|King of Goiim|
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Tidal (Hebrew : תִדְעָל, Modern Tid'al, Tiberian Ṯīḏe‘āl, Ancient Ṯīḏeġāl), king of Goyim, is a monarch mentioned in Genesis 14:1. Genesis describes Tidal as one of the four kings who fought Abraham in the Battle of Siddim.
Hebrew is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel; the modern version of which is spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh. The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language.
Modern Hebrew or Israeli Hebrew, generally referred to by speakers simply as Hebrew, is the standard form of the Hebrew language spoken today. Spoken in ancient times, Hebrew, a member of the Canaanite branch of the Semitic language family, was supplanted as the Jewish vernacular by the western dialect of Aramaic beginning in the third century BCE, though it continued to be used as a liturgical and literary language. It was revived as a spoken language in the 19th and 20th centuries and is the official language of Israel.
The Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian pointing, or Tiberian niqqud is a system of diacritics (niqqud) devised by the Masoretes of Tiberias to add to the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible to produce the Masoretic Text. The system soon became used to vocalize other Hebrew texts, as well.
The word goyim in biblical Hebrew can be translated as "nations" or "peoples" or "ethnic groups" (in modern Hebrew it means "Gentiles"), although biblical scholars suggest that in this verse it may instead be a reference to the region of Gutium.
Modern Hebrew is phonetically simpler than Biblical Hebrew and has fewer phonemes, but it is phonologically more complex. It has 25 to 27 consonants and 5 to 10 vowels, depending on the speaker and the analysis.
Tudhaliya is the name of several Hittite kings:
The Hittites were an Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC. This empire reached its height during the mid-14th century BC under Suppiluliuma I, when it encompassed an area that included most of Anatolia as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia.
Abimelech was the name of multiple Philistine kings mentioned in the Hebrew Bible.
The Generations of Noah or Table of Nations is a genealogy of the sons of Noah and their dispersion into many lands after the Flood, focusing on the major known societies. The term nations to describe the descendants is a standard English translation of the Hebrew word "goy", following the c. 400 CE Latin Vulgate's "nationes", and does not have the same political connotations that the word entails today.
Goy is the standard Hebrew biblical term for a nation. The word nation has been the common translation of the Hebrew goy or ethnos in the Septuagint, from the earliest English language bibles such as the 1611 King James Version and the 1530 Tyndale Bible, following the Latin Vulgate which used both gentile and nationes. The term nation did not have the same political connotations it entails today. The word "gentile" is a synonym for the Hebrew word Nokri which signifies "stranger" or "non-Jew".
Nimrod, a biblical figure described as a king in the land of Shinar (Mesopotamia), was, according to the Book of Genesis and Books of Chronicles, the son of Cush, the son of Ham, son of Noah. The Bible states that he was "a mighty hunter before the Lord [and] .... began to be mighty in the earth". Extra-biblical traditions associating him with the Tower of Babel led to his reputation as a king who was rebellious against God.
New Chronology is an alternative chronology of the ancient Near East developed by English Egyptologist David Rohl and other researchers beginning with A Test of Time: The Bible - from Myth to History in 1995. It contradicts mainstream Egyptology by proposing a major revision of the established Egyptian chronology, in particular by re-dating Egyptian kings of the Nineteenth through Twenty-fifth Dynasties, bringing forward conventional dating by up to 350 years. Rohl asserts that the New Chronology allows him to identify some of the characters in the Hebrew Bible with people whose names appear in archaeological finds.
Elohim in the Hebrew Bible refers to deities, and is one of the many names or titles for God in the Hebrew Bible.
The Hivites were one group of descendants of Canaan, son of Ham, according to the Table of Nations in Genesis 10 (10:17). A variety of proposals have been made, but beyond the references in the Bible to Hivites in the land of Canaan, no consensus has been reached about their precise historical identity.
Chedorlaomer, also spelled Kedorlaomer, is a king of Elam in Genesis 14. Genesis portrays him as allied with three other kings, campaigning against five Canaanite city-states in response to an uprising in the days of Abraham.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Jebusites were a Canaanite tribe who inhabited Jerusalem prior to the conquest initiated by Joshua and completed by King David. The Books of Kings as well as 1 Chronicles 11:4 state that Jerusalem was known as Jebus prior to this event. According to some biblical chronologies, the city was conquered by King David in 1003 BCE. The identification of Jebus with Jerusalem is disputed.
The Hittites, also spelled Hethites, were a group of people mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. Under the names בני-חת and חתי they are mentioned several times as living in or near Canaan since the time of Abraham to the time of Ezra after the return from the Babylonian exile. Their ancestor Heth is said in Genesis to be a son of Canaan, son of Ham, son of Noah.
Gerar was a Philistine town and district in what is today south central Israel, mentioned in the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible.
Tudhaliya I was a king of the Hittite empire ca. the early 14th century BC.
Jared or Jered, in the Book of Genesis, was a sixth-generation descendant of Adam and Eve. His primary history is recounted in Genesis 5:18–20.
Melchizedek, Melkisetek, or Malki Tzedek, was the king of Salem and priest of El Elyon mentioned in the 14th chapter of the Book of Genesis. He brings out bread and wine and blesses Abram and El Elyon.
Canaan, according to the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible, was a son of Ham and grandson of Noah, and was the father of the Canaanites. He was the recipient of the so-called Curse of Ham.
Shuah is the name of one of four minor Biblical figures. It is sometimes used as the name of a fifth. Their names are different in Hebrew, but they were all transliterated as "Shuah" in the King James Version.
The Battle of the Vale of Siddim, also often called the War of Nine Kings or the Slaughter of Chedorlaomer, was an event in the Hebrew Bible book of Genesis 14:1-17 that occurred in the days of Abram and Lot. The Vale of Siddim was the battleground for the cities of the Jordan River plain revolting against Mesopotamian rule.
Tishdal was a Hurrian ruler from the Zagros mountains. According to David Rohl, he is identifiable with Tidal, king of Goyim from the Book of Genesis, 14:1. The word goyim in Biblical Hebrew can be translated as "nations" or "peoples" although some Bible commentaries suggest that in this verse it may instead be a reference to the region of Gutium. Tidal was one of the four kings who fought Abraham in the Battle of the Vale of Siddim.