Tidung people

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Tidung people
Tidong
تيدوڠ
Baloyrumahkhastidung.JPG
A traditional Tidung house, baloy from North Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Total population
76,000 [1]
Regions with significant populations
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
28,515 (Sabah) [2]

Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
27,000 (North Kalimantan) [3]


Languages
Tidong languages (Nonukan Tidong language, Sesayap Tidong language, also Indonesian/Malaysian/Filipino
Religion
Islam
Related ethnic groups
Banjarese, Bakumpai, Bulungan, Kutai, Murut, Lun Bawang/Lundayeh, Paser

The Tidung, Tidong (Jawi: تيدوڠ) are a native group originating from northeastern part of Borneo and surrounding small islands. They live on both sides of the border of Malaysia and Indonesia. [1]

Contents

Tidung speak Tidong language, a North Bornean language. [4] The Tidong are traditionally farmers practising slash-and-burn agriculture. Some are ocean fishermen. They grow sweet potatoes, cassava, lentils, fruits, and vegetables. Their farming methods are often accused of being the main cause of forest fires in Kalimantan.

The rise of the Muslim Tidung Sultanate molded the ethnogenesis character of the Tidung people. They collectively known as a Malayalised Dayak (Indonesian: Dayak berbudaya Melayu or Dayak-Melayu) people of Kalimantan similar to other native Muslim coastal Borneo groups, such as the Bulungan, Kutainese, Banjarese and Paserese people. Most Tidungese people perceived themselves as Malay due to the stronger self-affiliation with the Malay-Muslim identity.

Etymology

The term tidung in Tarakan language of the Tidung people literally means "hill" or "hill people". As with many other tribes of the Malay Archipelago, the term tidung is a collective term used to describe many closely related indigenous groups. The different groups of Tidung people describe themselves in all cases as Tidung people, however, they are summarized by modern ethnology as a common people group due to similarities in cultural and religious traditions. [5]

Settlement areas

The traditional territories of the Tidung people are at the Sembakung River, East Kalimantan and Sibuku River of their headwaters to the estuary north of Tarakan Island, Indonesia thence along the coast; south to the river-mouth of Bolongan River and northward up to Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia including Cowie Harbour. An enclave of Tidung people located at Labuk River, opposite the city of Klagan. [5]

Demographics

For Malaysia in the state of Sabah, the census of 2010 (Census 2010) indicates a population of 28,515 Tidong. [2] Whereas, Tidung people in other states have no statistical relevance.

For Indonesia, the population of the Tidung people is estimated about 27,000 in the year of 2007. [3]

Language

Tidung among the languages of Kalimantan (orange #59, top) Languages of Kalimantan.svg
Tidung among the languages of Kalimantan (orange #59, top)

The Tidung language spoken by the Tidung people is also part of other Murutic language, which in turn belongs to the Western Malayo-Polynesian languages. [6] The Tidung language is spoken in different dialects, namely:- [7]

Writing system

Prior to present-day Roman writing system, the Tidung people used Jawi script in their writings.

Folktales and Fables

Among the Tidung folktale includes:

Related Research Articles

Malay language Austronesian language

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Dayak people Borneo ethnic group

The Dayak or Dyak or Dayuh are one of the native groups of Borneo. It is a loose term for over 200 riverine and hill-dwelling ethnic subgroups, located principally in the central and southern interior of Borneo, each with its own dialect, customs, laws, territory and culture, although common distinguishing traits are readily identifiable. Dayak languages are categorised as part of the Austronesian languages in Asia. The Dayak were animist in belief; however, many converted to Islam and since the 19th century there has been mass conversion to Christianity. Today most Dayak still follow their ancient animistic traditions, but often state to belong to one of the six recognized religions in Indonesia.

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Bidayuh ethnic group

Bidayuh is the collective name for several indigenous groups found in southern Sarawak, Malaysia and northern West Kalimantan, Indonesia, on the island of Borneo, that are broadly similar in language and culture. The name Bidayuh means 'inhabitants of land'. Originally from the western part of Borneo, the collective name Land Dayak was first used during the period of Rajah James Brooke, the White Rajah of Sarawak. At times they were also lesser referred to as Klemantan people. They constitute one of the main indigenous groups in Sarawak and West Kalimantan and live in towns and villages around Kuching and Serian in the Malaysian state of Sarawak, while in the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan they are mainly concentrated in the northern Sanggau Regency. In Sarawak, most of Bidayuh population are found within 40 km of the geographical area known as Greater Kuching, within the Kuching and Serian Division. They are the second largest Dayak ethnic group in Sarawak after the Iban and one of the major Dayak tribes in West Kalimantan.

Murut people ethnic group

The Murut are an indigenous ethnic group, comprising 29 sub-ethnic groups inhabiting northern inland regions of Borneo. The Murutic languages are a family of half a dozen closely related Austronesian languages. The Murut can be found mainly in Sabah, Malaysia including in Sarawak, Malaysia, Brunei and Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Kedayan

The Kedayan are an ethnic group residing in Brunei, Labuan, Sabah, and parts of Sarawak on the island of Borneo. According to the Language and Literature Bureau of Brunei, the Kedayan language is spoken by about 30,000 people in Brunei, and it has been claimed that there are a further 46,500 speakers in Sabah and 37,000 in Sarawak. In Sabah the Kedayan mainly live in the cities of Sipitang, Beaufort, Kuala Penyu and Papar. In Sarawak the Kedayans mostly reside in Lawas, Limbang, Miri and the Subis area. The Kedayan people are also regarded as a sub-ethnic group of the Klemantan Dayak people.

Banjar people Indonesian ethnic group

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Malaysian Malay Ethnic group given special status in the Constitution

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Tarakan City in North Kalimantan, Indonesia

Tarakan is an island and the largest city of the Indonesian province of North Kalimantan. The island city is located in northern Borneo, just across the border from Sabah, Malaysia. Once a major oil-producing region during the colonial period, Tarakan had great strategic importance during the Pacific War and was among the first Japanese targets early in the war. It is the sole city within the newly established Indonesian province of North Kalimantan. According to Statistics Indonesia, the city had a population of 253,026 inhabitants as of 2017.

Malay Indonesians Indonesian ethnic group

Malay Indonesians are ethnic Malays living throughout Indonesia as one of the indigenous peoples of the island nation. Indonesia has the second largest ethnic Malay population after Malaysia. Indonesian, the national language of Indonesia, is a standardized form of Riau-Johor Malay. There were a number of Malay kingdoms in Indonesia that covered the islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan, such as Srivijaya, Melayu Kingdom, Dharmasraya, Sultanate of Deli, Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura, Riau-Lingga Sultanate, Sultanate of Bulungan, Pontianak Sultanate, and the Sultanate of Sambas.

The Ibanic languages are a branch of the Malayic languages indigenous to western Borneo. They are spoken by the Ibans and related groups in East Malaysia and the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan. Other Dayak languages, called Land Dayak, which are not Ibanic, are found in the northwest corner of Kalimantan, between Ibanic and non-Ibanic Malayic languages such as Kendayan and the Malay dialects of Sarawak and Pontianak.

The Tarakan riot was an ethnic riot which occurred between September 27 and September 29, 2010 in the city of Tarakan, North Kalimantan, Indonesia. The riot pitched native Tidung people against Bugis migrants. It was triggered by the death of a Tidung elder in a scuffle with a youth gang. During the ensuing riot four people were killed and thousands of civilians were displaced, before a peace agreement was made between the communities.

North Kalimantan Province of Indonesia

North Kalimantan is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the northernmost of Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. North Kalimantan borders the Malaysian states of Sabah to the north and Sarawak to the west, and by the Indonesian province of East Kalimantan to the south. Tanjung Selor serves as the capital of the province, while Tarakan is the largest city and the financial centre.

Sarawak's population is very diverse, comprising many races and ethnic groups. Sarawak has more than 40 sub-ethnic groups, each with its own distinct language, culture and lifestyle. This makes Sarawak demography very distinct and unique compared to its Peninsular counterpart.

Kendayan, or Salako (Selako), is a Malayic Dayak language of Borneo. The exact number of speakers remains unknown, but is estimated to be around 350,000.

Bible translations into the languages of Indonesia and Malaysia

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Malayisation Assimilation and acculturation to Malay culture

Malayisation or Malayization is a process of assimilation and acculturation, that involves acquisition or imposition of elements of Malay culture, in particular, Islam and the Malay language, as experienced by non-Malay populations of territories fully controlled or partially influenced by historical Malay sultanates and modern Malay-speaking countries. It is often described as a process of civilisational expansion, drawing a wide range of indigenous peoples into the Muslim, Malay-speaking polities of Maritime Southeast Asia. Examples of Malayisation have occurred throughout Asia including in Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia, Cambodia and Sri Lanka.

The Sambas riots were an outbreak of inter-ethnic violence in Indonesia, in 1999. The conflict started in the district of Sambas, West Kalimantan Province. The conflict involved Malay allying with the indigenous Dayak people in order to massacre the migrant Madurese from the island of Madura.

Sesayap Tidong, or Northern Tidung, is one of several Sabahan language of Sabah spoken by the Tidong people. It retains the system of Austronesian alignment that has been lost by Southern Tidung in Kalimantan.

Pontianak Malay is a Malayan language spoken in Pontianak, Indonesia and the surrounding area.

References

  1. 1 2 "Tidong". Joshua Project.
  2. 1 2 2010 Population and Housing Census. Communication from the Statistical Office. 2010.
  3. 1 2 M. Paul Lewis (2009). "Summer Institute of Linguistics". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. SIL International. ISBN   978-15-567-1216-6.
  4. Lewis, M. Paul (2009). "Tidong. A language of Indonesia (Kalimantan)". Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version. Archived from the original on 12 August 2011.
  5. 1 2 Frank M. LeBar & George N. Appell (1972). Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Andaman Islands, and Madagascar. Human Relations Area Files Press. p. 169. ISBN   08-753-6403-9.
  6. D.J. Prentice (1970). S.A. Wurm & D.C. Laycock (ed.). The linguistic situation in northern Borneo in: Pacific Linguistic Studies in Honour of Arthur Capell. Pacific Linguistics, Series C.
  7. "Tidung". ethnologue. Retrieved 4 February 2017.