Tidung people

Last updated

Tidung people
Traditional marriage attire of Tidung people.jpg
Traditional marriage attire of Tidung people, native inhabitans of region around Tana Tidung Regency, North Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Total population
76,000 [1]
Regions with significant populations
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
28,515 (Sabah) [2]

Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
27,000 (North Kalimantan) [3]

Murutic (Nonukan Tidong, Sesayap Tidong, Kalabakan) also Serudung, Indonesian/Malaysian, and Filipino
Related ethnic groups
Banjarese, Bakumpai, Bulungan, Kutai, Murut, Lun Bawang/Lundayeh, Paser

The Tidung, Tidong (Jawi: تيدوڠ) are a native group originating from northeastern part of Borneo and surrounding small islands. They live on both sides of the border of Malaysia and Indonesia. [1]


Tidung speak Tidong language, a North Bornean language. [4] The Tidong are traditionally farmers practising slash-and-burn agriculture. Some are ocean fishermen. They grow sweet potatoes, cassava, lentils, fruits, and vegetables. Their farming methods are often accused of being the main cause of forest fires in Kalimantan.

The rise of the Muslim Tidung Sultanate molded the ethnogenesis character of the Tidung people. They collectively known as a Malayalised Dayak (Indonesian: Dayak berbudaya Melayu or Dayak-Melayu) people of Kalimantan similar to other native Muslim coastal Borneo groups, such as the Bulungan, Kutainese, Banjarese and Paserese people.


The term tidung in Tarakan language of the Tidung people literally means "hill" or "hill people". As with many other tribes of the Malay Archipelago, the term tidung is a collective term used to describe many closely related indigenous groups. The different groups of Tidung people describe themselves in all cases as Tidung people, however, they are summarized by modern ethnology as a common people group due to similarities in cultural and religious traditions. [5]

Settlement areas

The traditional territories of the Tidung people are at the Sembakung River, North Kalimantan and Sibuku River of their headwaters to the estuary north of Tarakan Island, Indonesia thence along the coast; south to the river-mouth of Bolongan River and northward up to Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia including Cowie Harbour. An enclave of Tidung people located at Labuk River, opposite the city of Klagan. [5]


For Malaysia in the state of Sabah, the census of 2010 (Census 2010) indicates a population of 28,515 Tidong. [2] Whereas, Tidung people in other states have no statistical relevance.

For Indonesia, the population of the Tidung people is estimated about 27,000 in the year of 2007. [3]


Tidung among the languages of Kalimantan (orange #59, top) Languages of Kalimantan.svg
Tidung among the languages of Kalimantan (orange #59, top)

The Tidung language spoken by the Tidung people is also part of other Murutic language, which in turn belongs to the Western Malayo-Polynesian languages. [6] The Tidung language is spoken in different dialects, namely:- [7]

Writing system

Prior to present-day Roman writing system, the Tidung people used Jawi script in their writings.

Folktales and fables

The Tidung Cultural Center in Tarakan, North Kalimantan Baloy Mayo Adat Tidung (4).JPG
The Tidung Cultural Center in Tarakan, North Kalimantan

Among the Tidung folktale includes:

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Malay language</span> Austronesian language of Southeast Asia

Malay is an Austronesian language that is an official language of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore, and that is also spoken in East Timor and parts of Thailand. Altogether, it is spoken by 290 million people across Maritime Southeast Asia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dayak people</span> Indigenous ethnic group of Borneo

The Dayak or Dyak or Dayuh are one of the native groups of Borneo. It is a loose term for over 200 riverine and hill-dwelling ethnic groups, located principally in the central and southern interior of Borneo, each with its own dialect, customs, laws, territory, and culture, although common distinguishing traits are readily identifiable. The Dayak were animist in belief; however, since the 19th century there has been mass conversion to Christianity as well as Islam due to the spreading of Abrahamic religions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bidayuh</span> Ethnic group from Borneo

Bidayuh is the collective name for several indigenous groups found in southern Sarawak, Malaysia and northern West Kalimantan, Indonesia, on the island of Borneo, which are broadly similar in language and culture. The name Bidayuh means 'inhabitants of land'. Originally from the western part of Borneo, the collective name Land Dayak was first used during the period of Rajah James Brooke, the White Rajah of Sarawak. At times, they were also lesser referred to as Klemantan people. They constitute one of the main indigenous groups in Sarawak and West Kalimantan and live in towns and villages around Kuching and Serian in the Malaysian state of Sarawak, while in the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan they are mainly concentrated in the northern Sanggau Regency. In Sarawak, most of Bidayuh population can be found within 40 km of the geographical area known as Greater Kuching, within the Kuching and Serian Division. They are the second-largest Dayak ethnic group in Sarawak after the Iban and one of the major Dayak tribes in West Kalimantan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Murut people</span>

The Murut are an indigenous ethnic group, comprising 29 sub-ethnic groups inhabiting the northern inland regions of Borneo. The Murutic languages are a family of half a dozen closely related Austronesian languages. The Murut can be found mainly in Sabah, but also in Sarawak, Brunei, and Kalimantan, Indonesia.

The Ida'an language is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by the Ida'an people on the east coast of Sabah, Malaysia.

The Murutic languages are a family of half a dozen closely related Austronesian languages, spoken in the northern inland regions of Borneo by the Murut and Tidung.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bisaya (Borneo)</span> Malaysian indigenous ethnic group

Bisaya is an indigenous people from the northwest coast of East Malaysia on the island of Borneo. Their population is concentrated around Beaufort as well as Kuala Penyu districts of southern Sabah, Labuan Federal Territory and in Limbang District, Sarawak. The Bisaya tribe has many similarities with the Dusun Tatana tribe, especially in terms of language. It is evident that some of their dialogical language conversations are almost identical if they have a dialogue with each other. Nowadays the Bisaya living in Sabah are Muslims, while the Bisaya living in Sarawak are mostly Christians. In Brunei, they are referred as Dusun, Jati Dusun and Bisaya. The Bisaya is closely related, linguistically, with the Tatana Dusun of Kuala Penyu, Sabah.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Banjar people</span> Ethnic group native to South Kalimantan

The Banjar or Banjarese are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the Banjar regions in the southeastern Kalimantan regions of Indonesia. Nowadays, Banjarese diaspora can be found in neighbouring Banjar regions as well; including Kotabaru Regency, the southeastern regions of Central Kalimantan, southernmost regions of East Kalimantan, and some provinces of Indonesia in general. The Banjarese diaspora community also can be found in neighbouring countries of Indonesia, such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Singapore.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Malayic languages</span> Subgroup of the Austronesian language family

The Malayic languages are a branch of the Malayo-Polynesian subgroup of the Austronesian language family. The most prominent member is Malay, which is the national language of Brunei, Singapore and Malaysia, and is the basis for Indonesian, the national language of Indonesia. The Malayic branch also includes the local languages spoken by ethnic Malays, further several languages spoken by various other ethnic groups of Sumatra, Indonesia and Borneo. The most probable candidate for the urheimat of the Malayic languages is western Borneo.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kenyah people</span> Indigenous people of Borneo

The Kenyah people are an indigenous, Austronesian-speaking people of Borneo, living in interior North and East Kalimantan, Indonesia and Sarawak, Malaysia.

The Ibanic languages are a branch of the Malayic languages indigenous to western Borneo. They are spoken by the Ibans and related groups in East Malaysia and the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan. Other Dayak languages, called Land Dayak, which are not Ibanic, are found in the northwest corner of Kalimantan, between Ibanic and non-Ibanic Malayic languages such as Kendayan and the Malay dialects of Sarawak and Pontianak.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sama–Bajaw languages</span> Austronesian language family of Borneo and the Philippines

The Sama–Bajaw languages are a well-established group of languages spoken by the Sama-Bajau peoples of the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia.

The Tarakan riot was an ethnic riot which occurred between September 27 and September 29, 2010 in the city of Tarakan, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The riot pitched native Tidung people against Bugis migrants. It was triggered by the death of a Tidung elder in a scuffle with a youth gang. During the ensuing riot four people were killed and thousands of civilians were displaced, before a peace agreement was made between the communities.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North Kalimantan</span> Province of Indonesia

North Kalimantan is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the northernmost of Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. North Kalimantan borders the Malaysian states of Sabah to the north and Sarawak to the west, and by the Indonesian province of East Kalimantan to the south. Tanjung Selor serves as the capital of the province, while Tarakan is the largest city and the financial centre.

Kendayan, or Salako (Selako), is a Malayic Dayak language of Borneo. The exact number of speakers remains unknown, but is estimated to be around 350,000.

Nunukan Tidong or Southern Tidung, is one of several Sabahan languages of Kalimantan, Indonesia, spoken by the Tidong people. It has lost the system of Austronesian alignment retained by Northern Tidung in Sabah, Malaysia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bible translations into the languages of Indonesia and Malaysia</span>

Bible translations into the languages of Indonesia and Malaysia have a lot of common history up until the modern era. Apart from the shared Malay language which historically was the lingua franca of the Malay archipelago and forms the basis for the national languages of Indonesia and Malaysia today, portions of the Bible have been translated into a variety of indigenous languages in the region.

Sesayap Tidong or Northern Tidung is one of several Sabahan languages of Sabah, Malaysia, spoken by the Tidong people. It retains the system of Austronesian alignment that has been lost by Southern Tidung in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Pontianak Malay is a Malayan language spoken in Pontianak, Indonesia and the surrounding area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kalabakan District</span> District in Malaysia

Kalabakan is a district in the Malaysian state of Sabah, located approximately 235 kilometres (146 mi) southeast of the state capital of Kota Kinabalu. It recorded a population of 48,195 people in the 2020 Malaysian census. Its capital is the town of Kalabakan.


  1. 1 2 "Tidong". Joshua Project.
  2. 1 2 2010 Population and Housing Census. Communication from the Statistical Office. 2010.
  3. 1 2 M. Paul Lewis (2009). "Summer Institute of Linguistics". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. SIL International. ISBN   978-15-567-1216-6.
  4. Lewis, M. Paul (2009). "Tidong. A language of Indonesia (Kalimantan)". Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version. Archived from the original on 12 August 2011.
  5. 1 2 Frank M. LeBar & George N. Appell (1972). Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Andaman Islands, and Madagascar. Human Relations Area Files Press. p. 169. ISBN   08-753-6403-9.
  6. D.J. Prentice (1970). S.A. Wurm & D.C. Laycock (ed.). The linguistic situation in northern Borneo in: Pacific Linguistic Studies in Honour of Arthur Capell. Pacific Linguistics, Series C.
  7. "Tidung". ethnologue. Retrieved 4 February 2017.