Tick–tock model

Last updated

Tick–tock was a production model adopted in 2007 by chip manufacturer Intel. Under this model, every microarchitecture change (tock) was followed by a die shrink of the process technology (tick). It was replaced by the process–architecture–optimization model, which was announced in 2016 and is like a tick–tock cycle followed by an optimization phase. As a general engineering model, tick–tock is a model that refreshes one side of a binary system each release cycle.



Every "tick" represented a shrinking of the process technology of the previous microarchitecture (sometimes introducing new instructions, as with Broadwell, released in late 2014) and every "tock" designated a new microarchitecture. [1] These occurred roughly every year to 18 months. [2] In 2014, Intel created a "tock refresh" of a tock in the form of a smaller update to the microarchitecture [3] not considered a new generation in and of itself.

In March 2016, Intel announced in a Form 10-K report that it deprecated the tick–tock cycle in favor of a three-step process–architecture–optimization model, under which three generations of processors are produced under a single manufacturing process, with the third generation out of three focusing on optimization. [4] The first optimization of the Skylake architecture was Kaby Lake. Intel then announced a second optimization, Coffee Lake, [5] making a total of four generations at 14 nm. [6]


Pentium 4 / Core roadmap

Pentium 4 / Core roadmap
Code names
for step
Intel Microcode
Desktop/WS [7] [8]
Intel Microcode
8P/4P Server4P/2P Server/WSEmbedded Xeon1P XeonEnthusiast/WSDesktopMobile
(new fabrica-
tion process
65 nm P6, NetBurst Yonah (P6),
Presler (NetBurst),
Cedar Mill (NetBurst)
1995-11-1 (P6),
2000-11-20 (NetBurst)
Presler (NetBurst) Cedar Mill (NetBurst) Yonah (P6)
(new micro-
Core Merom [9] 2006-07-27 [10] [11] Tigerton Woodcrest
Kentsfield Conroe Merom
Tick 45 nm Penryn 2007-11-11 [12] Dunnington Harpertown Yorkfield Wolfdale Penryn
Tock Nehalem Nehalem 1NHM [13] 2008-11-17 [14] Beckton Gainestown Lynnfield Bloomfield Lynnfield Clarksfield
Tick 32 nm Westmere 1WSM [13] 2010-01-04 [15] [16] Westmere-EX Westmere-EP Gulftown Clarkdale Arrandale
Tock Sandy Bridge Sandy Bridge 21SNBJKT (Jaketown)2011-01-09 [17] (Skipped) [18] Sandy Bridge-EP GladdenSandy Bridge Sandy Bridge-E Sandy Bridge Sandy Bridge-M
Tick 22 nm [19] Ivy Bridge 32IVBIVT (Ivytown)2012-04-29Ivy Bridge-EX [20] Ivy Bridge-EP [20] GladdenIvy BridgeIvy Bridge-E [21] Ivy Bridge Ivy Bridge-M
Tock Haswell Haswell 43HSW, CRW (Crystal Well)
with Iris Pro [22] [23]
HSX2013-06-02Haswell-EXHaswell-EPHaswell-DTHaswell-EHaswell-DT [24] Haswell-MB (notebooks)
Haswell-LP (ultrabooks) [24]
Refresh Haswell Refresh,
Devil's Canyon [25]
4HSW, CRW (Crystal Well)
with Iris Pro [22] [23]
No server version releasedDevil's CanyonNo mobile version
Tick (Process) 14 nm [19] Broadwell [26] 54BDWBDX2014-09-05Broadwell-EX [27] Broadwell-EP [27] Broadwell-DEBroadwell-DTBroadwell-EBroadwell-DTBroadwell-H
Tock (Architecture) Skylake [26] Skylake [26] 65SKLSKX2015-08-05 [28] Skylake-SPSkylake-DESkylake-DT/HSkylake-X Skylake Skylake-H
[4] [29] [30] [31]
Kaby Lake [32] 76KBL2017-01-03 [33] Only 1P server (Xeon E3) version released Kaby Lake-DT/H
cores: 4 (4/8)
Kaby Lake-X [34] Kaby Lake Kaby Lake-H
Kaby Lake-U
Kaby Lake-Y
Kaby Lake R [35] [36] 8KBL-R2017-08-21 [36] Only mobile version releasedKaby Lake R
Coffee Lake 8, 9 [37] E-2xxxCFL2017-10-05 [38] Cascade Lake-SP
Cooper Lake (Q2'20)
Cascade Lake-AP Coffee Lake-DT/H
cores: 6 (12)
Skylake-X Refresh Coffee Lake-S
Coffee Lake-R
Coffee Lake-H
Coffee Lake-U
Coffee Lake-H Refresh
Whiskey Lake,
Amber Lake [39]
2018-08-28 [39] Only mobile version releasedWhiskey Lake-U
Amber Lake-Y
Comet Lake [40] 10CML2019-08-21 [40] No server version released Comet Lake-W Comet Lake-S Comet Lake-H
Comet Lake-U
Architecture Cypress Cove [41] Rocket Lake [41] 11RKL2021-03-30 [42] Rocket Lake-S
Process 10 nm Palm Cove Cannon Lake 8CNL2018-05-16 [43] Only mobile version releasedCannon Lake-U
Architecture Sunny Cove Ice Lake [44] 103ICL2019-08-01 [45] Ice Lake-SP (1H21) [46] Ice Lake-U
Ice Lake-Y
Optimization [31] Willow Cove Tiger Lake [31] 11TGL2020-09-02 [47] Only mobile version releasedTiger Lake-H35
Tiger Lake-UP3
Tiger Lake-UP4
Architecture Intel 7 Golden Cove Alder Lake 12ADL2021-11-04No server / WS version releasedAlder Lake-SAlder Lake-HX
Alder Lake-H
Alder Lake-P
Alder Lake-U
Sapphire Rapids [48] 4SPR2023-01-10Sapphire Rapids-SPTBAOnly server / WS version released
Optimization Raptor Cove Raptor Lake 13RPL2022-10-20No server / WS version releasedRaptor Lake-SRaptor Lake-HX
Raptor Lake-H
Raptor Lake-P
Raptor Lake-U
Emerald Rapids 5EMR2023Emerald Rapids-SPTBAOnly server / WS version released
Tick Intel 4 [49] Redwood Cove Meteor Lake [50] 14MTL2023-12-14No server / WS version releasedTBA
Tick Intel 3 Granite Rapids [51] 6GNR2024Granite Rapids-SPTBAOnly server / WS version released
Tick Intel 20A Lion Cove Arrow Lake [52] 15ARL2024No server / WS version releasedTBA
TickIntel 18ATBA Lunar Lake 16LNL2025No server / WS version releasedTBA
Code names
for step
Intel Microcode
Desktop/WS [7] [8]
Intel Microcode
8P/4P Server4P/2P Server/WSEmbedded Xeon1P XeonEnthusiast/WSDesktopMobile

Atom roadmap

With Silvermont Intel tried to start Tick-Tock in Atom architecture but problems with the 10 nm process did not allow to do this. In the table below instead of Tick-Tock steps Process-Architecture-Optimization are used. There is no official confirmation that Intel uses Process-Architecture-Optimization for Atom but it allows us to understand what changes happened in each generation.

Atom roadmap [53]
Change Fabri­cation

(Abbr.) [13]
Code names
for step
MID, SmartphoneTabletNetbookNettopEmbeddedServerCE
Process / Architecture 45 nm Bonnell (BNL) Bonnell 2008 Silverthorne Diamondville
Optimization Bonnell 2010 Lincroft Pineview Tunnel Creek
Process 32 nm Saltwell2011Medfield (Penwell & Lexington) & Clover Trail+ (Cloverview)Clover Trail (Cloverview)Cedar Trail (Cedarview) Centerton & Briarwood Berryville
Process / Architecture 22 nm Silvermont (SLM) Silvermont 2013Merrifield (Tangier) [54] & Moorefield (Anniedale) [55] & SlaytonBay Trail-T
Bay Trail-M
Bay Trail-D
Bay Trail-I
Process 14 nm [53] Airmont2014Binghamton & RivertonCherry Trail-T (Cherryview) [56] Braswell [57] Denverton
Cancelled cross.svgCancelled
Architecture Goldmont [58]
Goldmont 2016Broxton Cancelled cross.svgCancelledBroxton Cancelled cross.svgCancelled
Apollo Lake
Apollo LakeApollo LakeUn­knownDenvertonUn­known
Architecture Goldmont Plus
Goldmont Plus 2017Un­knownGemini LakeGemini LakeGemini LakeUn­knownUn­knownUn­known
Optimization Goldmont Plus 2019Un­knownGemini Lake RefreshGemini Lake RefreshGemini Lake RefreshUn­knownUn­knownUn­known
Process / Architecture 10 nm Tremont Tremont 2020Un­knownJasper LakeJasper LakeJasper LakeElkhart LakeSnow RidgeUn­known
Architecture Intel 7 Gracemont Gracemont 2021Un­knownUn­known Alder Lake & Raptor Lake (hybrid)Un­knownUn­known
Process / Architecture Intel 4 CrestmontCrestmont2023Un­knownUn­knownMeteor Lake [59] (hybrid) Sierra Forest-AP Un­known

Note: There is further the Xeon Phi. It has up to now undergone four development steps with a current top model that got the code name Knights Landing (shortcut: KNL; [13] the predecessor code names all had the leading term Knights in their name) that is derived from the Silvermont architecture as used for the Intel Atom series but realized in a shrunk 14 nm (FinFET) technology. [60] In 2018, Intel announced that Knights Landing and all further Xeon Phi CPU models were discontinued. [61] However, Intel's Sierra Forest and subsequent Atom-based Xeon CPUs are likely a spiritual successor to Xeon Phi.


See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hyper-threading</span> Proprietary simultaneous multithreading implementation by Intel

Hyper-threading is Intel's proprietary simultaneous multithreading (SMT) implementation used to improve parallelization of computations performed on x86 microprocessors. It was introduced on Xeon server processors in February 2002 and on Pentium 4 desktop processors in November 2002. Since then, Intel has included this technology in Itanium, Atom, and Core 'i' Series CPUs, among others.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pentium</span> Brand of semi-discontinued microprocessors produced by Intel

Pentium is a semi-discontinued series of x86 architecture-compatible microprocessors produced by Intel. The original Pentium was first released on March 22, 1993. The name "Pentium" is originally derived from the Greek word pente (πεντε), meaning "five", a reference to the prior numeric naming convention of Intel's 80x86 processors (8086–80486), with the Latin ending -ium since the processor would otherwise have been named 80586 using that convention.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Haswell (microarchitecture)</span> Intel processor microarchitecture

Haswell is the codename for a processor microarchitecture developed by Intel as the "fourth-generation core" successor to the Ivy Bridge. Intel officially announced CPUs based on this microarchitecture on June 4, 2013, at Computex Taipei 2013, while a working Haswell chip was demonstrated at the 2011 Intel Developer Forum. With Haswell, which uses a 22 nm process, Intel also introduced low-power processors designed for convertible or "hybrid" ultrabooks, designated by the "U" suffix.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Intel Core</span> Line of CPUs by Intel

Intel Core is a line of streamlined midrange consumer, workstation and enthusiast computer central processing units (CPUs) marketed by Intel Corporation. These processors displaced the existing mid- to high-end Pentium processors at the time of their introduction, moving the Pentium to the entry level. Identical or more capable versions of Core processors are also sold as Xeon processors for the server and workstation markets.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Intel Graphics Technology</span> Series of integrated graphics processors by Intel

Intel Graphics Technology (GT) is the collective name for a series of integrated graphics processors (IGPs) produced by Intel that are manufactured on the same package or die as the central processing unit (CPU). It was first introduced in 2010 as Intel HD Graphics and renamed in 2017 as Intel UHD Graphics.

In Intel's Tick-Tock cycle, the 2007/2008 "Tick" was the shrink of the Core microarchitecture to 45 nanometers as CPUID model 23. In Core 2 processors, it is used with the code names Penryn, Wolfdale and Yorkfield, some of which are also sold as Celeron, Pentium and Xeon processors. In the Xeon brand, the Wolfdale-DP and Harpertown code names are used for LGA 771 based MCMs with two or four active Wolfdale cores.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Skylake (microarchitecture)</span> CPU microarchitecture by Intel

Skylake is Intel's codename for its sixth generation Core microprocessor family that was launched on August 5, 2015, succeeding the Broadwell microarchitecture. Skylake is a microarchitecture redesign using the same 14 nm manufacturing process technology as its predecessor, serving as a tock in Intel's tick–tock manufacturing and design model. According to Intel, the redesign brings greater CPU and GPU performance and reduced power consumption. Skylake CPUs share their microarchitecture with Kaby Lake, Coffee Lake, Cannon Lake, Whiskey Lake, and Comet Lake CPUs.

Cannon Lake is Intel's codename for the 10 nm die shrink of the Kaby Lake microarchitecture. As a die shrink, Cannon Lake is a new process in Intel's process-architecture-optimization execution plan as the next step in semiconductor fabrication. Cannon Lake CPUs are the first mainstream CPUs to include the AVX-512 instruction set.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Broadwell (microarchitecture)</span> Fifth generation of Intel Core processors

Broadwell is the fifth generation of the Intel Core processor. It is Intel's codename for the 14 nanometer die shrink of its Haswell microarchitecture. It is a "tick" in Intel's tick–tock principle as the next step in semiconductor fabrication. Like some of the previous tick-tock iterations, Broadwell did not completely replace the full range of CPUs from the previous microarchitecture (Haswell), as there were no low-end desktop CPUs based on Broadwell.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">LGA 1151</span> Intel microprocessor compatible socket

LGA 1151, also known as Socket H4, is a type of zero insertion force flip-chip land grid array (LGA) socket for Intel desktop processors which comes in two distinct versions: the first revision which supports both Intel's Skylake and Kaby Lake CPUs, and the second revision which supports Coffee Lake CPUs exclusively.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kaby Lake</span> Intel microprocessor, released in 2016

Kaby Lake is Intel's codename for its seventh generation Core microprocessor family announced on August 30, 2016. Like the preceding Skylake, Kaby Lake is produced using a 14 nanometer manufacturing process technology. Breaking with Intel's previous "tick–tock" manufacturing and design model, Kaby Lake represents the optimized step of the newer process–architecture–optimization model. Kaby Lake began shipping to manufacturers and OEMs in the second quarter of 2016, with its desktop chips officially launched in January 2017.

Ice Lake is Intel's codename for the 10th generation Intel Core mobile and 3rd generation Xeon Scalable server processors based on the Sunny Cove microarchitecture. Ice Lake represents an Architecture step in Intel's process–architecture–optimization model. Produced on the second generation of Intel's 10 nm process, 10 nm+, Ice Lake is Intel's second microarchitecture to be manufactured on the 10 nm process, following the limited launch of Cannon Lake in 2018. However, Intel altered their naming scheme in 2020 for the 10 nm process. In this new naming scheme, Ice Lake's manufacturing process is called simply 10 nm, without any appended pluses.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Coffee Lake</span> Eighth-generation Intel Core microprocessor family

Coffee Lake is Intel's codename for its eighth-generation Core microprocessor family, announced on September 25, 2017. It is manufactured using Intel's second 14 nm process node refinement. Desktop Coffee Lake processors introduced i5 and i7 CPUs featuring six cores and Core i3 CPUs with four cores and no hyperthreading.

Sapphire Rapids is a codename for Intel's server and workstation processors based on Intel 7.

Process–architecture–optimization is a development model for central processing units (CPUs) that Intel adopted in 2016. Under this three-phase (three-year) model, every microprocessor die shrink is followed by a microarchitecture change and then by one or more optimizations. It replaced the two-phase (two-year) tick–tock model that Intel adopted in 2006. The tick–tock model was no longer economically sustainable, according to Intel, because production of ever smaller dies becomes ever more costly.

Comet Lake is Intel's codename for its 10th generation Core processors. They are manufactured using Intel's third 14 nm Skylake process revision, succeeding the Whiskey Lake U-series mobile processor and Coffee Lake desktop processor families. Intel announced low-power mobile Comet Lake-U CPUs on August 21, 2019, H-series mobile CPUs on April 2, 2020, desktop Comet Lake-S CPUs April 30, 2020, and Xeon W-1200 series workstation CPUs on May 13, 2020. Comet Lake processors and Ice Lake 10 nm processors are together branded as the Intel "10th Generation Core" family. Intel officially launched Comet Lake-Refresh CPUs on the same day as 11th Gen Core Rocket Lake launch. The low-power mobile Comet Lake-U Core and Celeron 5205U CPUs were discontinued on July 7, 2021.

Sunny Cove is a codename for a CPU microarchitecture developed by Intel, first released in September 2019. It succeeds the Palm Cove microarchitecture and is fabricated using Intel's 10 nm process node. The microarchitecture is implemented in 10th-generation Intel Core processors for mobile and third generation Xeon scalable server processors. 10th-generation Intel Core mobile processors were released in September 2019, while the Xeon server processors were released on April 6, 2021.

Golden Cove is a codename for a CPU microarchitecture developed by Intel and released in November 2021. It succeeds four microarchitectures: Sunny Cove, Skylake, Willow Cove, and Cypress Cove. It is fabricated using Intel's Intel 7 process node, previously referred to as 10 nm Enhanced SuperFin (10ESF).

Emerald Rapids is a codename for Intel's fifth generation Xeon Scalable server processors based on the Intel 7 node. Emerald Rapids CPUs are designed for data centers; the roughly contemporary Raptor Lake is intended for desktop and mobile usage. Nevine Nassif is a chief engineer for this generation.


  1. "Intel Tick–Tock Model". Intel.com. Intel Corporation.
  2. "Intel tick–tock model". intel.com. Intel Corporation. Retrieved 2014-11-02. A yearly product cadence moves the industry forward in a predictable fashion that can be planned in advance.
  3. "Intel Haswell Refresh Processors Codenamed Devil's Canyon - Launching in Mid 2014 With Unlocked Design and Improved TIM". Wccftech.com. 2014-03-20. Retrieved 2017-04-29.
  4. 1 2 "Intel's 'Tick–Tock' Seemingly Dead, Becomes 'Process–Architecture–Optimization'". Anandtech.com. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
  5. "Intel Official News on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 2017-04-29.
  6. "Intel's 8th-gen 'Coffee Lake' chips reuse 14nm process as other Core CPUs ease into new tech". PC World. Retrieved 2017-04-29.
  7. 1 2 Intel Releases Linux CPU Microcodes To fix Meltdown & Spectre Bugs by Lawrence Abrams on January 11, 2018
  8. 1 2 Linux* Processor Microcode Data File Version 20180312 on 3/12/2018
  9. Crothers, Brooke (2009-02-10). "Intel moves up rollout of new chips | Nanotech - The Circuits Blog". CNet.com. Retrieved 2014-02-25.
  10. "Intel CEO: Latest Platforms, Processors Form New Foundations For Digital Entertainment And Wireless Computing". Intel.com. Intel Corporation.
  11. "Intel Unveils World's Best Processor". Intel.com (Press release). Intel Corporation.
  12. "Intel Unveils 16 Next-Generation Processors, Including First Notebook Chips Built on 45nm Technology". Intel.com (Press release). Intel Corporation. January 7, 2008.
  13. 1 2 3 4 "X86 / Amd64 library". GitHub . 25 October 2021.
  14. "Intel Launches Fastest Processor on the Planet". Intel.com (Press release). Intel Corporation. November 17, 2008.
  15. Bohr, Mark (February 10, 2009). "Intel 32nm Technology" (PDF). Intel.com. Intel Corporation. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  16. "Revolutionizing How We Use Technology—Today and Beyond". Intel.com. Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation.
  17. Crothers, Brooke (November 15, 2010). "Intel Sandy Bridge chip coming January 5". CNet.com. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  18. Pop, Sebastian (April 9, 2012). "Intel Ivy Bridge CPU Range Complete by Next Year". Softpedia.com. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  19. 1 2 Bohr, Mark; Mistry, Kaizad (May 2011). "Intel's Revolutionary 22 nm Transistor Technology" (PDF). Intel.com. Intel Corporation. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  20. 1 2 Novakovic, Nebojsa (April 9, 2012). "Ivy Bridge EP and EX coming up in a year's time – the multi-socket platform heaven". VR-Zone.com. VR Zone AP Pte. Ltd. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  21. Knight, Shawn (March 19, 2012). "Ivy Bridge-E Delayed Until Second Half of 2013". techspot.com. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  22. 1 2 Products formerly Crystal Well at Intel web page
  23. 1 2 What is Crystalwell? by Matt Egan on OCT 31, 2013 at macworld.com
  24. 1 2 "Leaked specifications of Haswell GT1/GT2/GT3 IGP". TechNewsPedia.com. 2012-05-20. Retrieved 2014-02-25.
  25. "Intel Core i7-4790K: Devils Canyon mit bis zu 4,4 GHz, ohne verlöteten Deckel" [Intel Core i7-4790K: Devils Canyon with up to 4.4 GHz, without soldered lid]. golem.de (in German). June 3, 2014. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  26. 1 2 3 Demerjian, Charlie (March 31, 2011). "After Intel's Haswell comes Broadwell". SemiAccurate.com. Stone Arch Networking Services, Inc. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  27. 1 2 Shilov, Anton (August 21, 2015). "Intel to release 22-core Xeon E5 v4 'Broadwell-EP' late in 2015". KitGuru.net. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  28. Carey, Gabe (July 7, 2015). "The wait for Skylake is almost over, first desktop chips likely to hit August 5". DigitalTrends.com. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  29. "Intel 14nm Kaby Lake "Skylake Refresh" Platform Detailed – Launching in 2H 2016, 256 MB eDRAM H-Series and 91W K-Series Unveiled". wccftech.com. July 2015. The Kaby Lake platform will be similar to Skylake platform that launches this year and will act as a platform refresher
  30. "Intel Releasing 14nm Kaby Lake Processor in 2016 Ahead of 10nm Cannonlake". legitreviews.com. 2015-07-08. We have long known that Intel was planning a 'Skylake Refresh' that has always been on the roadmap between Skylake and Cannonlake, but it appears that refresh might be going by the code name Kaby lake now.
  31. 1 2 3 Mujtaba, Hassan (January 20, 2016). "Intel's Cannonlake CPUs To Be Succeeded By 10nm Ice Lake Family in 2018 and 10nm Tiger Lake Family in 2019". WCCFTech.com. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  32. Bright, Peter (July 15, 2015). "Intel confirms tick–tock shattering Kaby Lake processor as Moore's Law falters". ArsTechnica.com. the switch to 10nm manufacturing has been delayed until the second half of 2017.
  33. Walton, Jarred (January 4, 2017). "Intel's Kaby Lake: Everything you need to know". PCGamer.com. Retrieved July 7, 2017. Today marks the official launch date of the desktop S-series 7th Generation Core processors...
  34. "Intel Core X-series Processors Product Specifications". Intel ARK (Product Specs). Retrieved 2017-10-05.
  35. Products formerly Kaby Lake R
  36. 1 2 Ngo, Allen (August 21, 2017). "Intel Core i5-8250U, i5-8350U, i7-8550U, and i7-8650U Kaby Lake-R series launches today". Notebookcheck. Intel Core i5-8250U, i5-8350U, i7-8550U, and i7-8650U Kaby Lake-R launches today (Source: Intel)
  37. "Products formerly Coffee Lake".
  38. "Intel Unveils the 8th Gen Intel Core Processor Family for Desktop, Featuring Intel's Best Gaming Processor Ever | Intel Newsroom". Intel Newsroom. Retrieved 2017-10-05.
  39. 1 2 "New 8th Gen Intel Core Processors Optimize Connectivity, Great Performance, Battery Life for Laptops | Intel Newsroom". Intel Newsroom. Retrieved 2018-08-30.
  40. 1 2 "Intel Expands 10th Gen Intel Core Mobile Processor Family, Offering Double Digit Performance Gains". Intel Newsroom. Retrieved 2019-08-21.
  41. 1 2 "Intel Previews 11th Gen Core Rocket Lake: Core i9-11900K and Z590, Coming Q1". 2021-01-11. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  42. "11th Gen Intel Core: Unmatched Overclocking, Game Performance". Intel Newsroom. Retrieved 2021-03-16.
  43. Tyson, Mark. "Intel Core i3-8121U 10nm processor hits ARK database". HEXUS.net. Retrieved 2019-06-17.
  44. Eassa, Ashraf (January 18, 2016). "What's the Name of Intel's Third 10-Nanometer Chip? This Fool has learned the code name of the follow-on to Intel's Icelake processor". Fool.com; The Motley Fool . Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  45. "Intel Launches First 10th Gen Intel Core Processors: Redefining the Next Era of Laptop Experiences" . Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  46. "Intel Confirms 10nm Ice Lake Xeon Production Has Started" . Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  47. "Intel Launches World's Best Processor for Thin-and-Light Laptops: 11th Gen Intel Core" . Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  48. "Intel Confirms 10nm Ice Lake Xeon Production Has Started" . Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  49. Tyson, Mark (2012-05-15). "Intel currently developing 14nm, aiming towards 5nm chips". HEXUS.net. Retrieved 2014-02-25.
  50. James, Dave (2021-03-23). "Meteor Lake, Intel's first 7nm CPU, to tape in before July this year and release in 2023". PC Gamer. Retrieved 2021-07-11.
  51. "Intel reveals the design of Alder Lake, Sapphire Rapids, Meteor Lake and Granite Rapids CPUs". VideoCardz.com. Retrieved 2021-08-28.
  52. "Intel Client & Server CPU Roadmap Updates: Meteor Lake In 2023, 20A & 18A Powered Xeons & Core Chips Beyond 2024". Wccftech. 17 February 2022. Retrieved 2022-02-17.
  53. 1 2 Lal Shimpi, Anand (May 6, 2013). "Intel's Silvermont Architecture Revealed: Getting Serious About Mobile". AnandTech.com. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  54. Hiroshige, Goto. "Intel Products for Tablets & SmartPhones" (PDF). Impress.co.jp. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-14.
  55. "Import Data and Price of Anniedale". zauba.com. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  56. Kazuaki Kasahara (November 30, 2012). "アウトオブオーダーと最新プロセスを採用する今後のAtom" [Future Atom adopting out-of-order and latest process]. Impress.co.jp (in Japanese). Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  57. "Products (Formerly Braswell)". Ark.Intel.com. Intel Corporation. Retrieved 5 April 2016.
  58. Smith, Ryan; Cutress, Ian (29 April 2016). "Intel's Changing Future: Smartphone SoCs Broxton & SoFIA Officially Canceled". Anandtech.com. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  59. James, Dave (2021-03-23). "Meteor Lake, Intel's first 7nm CPU, to tape in before July this year and release in 2023". PC Gamer. Retrieved 2021-07-11.
  60. Intel veröffentlicht Xeon Phi mit bis zu 7 Teraflops
  61. "Product Change Notification 116378 - 00" (PDF). Intel.com. Retrieved 25 July 2018.