Tierra Caliente (Spanish for Hot Land) is a cultural and geographical region in southern Mexico that comprises some low-elevation areas of the states of Michoacán, Guerrero and Mexico. As the name suggests, the region is characterized by a hot climate. The overall precipitation is also low - around 600 mm/year, but can be as low as 400 mm in some low-lying areas of Michoacán and Guerrero.
|Ajuchitlán del Progreso||Ajuchitlán|
|Coyuca de Catalán||Coyuca de Catalán|
|Cutzamala de Pinzón||Cutzamala de Pinzón|
|San Miguel Totolapan||San Miguel Totolapan|
|Zirándaro||Zirándaro de los Chávez|
|[[Cuidad Altamirano||(municipality)|| Cuidad Altamirano Pungarabato |
State of Mexico
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Michoacán, formally Michoacán de Ocampo, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Michoacán de Ocampo, is one of the 31 states which, together with Mexico City, comprise the Federal Entities of Mexico. The state is divided into 113 municipalities and its capital city is Morelia. The city was named after José María Morelos, a native of the city and one of the main heroes of the Mexican War of Independence.
Guerrero, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Guerrero, is one of the 32 states that comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico in Mexico. It is divided in 81 municipalities. The state has a population of about 3.5 million people. It is located in southwest Mexico and is bordered by the states of Michoacán to the north and west, the State of Mexico and Morelos to the north, Puebla to the northeast and Oaxaca to the east. In addition to the capital city, Chilpancingo and the largest city Acapulco, other cities in Guerrero include Petatlán, Ciudad Altamirano, Taxco, Iguala, Ixtapa, and Zihuatanejo. Today, it is home to a number of indigenous communities, including the Nahuas, Mixtecs, Tlapanecs, Amuzgos, and formerly Cuitlatecs. It is also home to communities of Afro-Mexicans in the Costa Chica region.
Zinnia is a genus of plants of the tribe Heliantheae within the family Asteraceae. They are native to scrub and dry grassland in an area stretching from the Southwestern United States to South America, with a centre of diversity in Mexico. Members of the genus are notable for their solitary long-stemmed 12 petal flowers that come in a variety of bright colors. The genus name honors German master botanist Johann Gottfried Zinn (1727–59).
The emergence of metallurgy in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica occurred relatively late in the region's history, with distinctive works of metal apparent in West Mexico by roughly 800 CE, and perhaps as early as 600 CE. Metallurgical techniques likely diffused northward from regions in Central or South America via maritime trade routes; recipients of these metallurgical technologies apparently exploited a wide range of material, including alloys of copper-silver, copper-arsenic, copper-tin and copper-arsenic-tin.
The geography of Mesoamerica describes the geographic features of Mesoamerica, a culture area in the Americas inhabited by complex indigenous pre-Columbian cultures exhibiting a suite of shared and common cultural characteristics. Several well-known Mesoamerican cultures include the Olmec, Teotihuacan, the Maya, the Aztec and the Purépecha. Mesoamerica is often subdivided in a number of ways. One common method, albeit a broad and general classification, is to distinguish between the highlands and lowlands. Another way is to subdivide the region into sub-areas that generally correlate to either culture areas or specific physiographic regions.
Operation Michoacán is a joint operation by Federal Police and the Mexican military to eliminate drug plantations and to combat drug trafficking. Initiated on December 11, 2006, the operation was supervised by The Secretary of Public Safety, Attorney General of Mexico, Secretary of the Interior, Mexican Navy and Mexican Army.
Tropical Storm Julio was a weak and short-lived tropical storm that made landfall along the southern Mexican coast in September 2002. The twelfth named storm of the 2002 Pacific hurricane season, Julio originated from an area of convection that organized into a tropical depression on September 25. Initially forecast to stay offshore, the depression moved northward and strengthened into a tropical storm that same day. Julio turned to the northwest and peaked as a minimal tropical storm just before landfall near Lázaro Cárdenas, on September 26. The storm soon weakened into a tropical depression and rapidly dissipated over Mexico that day.
Hurricane Virgil was a late season hurricane of the 1992 Pacific hurricane season that struck southwestern Mexico in October 1992. Forming from a tropical wave that left Africa on September 13, it slowly developed into a tropical depression. It soon strengthened into Tropical Storm Virgil, and rapidly intensified into a hurricane on October 2. Continuing to intensify, the hurricane attained major hurricane strength, and peaked as a Category 4 hurricane off the coast of Mexico. Shortly before landfall, it weakened to a Category 2 hurricane, and it dissipated on October 5. Damage was generally minimal, though one person was reported missing.
Tropical Depression Two-E was a short-lived tropical cyclone that brought heavy rainfall to southwestern Mexico. It was the only cyclone during the month in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, forming on June 3 from a tropical wave. The depression initially moved northeastward, threatening the Mexican states of Michoacán and Guerrero with a potential of it attaining tropical storm status. It remained a tropical depression, weakening due to land interaction and wind shear, and on June 5 it dissipated just off the coast. Rainfall from the depression peaked at 19.1 inches (486 mm) in Acapulco, which resulted in mudslides and flooding. A total of 42 houses were flooded, and 72 people were forced to leave their homes due to the storm; no deaths were reported.
Tropical Storm Carlos was the first of five tropical cyclones to make landfall during the 2003 Pacific hurricane season. It formed on June 26 from a tropical wave to the south of Mexico. It quickly strengthened as it approached the coast, and early on June 27 Carlos moved ashore in Oaxaca with winds of 65 mph (105 km/h). The storm rapidly deteriorated to a remnant low, which persisted until dissipating on June 29. Carlos brought heavy rainfall to portions of southern Mexico, peaking at 337 mm (13.3 in) in two locations in Guerrero. Throughout its path, the storm damaged about 30,000 houses, with a monetary damage total of 86.7 million pesos. At least nine people were killed throughout the country, seven due to mudslides and two from river flooding; there was also a report of two missing fishermen.
The Balsas River is a major river of south-central Mexico.
Hurricane Manuel brought widespread flooding across much of Mexico in September 2013, in conjunction with Hurricane Ingrid. The fifteenth named storm and seventh hurricane of the annual hurricane season, Manuel originated from a strong area of low pressure south of Acapulco on September 13. Within favorable conditions aloft, the storm intensified into a tropical storm as it tracked northward. The following day, Manuel curved westward and strengthened to a point just shy of hurricane intensity before making its first landfall at that intensity on September 15. Due to interaction with land, the tropical storm quickly weakened, and its center dissipated over western Mexico on September 16. However, the storm's remnants continued to track northwestward into the Gulf of California, where they reorganized into a tropical cyclone the next day. Manuel regained tropical storm status on September 18 as it began to curve northeastward. Shortly thereafter, Manuel attained Category 1 hurricane intensity, before making its final landfall just west of Culiacán at peak intensity. Over land, Manuel quickly weakened due to interaction with Mexico's high terrain, and the storm dissipated early on September 20.
The 2014 Guerrero earthquake occurred with a moment magnitude of 7.2 that hit the state of Guerrero, close to Acapulco, Mexico, on 18 April at 14:27:26 UTC. The epicenter occurred 265 kilometers southwest of Mexico City and at a depth of 24 kilometers. Thrust motion at shallow depths is what caused the earthquake. This was broadly consistent with a slip on or near the Guerrero Seismic Gap, a boundary between the Cocos and North American plates along the Pacific Coast approximately 200 kilometers long. The shaking was felt in states as far away as Puebla and Tlaxcala.
Hurricane Marty was a tropical cyclone that produced heavy rains and flooding in several states in Southwestern and Western Mexico. The twentieth named storm and twelfth hurricane of the annual hurricane season, Marty developed from a tropical wave on September 26, 2015, to the southwest of Acapulco, Guerrero, in Mexico. Initially a tropical depression, the system strengthened into a tropical storm early on the following day. Due to favorable atmospheric conditions, Marty continued to intensify, but wind shear sharply increased as the storm approached a large mid- to upper-level trough. Despite this, the cyclone deepened further, becoming a hurricane on September 28 and peaking with sustained winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) shortly thereafter. Wind shear quickly took its toll on the hurricane, weakening it to a tropical storm early on September 29. About 24 hours later, Marty degenerated into a post-tropical low-pressure area offshore Guerrero. The low further degenerated into a trough later on September 30, and eventually dissipated on October 4.
Hurricane Patricia was the most powerful tropical cyclone on record worldwide in terms of wind speed and the second-most intense on record worldwide in terms of pressure, behind Typhoon Tip of 870 mbar in 1979, with a minimum atmospheric pressure of 872 mbar. Originating from a sprawling disturbance near the Gulf of Tehuantepec, south of Mexico, in mid-October 2015, Patricia was first classified a tropical depression on October 20. Initial development was slow, with only modest strengthening within the first day of its classification. The system later became a tropical storm and was named Patricia, the twenty-fourth named storm of the annual hurricane season. Exceptionally favorable environmental conditions fueled explosive intensification on October 22. A well-defined eye developed within an intense central dense overcast and Patricia grew from a tropical storm to a Category 5 hurricane in just 24 hours—a near-record pace. On October 23, the hurricane achieved its record peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 215 mph (345 km/h). This made it the most intense tropical cyclone on record in the Western Hemisphere and the strongest globally in terms of one-minute maximum sustained winds.
Tropical Storm Carlotta was a moderately strong tropical cyclone that caused flooding in several states in southwestern and central Mexico. Carlotta, the third named storm of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, formed as the result of a breakdown in the Intertropical Convergence Zone. On June 12, a broad area of low pressure developed several hundred miles south of Mexico and strengthened into a tropical storm by June 15. The next day, the system stalled unexpectedly within a favorable environment, which led to more intensification than originally anticipated. Early on June 17, Carlotta reached peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 997 mbar while located only 30 mi (50 km) south-southeast of Acapulco. The system then began to interact with land and experience wind shear, which resulted in the storm weakening to tropical depression status later in the day. The system weakened to a remnant low early on June 19 and dissipated several hours later.
Tropical Storm Ileana was a small tropical cyclone that affected western Mexico in early August 2018, causing multiple deaths and flooding. The eleventh tropical cyclone and ninth named storm of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Ileana originated from a tropical wave that the National Hurricane Center began monitoring on July 26 as the wave left the west coast of Africa. The wave traveled across the Atlantic Ocean with no thunderstorm activity, before crossing into the Eastern Pacific Ocean early on August 4. Rapidly developing, the disturbance organized into a tropical depression on the evening of the same day. Initially, the depression was well-defined, but it soon degraded due to northerly wind shear. Despite the unfavorable conditions, the system began to strengthen on August 5, becoming Tropical Storm Ileana. A day later, on August 6, Ileana began to develop an eyewall structure as it reached its peak intensity with winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) and a pressure of 998 mbar (29.47 inHg). The storm gradually became intertwined with the nearby Hurricane John; over the next day, the circulation of John disrupted Ileana before ultimately absorbing it on August 7.
Tanhuato is a municipality in the Mexican state of Michoacán, located approximately 135 kilometres (84 mi) northwest of the state capital of Morelia.
Tropical Storm Dolores was a strong tropical storm that affected several states in southwestern Mexico in June 2021. The fourth named storm of the 2021 Pacific hurricane season, Dolores developed from a low-pressure area that formed offshore the state of Oaxaca on June 16, 2021. The area steadily developed deep convection and a closed surface circulation, becoming Tropical Depression Four-E around 09:00 UTC on June 18. The depression quickly strengthened to Tropical Storm Dolores six hours later. As it gradually approached the coast, Dolores steadily intensified despite its proximity to land. It reached peak intensity at 15:00 UTC on June 19 with maximum sustained winds of 70 mph (115 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 990 millibars (29 inHg), just below hurricane strength. Shortly afterward, Dolores made landfall just northwest of Punta San Telmo, Mexico, near the Colima-Michoacán state border. The storm rapidly weakened as it moved inland and dissipated early on June 20 over Zacatecas. However, the storm's mid-level circulation continued northward, before it dissipated later that day.
Hurricane Nora was a large tropical cyclone that made landfall in southern Mexico, and later went to affect Baja California. The fourteenth named storm and fifth hurricane of the 2021 Pacific hurricane season, the system was first monitored by the National Hurricane Center (NHC) as an area of low pressure near the coast of Mexico. It intensified into Tropical Depression Fourteen-E, but the depression struggled to develop as a result of wind shear. It further intensified to a tropical storm and was named Nora as it tracked west-northwest. It peaked as a Category 1 hurricane with winds of 85 miles per hour (140 km/h) on August 28, before grazing the Mexico coastline and making landfall two separate times, dissipating on August 30. According to the National Hurricane Center's Tropical Cyclone Report, three direct deaths occurred as a result of Nora.