Ticino (river)

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Ticino
Pavia Ponte Coperto.JPG
The Ticino and the Covered Bridge of Pavia
(originally medieval in date, rebuilt in 1950 after the destruction due to war bombing)
Tessin (riviere).png
Location
Country Switzerland, Italy
Physical characteristics
Source 
  location Val Bedretto, Ticino, Switzerland
  elevationabout 2,478 m (8,100 ft)
Mouth Po
  location
south-east of Pavia, Italy
  coordinates
45°08′38″N9°14′12″E / 45.14389°N 9.23667°E / 45.14389; 9.23667 Coordinates: 45°08′38″N9°14′12″E / 45.14389°N 9.23667°E / 45.14389; 9.23667
Length248 km (154 mi)
Basin size7,228 km2 (2,791 sq mi)
Discharge 
  average348 m3/s or 12,300 cu ft/s
  minimum54 m3/s or 1,900 cu ft/s
  maximum5,000 m3/s or 180,000 cu ft/s
Discharge 
  location Bellinzona
  average70 m3/s or 2,500 cu ft/s (MQ)
  minimum14.5 m3/s or 510 cu ft/s (1Q)
  maximum906 m3/s or 32,000 cu ft/s (mHQ), 1,500 m3/s or 53,000 cu ft/s (HHQ)
Basin features
Progression PoAdriatic Sea

The river Ticino ( /tɪˈn/ titch-EE-noh, Italian:  [tiˈtʃiːno] ; Lombard : Tesín; French and German : Tessin; Latin : Ticīnus) is the most important perennial left-bank tributary of the Po. It has given its name to the Swiss canton through which its upper portion flows.

Contents

It is one of the four major rivers taking their source in the Gotthard region, along with the Rhône, Reuss and Rhine.

Course

The river rises in the Val Bedretto in Switzerland at the frontier between the cantons of Valais and Ticino, is fed by the glaciers of the Alps and later flows through Lake Maggiore, before entering Italy. The Ticino joins the Po a few kilometres downstream (along the Ticino) from Pavia. It is about 248 kilometres (154 mi) long. The highest point of the drainage basin is the summit of Grenzgipfel (a subpeak of Monte Rosa), at 4,618 metres (15,151 ft). Beneath it flows the Anza, a right-bank tributary of the Ticino.

The river is dammed in Switzerland in order to create hydroelectricity, while in Italy it is primarily used for irrigation.

History

The legendary Gallic leader Bellovesus was said to have defeated the Etruscans here in circa 600 BC. Ticino was the location of the Battle of Ticinus, the first battle of the Second Punic War fought between the Carthaginian forces of Hannibal and the Romans under Publius Cornelius Scipio in November 218 BC.

The Ticino was in the territory of the Duchy of Milan during much of the later medieval and early modern period, although its upper portion as far as Bellinzona in 1500 and as far as the shores of Lago Maggiore in 1513, fell to the Old Swiss Confederacy as a result of the Swiss campaigns in the Italian Wars.

Towns and tributaries

Part of the river Ticino, south of Milan-Malpensa Airport in Italy. TicinoRiver-June2016 (3).jpg
Part of the river Ticino, south of Milan-Malpensa Airport in Italy.

Val Bedretto

The upper Ticino near Airolo Ticino at Gotthard-Tunnel 2009.jpg
The upper Ticino near Airolo

Val Bedretto, a narrow alpine valley named after the village of Bedretto, culminates in Nufenen Pass, Italian Passo della Novena, at 2,478 m (8,130 ft) located between Pizzo Gallina and Nufenstock. Through it runs the border between the cantons of Valais and Ticino. A road constructed in 1964 goes over the pass ultimately leading to the Rhône Valley on the other side. French is mainly spoken in Valais but near the pass German is spoken. The population of Ticino speaks Italian.

The road up the val is fairly straight until it approaches the pass, where it becomes hairpin. On the slope below the first hairpin at about 2,478 m (8,130 ft) is an area of springs from which the Ticino originates. Subsequently, it becomes a mountain brook flowing straight down the val to the village of All'Acqua or All'Acqua Ospizio at 1,614 m (5,295 ft), named for the hospice for travellers located there at the previous end of the road in former centuries. Currently it is a base for skiing and hiking. Below it is Ronco at 1,487 m (4,879 ft) and Bedretto at 1,402 m (4,600 ft). [1] The val is subject to avalanches and snow can remain on the ground as late as September.

Below Bedretto the Ri di Cristallina, "Cristallina stream", comes in from the right at Ossasco, and further down Fontana, still in Bedretto. The entire area is laced with hiking trails and mountain huts.

Valle Leventina

Other

Tributaries

The Ticino has the following tributaries (R on the right bank, L on the left, looking downstream):

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Lepontine Alps

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Ticino Canton of Switzerland

Ticino, sometimes Tessin, officially the Republic and Canton of Ticino or less formally the Canton of Ticino, is one of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation. It is composed of eight districts and its capital city is Bellinzona. It is also traditionally divided into the Sopraceneri and the Sottoceneri, respectively north and south of Monte Ceneri. Red and blue are the colours of its flag.

Valais Canton of Switzerland

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Bellinzona Municipality in Switzerland in Ticino

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Gotthard Pass

The Gotthard Pass or St. Gotthard Pass at 2,106 m (6,909 ft) is a mountain pass in the Alps traversing the Saint-Gotthard Massif and connecting northern and southern Switzerland. The pass lies between Airolo in the Italian-speaking canton of Ticino, and Andermatt in the German-speaking canton of Uri, and connects further Bellinzona to Lucerne, Basel, and Zurich. The Gotthard Pass lies at the hearth of the Gotthard, an important north-south axis in Europe, and it is crossed by three major traffic tunnels, each being the world's longest at the time of their construction: the Gotthard Rail Tunnel (1882), the Gotthard Road Tunnel (1980) and the Gotthard Base Tunnel (2016). With the Lötschberg to the west, the Gotthard is one of the two main north-south routes through the Swiss Alps. Since the Middle Ages, transit across the Gotthard played an important role in Swiss history, the region north of Gotthard becoming the nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the early 14th century.

Grimsel Pass

The Grimsel Pass is a mountain pass in Switzerland, crossing the Bernese Alps at an elevation of 2,164 metres (7,100 ft). The pass connects the Haslital, the upper valley of the river Aare, with the upper valley of the Rhône. In so doing, and as the Aare is a tributary of the Rhine, the pass crosses the continental divide between the North Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

Vorderrhein

The Vorderrhein is one of the two sources of the Rhine. Its catchment area of 1,512 square kilometres is located predominantly in the canton of Graubünden (Switzerland). The Vorderrhein is about 76 kilometres (47 mi) long, thus more than 5% longer than the Hinterrhein/Rein Posteriur. The Vorderrhein, however, has an average water flow of 53.8 m3/s (1,900 cu ft/s), which is less than the flow of the Hinterrhein. According to the Atlas of Switzerland of the Swiss Federal Office of Topography, the source of the Vorderrhein– and the Rhine –is located north of the Rein da Tuma and Lake Toma.

Valle Verzasca

The Valle Verzasca is a valley in the Locarno district of the Canton of Ticino, Switzerland. It comprises the municipalities of Mergoscia, Vogorno, Corippo, Lavertezzo, Brione, Gerra, Frasco, and Sonogno. As of 2004, the total population of 3,200. Mergoscia is at the geographical center of the Ticino, and none of the passes out of the valley cross cantonal or national borders. The valley is formed by the Verzasca River and is situated between the Leventina and the Maggia and culminates at Pizzo Barone.

Witenwasserenstock

The Witenwasserenstock is a peak between the Swiss cantons of Valais and Uri, located in the Lepontine Alps. Close to the summit lies the tripoint border between the cantons of Valais, Uri and Ticino and the triple watershed of the Rhine, Po and Rhône basins.

Ticino, Ticinus, Ticinum can refer to:

Diveria

The Diveria is an Alpine river which flows through Switzerland and Italy. It is a tributary of the Toce and therefore, via Lake Maggiore and the Ticino, of the Po. The valley crossed by the Diveria, the Val Divedro, is the only one in the Valais to form part of the Po basin rather than that of the Rhône.

Melezzo Orientale

The Melezza, in Italy the Melezzo Orientale, is a 42 km Alpine torrent which runs through the eastern part of the Val Vigezzo, in the Province of Verbano Cusio Ossola, northern Italy; and through the Centovalli of Canton Ticino, Switzerland. Belonging to the Po basin, it is a tributary of the Maggia which in its turn flows into Lago Maggiore.

Rein da Medel

The Rein da Medel is the longest headwater of the Rhine. It is located in the Swiss cantons of Ticino and Graubünden and flows through the valleys Val Cadlimo and Val Medel. Rein da Medel is the local Sursilvan, name in Graubünden, which is commonly used to denote the Ticino part as well.

Val Medel

The Val Medel is a righthand side valley of the Surselva valley in Graubünden, Switzerland. It is approximately 15 km (9.3 mi) long and stretches from Disentis to the south, where it ends at Lai da Sontga Maria reservoir on Lukmanier Pass. There is a road through the valley and over Lukmanier Pass into Ticino.

Lugano Prealps

The Lugano Prealps are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps. They are located in Canton Ticino and in Lombardy.

Italy–Switzerland border

The border between the modern states of Switzerland and Italy extends for 744 kilometres (462 mi), from the French-Swiss-Italian tripoint at Mont Dolent in the west to the Austrian-Swiss-Italian tripoint near Piz Lad in the east. Much of the border runs across the High Alps, rising above 4,600 metres (15,100 ft) as it passes east of Dufourspitze, but it also descends to the lowest point in Switzerland as it passes Lago Maggiore at below 200 metres (660 ft).

CoEur devotional path devotional and hiking route in Italy and Switzerland

CoEur is a devotional and hiking route in Italy and Switzerland. Its Italian subtitle, Nel cuore dei cammini d'Europa, translates as "In the heart of Europe's paths".

References

  1. Reynolds, Kev (1992). "Val Bedretto". Walking in Ticino, Switzerland: A Walking Guide (illustrated ed.). Milnthorpe: Cicerone Press Limited. pp. 32–43. ISBN   978-1-85284-098-3.