|Regions with significant populations|
| Brazil |
The Ticuna (also Magüta,Tucuna, Tikuna, or Tukuna) are an indigenous people of Brazil (36,000), Colombia (6,000), and Peru (7,000). They are the most numerous tribe in the Brazilian Amazon.
The Ticuna were originally a tribe that lived far away from the rivers and whose expansion was kept in check by neighboring people. Their historical lack of access to waterways and their practice of endogamy has led to the Ticuna being culturally and genetically distinct from other Amazonian tribes.The first contact with outsiders occurred on the colonization of Brazil when a Portuguese fleet exploring the Amazon came into contact with the Ticuna. Sustained contact with the Portuguese and other outsiders began in 1649. Since the Ticuna lived relatively inland compared to other tribes they were less affected by the diseases and violence caused by colonialism, hence why the Ticuna today have the largest population of any Amazonian people. When the Europeans initiated warfare with the neighboring tribes, their land, which consisted of islands and coastal areas, was available to the Ticuna. However, the Ticuna still suffered greatly, especially in the rubber cultivation that began in the late 19th century where many Ticuna were used for slave labor.
Ticuna as a Brazilian tribe has faced violence from loggers, fishermen, and rubber-tappers entering their lands around the Solimões River. Brazil and Paraguay were in a war between 1864–1870, and the Ticuna chose to fight in that war. This depleted their population and the Ticuna were forced out of their Brazilian territories. Four Ticuna people were murdered, 19 were wounded, and 10 had disappeared in the 1988 Helmet Massacre. By the 1990s, Brazil formally recognized the Ticunas' right to their lands, thus protecting the Ticuna people, as well as decreasing conflict in the surrounding areas.
Ticuna people speak the Ticuna language, which is usually identified as a language isolate, although it might possibly be related to the extinct Yuri language thus forming the hypothetical Ticuna–Yuri grouping.The Ticuna language was once thought to be an Arawakan language, but this has now been discredited as more likely the Ticuna have adopted many linguistic features due to a long history of interaction with Arawakan-speaking tribes. It is written in the Latin script.
Ticuna people historically practiced Shamanism, although with the influence of Christian missionaries since contact, Shamans have become rare in all but the most isolated communities.Ta'e was the Ticuna creator god who guarded the earth, while Yo'i and Ip were mythical heroes in Ticuna folklore who helped fight off demons. Depending on different estimates, some say that the Ticuna primarily practice ethnic religion, while other estimates say that 30% to 90% are Christian.
The Ticuna practice a coming-of-age ceremony for girls when they reach puberty called a pelazon. After the girl's first menstruation, her whole body is painted black with the clan symbol drawn on her head. All their hair is pulled out and they wear a dress custom-made from eagle feathers and snail shells. The girl then must continuously jump over a fire. After four days, the girl is considered a woman and is eligible for marriage. Ticuana men and women must marry outside their own clans according to customs. Nowadays, the ritual is shorter and less intense as it was historically.
The Ticuna follow the rules of exogamy, in which members of the same moiety are not permitted to marry. In the past, it was common practice for a maternal uncle to marry his niece. Today, however, marriage generally occurs within the same generation. Due to the influence of Catholic missionaries, cross-cousin marriages and polygyny, which were acceptable and common in the past, are no longer viewed as permissible practices. Divorce is permissible, but infrequent.
Today, most Ticuna people dress in western clothing and only wear their traditional garments made out of tree bark and practice their ceremonies on special occasions or for tourists.Most Ticuna nowadays are fluent in Portuguese or Spanish depending on the country in which they live, and mostly use Spanish and Portuguese names. Poverty and lack of education are persistent problems in most Ticuna communities, leading to government and NGO efforts to increase educational and academic opportunities. In December 1986, the General Organization of Bilingual Ticuna Teachers (or OGPTB in its Portuguese/Spanish abbreviation) was founded in order to provide Ticuna children with quality bilingual education and more opportunities. In 1998, there were only around 7,400 ethnic Ticuna children enrolled in elementary school; by, 2005 the number has more than doubled to 16,100. Another goal of the OGPTB was the gradual replacement of non-Indigenous teachers with Ticuna ones for Ticuna students to better provide bilingual education. By 2005, over half of the teachers were ethnic Ticuna. So effective has the OGPTB program been that it is now being expanded and copied to better serve the educational needs of other indigenous people in Brazil and Colombia.
The Ticuna are also coming under increasing influence of evangelization and proselytism by Christian missionaries, which has impacted the Ticuna way of life.Catholic, Baptist, Presbyterian, and Evangelical missionaries are all active among the Ticuna; sometimes the missionaries are ethnic Ticuna themselves.
Indigenous peoples in Brazil or Indigenous Brazilians once comprised an estimated 2000 tribes and nations inhabiting what is now the country of Brazil, before European contact around 1500. Christopher Columbus thought he had reached the East Indies, but Portuguese Vasco da Gama had already reached India via the Indian Ocean route, when Brazil was colonized by Portugal.
Amazonas is a state of Brazil, located in the North Region in the northwestern corner of the country. It is the largest Brazilian state by area and the 9th largest country subdivision in the world, and the largest in South America, being greater than the areas of Uruguay, Paraguay, and Chile combined. Mostly located in the Southern Hemisphere, it is the third largest country subdivision in the Southern Hemisphere after the Australian states of Western Australia and Queensland. Entirely in the Western Hemisphere, it is the fourth largest in the Western Hemisphere after Greenland, Nunavut and Alaska. It would be the sixteenth largest country in land area, slightly larger than Mongolia. Neighbouring states are Roraima, Pará, Mato Grosso, Rondônia, and Acre. It also borders the nations of Peru, Colombia and Venezuela. This includes the Departments of Amazonas, Vaupés and Guainía in Colombia, as well as the Amazonas state in Venezuela, and the Loreto Region in Peru.
Rondônia is one of the 26 states of Brazil, located in the northern subdivision of the country. To the west is a short border with the state of Acre, to the north is the state of Amazonas, in the east is Mato Grosso, and in the south and southwest is Bolivia. Rondônia has a population of 1,815,000 as of 2021. It is the fifth least populated state. Its capital and largest city is Porto Velho. The state was named after Cândido Rondon, who explored the north of the country during the 1910s. The state, which is home to 0.8% of the Brazilian population, is responsible for 0.6% of the Brazilian GDP.
The Rio Negro, or Guainía as it is known in its upper part, is the largest left tributary of the Amazon River, the largest blackwater river in the world, and one of the world's ten largest rivers by average discharge.
Ticuna, or Tikuna, is a language spoken by approximately 50,000 people in the Amazon Basin, including the countries of Brazil, Peru, and Colombia. It is the native language of the Ticuna people and is considered "stable" by ethnologue. Ticuna is generally classified as a language isolate, but may be related to the extinct Yuri language and there has been some research indicating similarities between Ticuna and Carabayo. It is a tonal language, and therefore the meaning of words with the same phonemes can vary greatly simply by changing the tone used to pronounce them.
The North Region of Brazil is the largest region of Brazil, corresponding to 45.27% of the national territory. It is the second least inhabited of the country, and contributes with a minor percentage in the national GDP and population. It comprises the states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima and Tocantins.
The Omagua people are an indigenous people in Brazil's Amazon Basin. Their territory, when first in contact with Spanish explorers in the 16th century, was on the Amazon River upstream from the present-day city of Manaus extending into Peru. They speak the Omagua language. The Omagua exist today in small numbers, but they were a populous, organized society in the late Pre-Columbian era. Their population suffered steep decline, mostly from infectious diseases, in the early years of the Columbian Exchange. During the 18th century, the Omagua largely abandoned their indigenous identity in response to prejudice and racism that marginalized aboriginal peoples in Brazil and Peru. More tolerant attitudes led to a renewed tribal identity starting in the 1980s.
Tabatinga, originally Forte de São Francisco Xavier de Tabatinga, is a municipality in the Três Fronteiras area of Western Amazonas. It is in the Brazilian state of Amazonas. Its population was 67,182 (2020) and its area is 3,225 km2.
The Nheengatu language, often written Nhengatu, is an indigenous language of the Tupi-Guarani family, the direct modern descendant of Tupinambá, or Tupi, which extended throughout the Amazon rainforest from Maranhão.
Arawakan, also known as Maipurean, is a language family that developed among ancient indigenous peoples in South America. Branches migrated to Central America and the Greater Antilles in the Caribbean and the Atlantic, including what is now the Bahamas. Almost all present-day South American countries are known to have been home to speakers of Arawakan languages, the exceptions being Ecuador, Uruguay, and Chile. Maipurean may be related to other language families in a hypothetical Macro-Arawakan stock.
Tonantins is a municipality in Amazonas, in northwest Brazil. Its population was 18,897 as of 2020, all of which were Brazilians. It is on the Amazon River and is 867 km upstream (west) of Manaus, the state capital. The municipality is directly east of and overlaps parts of the Jutaí-Solimões Ecological Station. It is only accessible via boat.
The Yawalapiti are an indigenous tribe in the Amazonian Basin of Brazil. The name is also spelled Iaualapiti in Portuguese. The current village Yawalapiti is situated more to the south, between the Tuatuari and Kuluene River. Their population in 2011 was 156, down from a 2010 population of 237 (2010) but up from a low of 25 in 1954.
The Helmet massacre of the Tikuna people took place in March 1988, in the municipality of Benjamin Constant, in the Alto Solimões region, in a remote area in the state of Amazonas. Funai, the National Foundation for the Indians, had begun to demarcate the Tikuna land, giving rise to reactions from local squatters. The indigenous people were gathered in an assembly and were unarmed when they were attacked. During the massacre four people died, nineteen were wounded, and ten disappeared in the Solimões river. It was initially treated as homicide. Since 1994 it has been treated by the Brazilian courts as a genocide. Thirteen men were convicted of genocide in 2001. In November 2004 at the appeal before Brazil's federal court, Castelo Branco, the man initially found guilty of hiring men to carry out the genocide was acquitted, and the other men had their initial sentences of 15–25 years reduced to 12 years.
Samuel Fritz SJ was a Czech Jesuit missionary, noted for his exploration of the Amazon River and its basin. He spent most of his life preaching to Indigenous communities in the western Amazon region, including the Omaguas, the Yurimaguas, the Aisuare, the Ibanomas, and the Ticunas. In 1707 he produced the first accurate map of the Amazon River, establishing as its source the Marañón.
S Tikuna (S-34) is a Type 209 submarine of the Brazilian Navy. Built in the Brazilian Navy Yard in Rio de Janeiro (AMRJ), it was launched in March 2005 and incorporated into the Brazilian Navy on July 21, 2006, and then transferred to the Naval Operations Command. It is the fourth Brazilian Navy submarine made in Brazil and the largest ever built in the country. The name of this submarine is a tribute to South American indigenous tribe Tikuna inhabiting the region of the Upper Solimões, in the western part of the State of Amazonas.
The Carabayo (Caraballo) language is spoken by the Carabayo people, also known as Yuri and Aroje, an uncontacted Amazonian people of Colombia living in at least three long houses, one of several suspected uncontacted peoples living along the Rio Puré in the southeastern corner of the country. They are known as the Aroje to the Bora people. Maku and Macusa are pejorative Arawak terms applied to many local languages, not anything specific to Carabayo. The name "Carabayo" is taken from a mock name, "Bernardo Caraballo", given to a Carabayo man during his captivity in the Capuchin mission at La Pedrera in 1969. It has been reported that their self-designation is Yacumo.
The Carabayo are an uncontacted people of Colombia living in at least three long houses, known as malokas, along the Rio Puré in the southeastern corner of the country. They live in the Amazonas Department of Colombian Amazon rainforest, near the border with Brazil. They share the protected National Park with the Passé and Jumana people.
The Alto Rio Negro Indigenous Territory is an indigenous territory in the northwest of the state of Amazonas, Brazil. It is in the Amazon biome, and is mostly covered in forest. A number of different ethnic groups live in the territory, often related through marriage, with a total population of over 25,000. There is a long history of colonial exploitation and effective slavery of the indigenous people, and then of attempts to suppress their culture and "civilize" them. The campaign to gain autonomy culminated in creation of the reserve in 1998. The people are generally literate, but health infrastructure is poor and there are very limited economic opportunities.
The indigenous languages of South America are those whose origin dates back to the pre-Columbian era. The subcontinent has great linguistic diversity, but, as the number of speakers of indigenous languages is diminishing, it is estimated that it could become one of the least linguistically diverse regions of the planet.
Manga is an Amerindian village of the Karipuna do Amapá people in the Brazilian municipality of Oiapoque, Amapá. It is the largest village of the tribe. Manga is located on the Caripi River in the Uaçá Indigenous Territory.