|President of the Judicial Yuan|
1 December 1971 –30 March 1977
|Vice President|| Xie Yingzhou |
|Preceded by||Xie Guansheng|
|Succeeded by||Tai Yen-hui|
|Minister of the Interior|
27 March 1958 –31 May 1960
|Preceded by||Wang Depu|
|Succeeded by||Lien Chen-tung|
|Minister of the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission|
30 May 1960 –14 December 1963
|Preceded by||Lee Yung-hsin|
|Succeeded by||Kuo Chi-chiao|
22 February 1951 –25 May 1954
|Preceded by||Yu Ching-tang|
|Succeeded by||Liu Lianke|
|Minister of Examination|
13 July 1948 –May 1950
|Preceded by||Office established|
|Succeeded by||Ma Kuo-lin (acting)|
|Died||30 March 1977 (aged 77–78)|
|Nationality||Republic of China|
|Alma mater|| Peking University |
University of Illinois
Tien Chung-chin (Chinese :田炯錦;1899–1977) was a Chinese-born politician based in Taiwan.
Tien Chung-chin was born in 1899 and known by the courtesy name Yunching (Chinese :雲青). A native of Qingcheng County,he attended Peking University,where he participated in the May Fourth Movement. Soon after graduation in 1923,Tien began advanced study in the United States. Starting in 1925,Tien enrolled in the University of Washington,then transferred to the University of Missouri before earning a master's and doctoral degree from the University of Illinois. Tien returned to China in 1930,joining the faculty of Northeastern University. In February 1931,Tien was appointed to the Control Yuan. In January 1936,he was named the leader of the Gansu Provincial Department of Education. After the Xi'an Incident,Tien was named chairman of the Shaanxi Provincial Government. He began a second term on the Control Yuan in 1938. Concurrently,Tien also served as president of Lanzhou University. In November 1946,he was elected to the National Constituent Assembly . Tien also retained his Control Yuan position,which included oversight of Gansu and Shaanxi. On 13 July 1948,Tien took office as the inaugural Minister of Examination.
Tien left for Taiwan in 1949.From 1951 to 1954,he led the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission. In 1958,Tien succeeded Wang Depu as interior minister. Upon stepping down from the ministry of the interior in 1960,Tien served on the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission for a second time,until 1963. In 1971,he was nominated to succeed Xie Guansheng as President of the Judicial Yuan. Tien held the office until his death in Taipei on 30 March 1977.
Inner Mongolia,officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region,is a landlocked autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. Its border includes most of the length of China's border with the country of Mongolia. Inner Mongolia also accounts for a small section of China's border with Russia. Its capital is Hohhot;other major cities include Baotou,Chifeng,Tongliao and Ordos.
Sichuan is a landlocked province in Southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west,the Daba Mountains in the north and the Yungui Plateau to the south. Sichuan's capital city is Chengdu. The population of Sichuan stands at 83 million. Sichuan neighbors the Qinghai to the northwest,Gansu to the north,Shaanxi to the northeast,Chongqing to the east,Guizhou to the southeast,Yunnan to the south,and the Tibet Autonomous Region to the west.
Hebei is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China,and is part of the North China region. The modern province was established in 1911 as Chihli Province. Its capital and largest city is Shijiazhuang. Its one-character abbreviation is "冀" (Jì),named after Ji Province,a Han dynasty province (zhou) that included what is now southern Hebei. The name Hebei literally means "north of the river",referring to its location entirely to the north of the Yellow River.
Gansu is a landlocked province in Northwest China. Its capital and largest city is Lanzhou,in the southeast part of the province.
Shaanxi is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China,it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi,Henan (E),Hubei (SE),Chongqing (S),Sichuan (SW),Gansu (W),Ningxia (NW) and Inner Mongolia (N).
Heilongjiang,formerly romanized as Heilungkiang,is a province in northeast China. It is the northernmost and easternmost province of the country. The province is bordered by Jilin to the south and Inner Mongolia to the west. It also shares a border with Russia to the north and east. The capital and the largest city of the province is Harbin. Among Chinese provincial-level administrative divisions,Heilongjiang is the sixth-largest by total area and the 15th-most populous.
Qinghai,also known Kokonor, is a landlocked province in the northwest of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the largest provinces of China by area,and is ranked fourth largest in area and has the third smallest population. Its capital and largest city is Xining.
Ningxia,officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR),is a landlocked autonomous region in the northwest of the People's Republic of China. Formerly a province,Ningxia was incorporated into Gansu in 1954 but was separated from Gansu in 1958 and was reconstituted as an autonomous region for the Hui people,one of the 56 officially recognised nationalities of China. Twenty percent of China's Hui population lives in Ningxia.
Provincial level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions,are the highest-level administrative divisions of China. There are 34 such divisions claimed by the People's Republic of China,classified as 23 provinces,four municipalities,five autonomous regions,and two Special Administrative Regions. The political status of Taiwan Province along with a small fraction of Fujian Province remain in dispute,those are under separate rule by the Republic of China,which is usually referred to as "Taiwan".
The Monguor,the Tu people,the White Mongol or the Tsagaan Mongol,are Mongolic people and one of the 56 officially recognized ethnic groups in China. The "Tu" ethnic category was created in the 1950s.
Ma Hongbin,was a prominent Chinese Muslim warlord active mainly during the Republican era,and was part of the Ma clique. He was the acting Chairman of Gansu and Ningxia Provinces for a short period.
Ma Qi was a Chinese Muslim General in early 20th-century China.
The Republic of China did not recognize Outer Mongolia until 1945;neither country exchanged diplomats between 1946 and 1949. At the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949,Mongolia recognized the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China retreated to the island of Taiwan,a former Japanese colony ruled from 1895 to 1945. In 2002,Taiwan (ROC) recognized Mongolia as an independent country,and informal relations were established between the two sides.
The Golden Urn refers to a method introduced by the Qing dynasty of China in 1793 to prevent the occurring cheating and corruption in the selection process of rinpoches or lamas including the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama,and other high offices within Tibetan Buddhism. The process includes drawing a lot from names held inside Golden Urn. It was institutionalized in the 29-Article Ordinance for the More Effective Governing of Tibet. Article 1 states that the purpose of Golden Urn is to ensure prosperity of Gelug,and to prevent cheating and corruption in the selection process. In 1792,the Qianlong Emperor published the article The Discourse of Lama to explain the history of lamas and the cases of cheating and corruption in the reincarnation system,while also explaining why he thought the Golden Urn would be a fair system of choosing reincarnated rinpoches or lamas,as opposed to choosing reincarnated rinpoches or lamas based on private designation,or based on one person's decision and to stop a single family with multiple reincarnated rinpoches or lamas.
Wu Heling (1896–1980) was a politician in the Republic of China. He was born in Hortin Right Banner,Zhelimu League,Inner Mongolia. His Mongolian name was Ünenbayan. He was ethnic Mongol,and participated in the Mongolian Autonomous Movement. Heling became an important politician in the Mongolian United Autonomous Government and the Mongolian Autonomous Federation (蒙古自治邦).
The Yuan dynasty was a Mongol-led imperial Chinese dynasty. During its existence,its territory was divided into the Central Region (腹裏) governed by the Central Secretariat and places under control of various provinces (行省) or Branch Secretariats (行中書省),as well as the region under the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs. In addition,the Yuan emperors held nominal suzerainty over the western Mongol khanates,but in reality none of them were governed by the Yuan dynasty due to the division of the Mongol Empire.
Tien Chiu-chin is a Taiwanese politician. She served in the Legislative Yuan from 2005 to 2016,and later that year became the deputy minister of the Overseas Community Affairs Council. Tien was nominated a member of the Control Yuan in 2018.
China National Highway 341 will run from Jiaonan in Shandong to Haiyan in Qinghai. It is one of the new trunk highways proposed in the China National Highway Network Planning.
Wang Tung-chen was a Chinese politician. She was among the first group of women elected to the Legislative Yuan in 1948.