to be generally safe.

Amoxicillin Beta-lactam antibiotic

Amoxicillin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections. These include middle ear infection, strep throat, pneumonia, skin infections, and urinary tract infections among others. It is taken by mouth, or less commonly by injection.

Beta-lactamase Class of enzymes

Beta-lactamases, (β-lactamases) are enzymes produced by bacteria that provide multi-resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, cephamycins, monobactams and carbapenems (ertapenem), although carbapenems are relatively resistant to beta-lactamase. Beta-lactamase provides antibiotic resistance by breaking the antibiotics' structure. These antibiotics all have a common element in their molecular structure: a four-atom ring known as a beta-lactam (β-lactam) ring. Through hydrolysis, the enzyme lactamase breaks the β-lactam ring open, deactivating the molecule's antibacterial properties.

Penicillin Group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi

Penicillins are a group of antibiotics originally obtained from Penicillium moulds, principally P. chrysogenum and P. rubens. Most penicillins in clinical use are synthesised by P. chrysogenum using deep tank fermentation and then purified. A number of natural penicillins have been discovered, but only two purified compounds are in clinical use: penicillin G and penicillin V. Penicillins were among the first medications to be effective against many bacterial infections caused by staphylococci and streptococci. They are members of the β-lactam antibiotics. They are still widely used today for different bacterial infections, though many types of bacteria have developed resistance following extensive use.

Beta-lactam antibiotics Class of broad-spectrum antibiotics

β-lactam antibiotics are antibiotics that contain a beta-lactam ring in their chemical structure. This includes penicillin derivatives (penams), cephalosporins and cephamycins (cephems), monobactams, carbapenems and carbacephems. Most β-lactam antibiotics work by inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis in the bacterial organism and are the most widely used group of antibiotics. Until 2003, when measured by sales, more than half of all commercially available antibiotics in use were β-lactam compounds. The first β-lactam antibiotic discovered, penicillin, was isolated from a strain of Penicillium rubens.

Methicillin Antibiotic medication

Methicillin, also known as meticillin, is a narrow-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class.

Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid Combination antibiotic drug

Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, also known as co-amoxiclav or amox-clav, is an antibiotic medication used for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. It is a combination consisting of amoxicillin, a β-lactam antibiotic, and potassium clavulanate, a β-lactamase inhibitor. It is specifically used for otitis media, streptococcal pharyngitis, pneumonia, cellulitis, urinary tract infections, and animal bites. It is taken by mouth or by injection into a vein.

Tazobactam

Tazobactam is a pharmaceutical drug that inhibits the action of bacterial β-lactamases, especially those belonging to the SHV-1 and TEM groups. It is commonly used as its sodium salt, tazobactam sodium. In simple terms, it is an ingredient that can be added to certain antibiotics to make them less vulnerable to bacteria's antimicrobial resistance.

Clavulanic acid Β-lactam molecule used as β-lactamase inhibitor to overcome antibiotic resistance in bacteria

Clavulanic acid is a β-lactam drug that functions as a mechanism-based β-lactamase inhibitor. While not effective by itself as an antibiotic, when combined with penicillin-group antibiotics, it can overcome antibiotic resistance in bacteria that secrete β-lactamase, which otherwise inactivates most penicillins.

Carbapenem Class of highly effective antibiotic agents

Carbapenems are a class of very effective antibiotic agents most commonly used for the treatment of severe bacterial infections. This class of antibiotics is usually reserved for known or suspected multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections. Similar to penicillins and cephalosporins, carbapenems are members of the beta lactam class of antibiotics, which kill bacteria by binding to penicillin-binding proteins, thus inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. However, these agents individually exhibit a broader spectrum of activity compared to most cephalosporins and penicillins. Furthermore, carbapenems are typically unaffected by emerging antibiotic resistance, even to other beta-lactams.

Ampicillin/sulbactam is a fixed-dose combination medication of the common penicillin-derived antibiotic ampicillin and sulbactam, an inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase. Two different forms of the drug exist. The first, developed in 1987 and marketed in the United States under the brand name Unasyn, generic only outside the United States, is an intravenous antibiotic. The second, an oral form called sultamicillin, is marketed under the brand name Ampictam outside the United States. And generic only in the United States, ampicillin/sulbactam is used to treat infections caused by bacteria resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. Sulbactam blocks the enzyme which breaks down ampicillin and thereby allows ampicillin to attack and kill the bacteria.

Sulbactam

Sulbactam is a β-lactamase inhibitor. This drug is given in combination with β-lactam antibiotics to inhibit β-lactamase, an enzyme produced by bacteria that destroys the antibiotics.

Flucloxacillin Penicillin

Flucloxacillin, also known as floxacillin, is an antibiotic used to treat skin infections, external ear infections, infections of leg ulcers, diabetic foot infections, and infection of bone. It may be used together with other medications to treat pneumonia, and endocarditis. It may also be used prior to surgery to prevent Staphylococcus infections. It is not effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). It is taken by mouth or given by injection into a vein or muscle.

Oxacillin

Oxacillin is a narrow-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class developed by Beecham.

Beecham Group Pharmaceutical company (1859–1989)

The Beecham Group plc was a British pharmaceutical company. It was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. Beecham, after having merged with American pharmaceutical company SmithKline Beckman to become SmithKline Beecham, merged with Glaxo Wellcome to become GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). GSK still uses the Beechams brand name in the UK for its over-the-counter cold and flu relief products.

Thienamycin Chemical compound

Thienamycin is one of the most potent naturally produced antibiotics known thus far, discovered in Streptomyces cattleya in 1976. Thienamycin has excellent activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and is resistant to bacterial β-lactamase enzymes. Thienamycin is a zwitterion at pH 7.

β-Lactamase inhibitor Family of enzymes

Beta-lactamases are a family of enzymes involved in bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. They act by breaking the beta-lactam ring that allows penicillin-like antibiotics to work. Strategies for combating this form of resistance have included the development of new beta-lactam antibiotics that are more resistant to cleavage and the development of the class of enzyme inhibitors called beta-lactamase inhibitors. Although β-lactamase inhibitors have little antibiotic activity of their own, they prevent bacterial degradation of beta-lactam antibiotics and thus extend the range of bacteria the drugs are effective against.

Clavam Class of antibiotics

Clavams are a class of antibiotics. This antibiotic is derived from Streptomyces clavuligerus NRRL 3585. Clavam is produced to form a new β-lactam antibiotic. This class is divided into the clavulanic acid class and the 5S clavams class. Clavulanic acid is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and 5S clavams may have anti-fungal properties. They are similar to penams, but with an oxygen substituted for the sulfur. Thus, they are also known as oxapenams.

Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, or co-ticarclav, is a combination antibiotic consisting of ticarcillin, a β-lactam antibiotic, and clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor. This combination results in an antibiotic with an increased spectrum of action and restored efficacy against ticarcillin-resistant bacteria that produce certain β-lactamases.

References

  1. Fischer J, Ganellin CR (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 491. ISBN   9783527607495.