Tierra de Campos

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Tierra de Campos
Moforlogiaagraria.jpg
Cultivated fields in northern Valladolid Province
Country Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
Autonomous community Castile and León
Province León, Zamora, Valladolid and Palencia
Capital Palencia (unofficial)
Municipalities
Elevation
740 m (2,430 ft)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Largest municipality Palencia
Map of Tierra de Campos as it appears in the book "La Tierra de Campos: Region Natural", by Justo Gonzalez Garrido Mapa de la Tierra de Campos.svg
Map of Tierra de Campos as it appears in the book "La Tierra de Campos: Región Natural", by Justo González Garrido
Location of present-day administrative areas under the name 'Tierra de Campos' in Castile and Leon Tierra de Campos-iCLe.PNG
Location of present-day administrative areas under the name 'Tierra de Campos' in Castile and León
Characteristic Tierra de Campos landscape near Abastas. AbastasPalencia.jpg
Characteristic Tierra de Campos landscape near Abastas.

Tierra de Campos ("Land of Fields") is a large historical and natural region or greater comarca that straddles the provinces of León, Zamora, Valladolid and Palencia, in Castile and León, Spain. It is a vast, desolate plain with practically no relief, except for some wide undulations of the terrain.

Historical regions are geographic areas which at some point in time had a cultural, ethnic, linguistic or political basis, regardless of present-day borders. They are used as delimitations for studying and analysing social development of period-specific cultures without any reference to contemporary political, economic or social organisations.

The fundamental principle underlying this view is that older political and mental structures exist which exercise greater influence on the spatial-social identity of individuals than is understood by the contemporary world, bound to and often blinded by its own worldview - e.g. the focus on the nation-state.

Natural region region distinguished by its common natural features of geography, geology, and climate

A natural region is a basic geographic unit. Usually it is a region which is distinguished by its common natural features of geography, geology, and climate.

Comarcas of Spain

In Spain traditionally and historically, some autonomous communities are also divided into comarcas.

Contents

Originally it was known as "Gothic Plains" (Campi Gothici or Campi Gothorum), as the area had been settled by Visigoths who fled from Aquitaine Gaul after its conquest by the Franks. It was first mentioned under this name in Codex Vigilanus (Codex Albeldensis), and described as extending "from the river Douro, to the Christian Kingdom". [1]

Visigoths Gothic tribe

The Visigoths were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths. These tribes flourished and spread throughout the late Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, or what is known as the Migration Period. The Visigoths emerged from earlier Gothic groups who had invaded the Roman Empire beginning in 376 and had defeated the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople in 378. Relations between the Romans and the Visigoths were variable, alternately warring with one another and making treaties when convenient. The Visigoths invaded Italy under Alaric I and sacked Rome in 410. After the Visigoths sacked Rome, they began settling down, first in southern Gaul and eventually in Hispania, where they founded the Visigothic Kingdom and maintained a presence from the 5th to the 8th centuries AD.

Battle of Vouillé battle between the Franks commanded by Clovis and the Visigoths commanded by Alaric II

The Battle of Vouillé — was fought in the northern marches of Visigothic territory, at Vouillé near Poitiers (Gaul), in the spring of 507 between the Franks commanded by Clovis and the Visigoths commanded by Alaric II.

<i>Codex Vigilanus</i> Chronicle from 9th century

The Codex Vigilanus or Codex Albeldensis is an illuminated compilation of various historical documents accounting for a period extending from antiquity to the 10th century in Hispania. Among the many texts brought together by the compilers are the canons of the Councils of Toledo, the Liber Iudiciorum, the decrees of some early popes and other patristic writings, historical narratives, various other pieces of civil and canon law, and a calendar.

Despite the strong identity of its inhabitants, this historical region has not been able to achieve the necessary legal recognition for its administrative development. Therefore, its municipalities have resorted to organizing themselves in a mancomunidad, [2] the only legal formula that has allowed the region to manage its public municipal resources meaningfully. Palencia is widely considered to be the capital of the Tierra de Campos.

Mancomunidad

In present-day Spain a mancomunidad is a free association or commonwealth of municipalities. A mancomunidad is a legal personality, and can exist either for a particular period to achieve a concrete goal or can exist indefinitely.

Palencia Municipality in Castile and León, Spain

Palencia is a city south of Tierra de Campos, in north-northwest Spain, the capital of the province of Palencia in the autonomous community of Castile and León. The municipality had a population of 78,892 in 2017.

Geography

Traditional dovecote in Tierra de Campos Palomares 1.jpg
Traditional dovecote in Tierra de Campos

"Tierra de Campos" is located on a fertile, elevated plateau with an average height of around 720 metres (2,360 ft), its geography is typical of the Meseta Central. The ground is mostly made up of quite compact clay. The climate is continental with long, cold winters and short, hot summers. Rivers naturally irrigating the area are sparse and traditionally the land in Tierra de Campos has been used for dryland farming. The Channel of Castile, which cuts across this comarca, was developed for transport purposes but developed into an irrigation system. Some of the wetlands in Tierra de Campos, like the Laguna de la Nava de Fuentes and the Lagunas de Villafáfila, are important for the ecology of the region. [3] There are few natural forested areas left. The Tierra de Campos is the place with the highest concentration of bustard in the Iberian Peninsula, and possibly in the world. [4]

Clay A finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals

Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. Clays are plastic due to particle size and geometry as well as water content, and become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing. Depending on the soil's content in which it is found, clay can appear in various colours from white to dull grey or brown to deep orange-red.

Continental climate

Continental climates often have a significant annual variation in temperature. They tend to occur in the middle latitudes, where prevailing winds blow overland, and temperatures are not moderated by bodies of water such as oceans or seas. Continental climates occur mostly in the Northern Hemisphere, which has the kind of large landmasses required for this type of climate to develop. Most of northern and northeastern China, eastern and southeastern Europe, central and southeastern Canada, and the central and upper eastern United States have this type of climate.

Dryland farming Techniques for non-irrigated farming when it is normally required

Dryland farming and dry farming encompass specific agricultural techniques for the non-irrigated cultivation of crops. Dryland farming is associated with drylands, areas characterized by a cool wet season that is followed by a warm dry season. They are also associated with arid conditions or areas prone to drought or having scarce water resources. Additionally, arid-zone agriculture is being developed for this purpose.

There is no unanimous agreement regarding the precise boundaries of the Tierra de Campos. Since it is a natural and traditional region, no official limits have ever been assigned. One of the most widely accepted system of boundaries [5] has been the following:

Cantabrian Mountains

The Cantabrian Mountains or Cantabrian Range are one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain. They stretch for over 300 km (180 miles) across northern Spain, from the western limit of the Pyrenees to the Galician Massif in Galicia, along the coast of the Cantabrian Sea. Their easternmost end meets the Sistema Ibérico.

Sahagún Municipality in Castile and León, Spain

Sahagún is a town in the province of León, Spain. It is the main town of the Leonese section of the Tierra de Campos district.

Carrión de los Condes Municipality in Castile and León, Spain

Carrión de los Condes is a municipality in the province of Palencia, part of the Autonomous Community of Castile and León, Spain.

Municipalities

León Province

Zamora Province

Valladolid Province

Palencia Province

Maps of Tierra de Campos areas in different provinces

See also

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Tello Pérez de Meneses was a Castilian magnate and military leader under the reign of King Alfonso VIII of Castile, and the ancestor of the Téllez de Meneses, a prominent noble lineage, whose descendants include several royal members such as Queen María de Molina, Tello's great-granddaughter, and Leonor Telles de Meneses, queen consort of Portugal. Tello participated in several military campaigns during the Reconquista and subsequent Repoblación, and was also a generous founder and patron of monasteries and hospitals for captives and lepers. Together with the Girón, the Téllez de Meneses were among the most influential and powerful aristocratic groups in Tierra de Campos.

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References

  1. Vaca Lorenzo, Ángel. "LA TIERRA DE CAMPOS Y SUS BASES ECOLÓGICAS EN EL SIGLO XIV". STVDIA HISTORICA. HISTORIA MEDIEVAL., page 3, Campos quos dicunt Goticos usque adflumen Dorium eremauit, et xpistianorum regnum extendit
  2. Mancomunidad de Tierra de Campos
  3. La Tierra de Campos, Patrimonio Natural
  4. Proyecto Avutarda - Bustard Project
  5. Justo González Garrido, Tierra de Campos. Región Natural, 1941.

42°00′N4°00′W / 42.000°N 4.000°W / 42.000; -4.000 Coordinates: 42°00′N4°00′W / 42.000°N 4.000°W / 42.000; -4.000