Tierra del Fuego

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Tierra del Fuego archipelago
NASA Tierra del Fuego image.jpg
Tierra del Fuego archipelago in the bottom half of the image
Tierra del Fuego location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Tierra del Fuego archipelago
Political map of Tierra del Fuego and mainland South America
Geography
Location Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean
Major islands Tierra del Fuego, Hoste, Navarino, Gordon, Wollastone, Noir, Staten, Hermite, Santa Inés, Clarence, Dawson, Capitán Aracena, Londonderry, Picton, Lennox, Nueva, Diego Ramírez, O'Brien, and Desolación Islands among many others
Highest point Mount Darwin
Administration
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile
Region Flag of Magallanes, Chile.svg  Magallanes y Antártica Chilena
Provinces Tierra del Fuego Province and Antártica Chilena
Communes Cabo de Hornos, Antártica, Porvenir, Primavera, Timaukel
Province Flag of Tierra del Fuego province in Argentina.svg  Tierra del Fuego
Demographics
Population>135,000 (2010)
Ethnic groups Argentines, Chileans, Selknams, Yaghans

Tierra del Fuego ( /tiˈɛərədɛlˈfwɡ/ , Spanish:  [ˈtjera ðel ˈfweɣo] ; Spanish for "Land of Fire") is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan. The archipelago consists of the main island, Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, with an area of 48,100 km2 (18,572 sq mi), and a group of many islands, including Cape Horn and Diego Ramírez Islands. Tierra del Fuego is divided between Chile and Argentina, with the latter controlling the eastern half of the main island and the former the western half plus the islands south of Beagle Channel. The southernmost extent of the archipelago is at about latitude 55 S.

Archipelago A group of islands

An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.

South America A continent in the Western Hemisphere, and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics.

Strait of Magellan body of water in Chile connecting Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

The Strait of Magellan, also called the Straits of Magellan, is a navigable sea route in southern Chile separating mainland South America to the north and Tierra del Fuego to the south. The strait is the most important natural passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

Contents

The earliest known human settlement in Tierra del Fuego dates to around 8,000 BCE. Europeans first explored the islands during Ferdinand Magellan's expedition of 1520; Tierra del Fuego and similar namings stem from sightings of the many bonfires that the natives built. Settlement by those of European descent and the great displacement of the native populations did not begin until the second half of the 19th century, at the height of the Patagonian sheep farming boom and of the local gold rush. [1] Today, petroleum extraction dominates economic activity in the north of Tierra del Fuego, while tourism, manufacturing, and Antarctic logistics are important in the south.

Ferdinand Magellan Portuguese explorer in the service of Spain

Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano.

Patagonian sheep farming boom

In late 19th and early 20th centuries, sheep farming expanded across the Patagonian grasslands making the southern regions of Argentina and Chile one of the world's foremost sheep farming areas. The sheep farming boom attracted thousands of immigrants from Chiloé and Europe to southern Patagonia. Early sheep farming in Patagonia was oriented towards wool production but changed over time with the development of industrial refrigerators towards meat export. Besides altering the demographic and economic outlook of Southern Patagonia the sheep farming boom also changed the steppe ecosystem.

Tierra del Fuego gold rush Guldrush between 1883 and 1906

Between 1883 and 1906 Tierra del Fuego experienced a gold rush attracting a large number of Chileans, Argentines and Europeans to the archipelago, including a large number of Dalmatians. The gold rush led to the formation of the first towns in the archipelago and fueled economic growth in Punta Arenas. After the gold rush was over, most gold diggers left the archipelago, while the remaining settlers engaged in sheep farming and fishing. Indigenous Selk'nam populations declined sharply during the rush.

History

Prehistory and European exploration

Selk'nam men hunting Selknam cazando.jpg
Selk'nam men hunting

The earliest human settlement occurred around 8,000 BCE. The Yaghan were some of the earliest known humans to settle in Tierra del Fuego. Archeological sites with characteristics of their culture have been found at locations such as Navarino Island. [2]

Yaghan people ethnic group

The Yaghan, also called Yagán, Yahgan, Yámana, Yamana or Tequenica, are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southern Cone, who are regarded as the southernmost peoples in the world. Their traditional territory includes the islands south of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, extending their presence into Cape Horn. They have been there for more than 10,000 years.

Navarino Island island of Chile

Navarino Island is a Chilean island located between Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, to the north, and Cape Horn, to the south. The island forms part of the Commune of Cabo de Hornos, the southernmost commune in Chile and in the world, belonging to Antártica Chilena Province in the XII Region of Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica. Its population is concentrated primarily in the communal capital, Puerto Williams, and in small settlements like Puerto Navarino, Río Guanaco and Puerto Toro. The highest point of the island is Pico Navarino at 1,195 m (3,921 ft). The island is a popular destination for fly-fishers.

World map from 1572, where the area was believed to be part of what was then called Terra Australis. 1572 Typus Orbis Terrarum Ortelius.jpg
World map from 1572, where the area was believed to be part of what was then called Terra Australis.

The name Tierra del Fuego was given by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan while sailing for the Spanish Crown in 1520; he was the first European to visit these lands. He believed he was seeing the many fires (fuego in Spanish) of the Yaghan, which were visible from the sea, and that the "Indians" were waiting in the forests to ambush his armada. [3]

Portugal Republic in Southwestern Europe

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.

Monarchy of Spain ruling monarchy in the Kingdom of Spain since the arrival of Felipe V

The monarchy of Spain, constitutionally referred to as The Crown, is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain. The monarchy comprises the reigning monarch, his or her family, and the royal household organization which supports and facilitates the monarch in the exercise of his duties and prerogatives. The Spanish monarchy is currently represented by King Felipe VI, Queen Letizia, and their daughters Leonor, Princess of Asturias, and Infanta Sofía.

Naval fleet formation of warships

A fleet or naval fleet is a large formation of warships, which is controlled by one leader and the largest formation in any navy. A fleet at sea is the direct equivalent of an army on land.

In 1525 Francisco de Hoces was the first to speculate that Tierra del Fuego was one or more islands rather than part of what was then called Terra Australis. Francis Drake in 1578 and a Dutch East India Company expedition in 1616 learned more about the geography. The latter expedition named Cape Horn.

Francisco de Hoces was a Spanish sailor who in 1525 joined the Loaísa Expedition to the Spice Islands as commander of the vessel San Lesmes.

Terra Australis fictional continent

Terra Australis was a hypothetical continent first posited in antiquity and which appeared on maps between the 15th and 18th centuries. The existence of Terra Australis was not based on any survey or direct observation, but rather on the idea that continental land in the Northern Hemisphere should be balanced by land in the Southern Hemisphere. This theory of balancing land has been documented as early as the 5th century on maps by Macrobius, who uses the term Australis on his maps.

Francis Drake Elizabethan era historical figure

Sir Francis Drake was an English sea captain, privateer, slave trader, naval officer and explorer of the Elizabethan era. Drake carried out the second circumnavigation of the world in a single expedition, from 1577 to 1580, and was the first to complete the voyage as captain while leading the expedition throughout the entire circumnavigation. With his incursion into the Pacific Ocean, he claimed what is now California for the English and inaugurated an era of conflict with the Spanish on the western coast of the Americas, an area that had previously been largely unexplored by western shipping.

On his first voyage with HMS Beagle in 1830, Robert FitzRoy picked up four native Fuegians, including "Jemmy Button" (Orundellico) and brought them to England. The surviving three were taken to London to meet the King and Queen and were, for a time, celebrities. They returned to Tierra del Fuego in Beagle with FitzRoy and Charles Darwin, who made extensive notes about his visit to the islands.

HMS <i>Beagle</i> Cherokee-class 10-gun brig-sloop of the Royal Navy

HMS Beagle was a Cherokee-class 10-gun brig-sloop of the Royal Navy, one of more than 100 ships of this class. The vessel, constructed at a cost of £7,803, was launched on 11 May 1820 from the Woolwich Dockyard on the River Thames. In July of that year she took part in a fleet review celebrating the coronation of King George IV of the United Kingdom, and for that occasion is said to have been the first ship to sail completely under the old London Bridge. There was no immediate need for Beagle so she "lay in ordinary", moored afloat but without masts or rigging. She was then adapted as a survey barque and took part in three survey expeditions.

Robert FitzRoy Royal Navy officer and scientist

Vice-Admiral Robert FitzRoy FRS was an English officer of the Royal Navy and a scientist. He achieved lasting fame as the captain of HMS Beagle during Charles Darwin's famous voyage, FitzRoy's second expedition to Tierra del Fuego and the Southern Cone.

Jemmy Button Yaghan native, celebrity in England

Orundellico, known as "Jeremy Button" or "Jemmy Button", was a native Fuegian of the Yaghan people from islands around Tierra del Fuego, in modern Chile and Argentina. He was taken to England by Captain FitzRoy in HMS Beagle and became a celebrity for a period.

European colonization and extinction of Native Americans (1860–1910)

Puerto Williams1.JPG
Ushuaia6a (js).jpg
The city of Ushuaia

During the second half of the 19th century, the archipelago began to come under Chilean and Argentine influence. Both countries sought to claim the whole archipelago based on de jure Spanish colonial titles. Salesian Catholic missions were established in Río Grande and Dawson Island.

Anglican missions were established by British colonists at Keppel Island in the Falklands in 1855 and in 1870 at Ushuaia on the main island, which continued to operate through the 19th century. Thomas Bridges (1842–1898) learned the language and compiled a 30,000-word Yaghan grammar and dictionary while he worked at Ushuaia. [4] It was published in the 20th century and considered an important ethnological work. [4]

An 1879 Chilean expedition led by Ramón Serrano Montaner reported large amounts of placer gold in the streams and river beds of Tierra del Fuego. This prompted massive immigration to the main island between 1883 and 1909. Numerous Argentines, Chileans and Croatians settled in the main island, leading to increased conflicts with native Selk'nam.

Julius Popper, a Romanian explorer, was one of the most successful entrepreneurs in the region. Granted rights by the Argentine government to exploit any gold deposits he found in Tierra del Fuego, Popper has been identified as a central figure in the Selk'nam genocide.

Following contact with Europeans, the native Selk'nam and Yaghan populations were greatly reduced by unequal conflict and persecution by settlers, by infectious diseases to which the indigenous people had no immunity, and by mass transfer to the Salesian mission of Dawson Island. Despite the missionaries' efforts, many natives died. Today, only a few Selk'nam remain. Some of the few remaining Yaghan have settled in Villa Ukika in Navarino Island; others have scattered across Chile and Argentina.

Following the signing of the Boundary Treaty of 1881, Tierra del Fuego was divided between Argentina and Chile; previously, it had been claimed in its entirety by both countries.

The gold rushes of the late 19th century led to the founding of numerous small settlements by immigrants such as the Argentine settlements of Ushuaia and Río Grande and the Chilean settlements of Porvenir and Puerto Toro.

Recent history (1940–present)

In 1945 a division of Chilean CORFO (Spanish acronym for Production Development Corporation) engaged in oil exploration made a breakthrough discovery of oil in northern Tierra del Fuego. Extraction began in 1949, and in 1950 the state created ENAP (National Petroleum Company) to deal with oil extraction and prospecting. Until 1960, most oil extracted in Chile came from Tierra del Fuego. [5]

During the 1940s Chile and Argentina formulated their Antarctic claims. The governments realized the key role of Tierra del Fuego's geographical proximity in backing their claims as well as in supplying their Antarctic bases. In the 1950s, the Chilean military founded Puerto Williams to counter Ushuaia's monopoly as the only settlement in the Beagle Channel, a zone where Argentina disputed the 1881 borders.

In the 1960s and 1970s, sovereignty claims by Argentina over Picton, Lennox and Nueva Islands in Tierra del Fuego led the two countries in December 1978 to the brink of war. In response to the threat of an Argentine invasion, minefields were deployed and bunkers built on the Chilean side in some areas of Tierra del Fuego. The threat of war caused the Chilean Pinochet regime to give logistical support and information to the British during the Falklands War of 1982. Chilean radar supplied the British with information on Argentine jet movements in Tierra del Fuego, from where the Argentine Air Force launched raids on targets in the Falklands.

In 1986 the Argentine congress decided that the Argentine part of Tierra del Fuego should be a new province; the law was not promulgated until 26 April 1990. [6]

Geography

The archipelago consists of a main island, Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, often called simply Tierra del Fuego or Isla Grande, with an area of 48,100 km2 (18,572 sq mi), and a group of smaller islands. The main island is split between two countries: 29,484.7 km2 (11,384 sq mi), and 18,507.3 km2 (7,146 sq mi), 61.43% of the total area, belongs to Chile while 38.57% of the total area, belongs to Argentina. The archipelago is divided by an east–west channel, the Beagle Channel, immediately south of the main island. The largest islands south of the Beagle Channel are Hoste and Navarino.

The western part of the main island, and almost all the other islands, belong to Chile. They are part of the Magallanes y Antártica Chilena Region, the capital and chief town of which is Punta Arenas, situated on the mainland across the strait. The biggest Chilean towns are Porvenir, capital of the Chilean Province of Tierra del Fuego, located on the main island; and, on Navarino Island, Puerto Williams, which is the capital of the Antártica Chilena Province. Puerto Toro lies a few kilometers south of Puerto Williams and is arguably the southernmost village in the world. The mostly uninhabited islands north and west of the main island are part of Magallanes Province.

The eastern part of the main island, and a few small islands in the Beagle Channel, belong to Argentina. They are part of the Tierra del Fuego, Antarctic Territory and South Atlantic Islands Province, whose capital is Ushuaia, the biggest city of the archipelago. The other important city in the region is Río Grande on the Atlantic coast.

The Cordillera Darwin in the southwestern part of the main island contains many glaciers that reach the ocean. Mount Darwin is the highest peak at 2,488 metres (8,163 feet).

The topography can be divided into four regions: an outer archipelago region (Spanish : Región Archipielágica) to the south and west, a mountain region in the south (Spanish : Región Cordillerana), [7] a plains region (Spanish : Región de las Planicies Orientales) [8] plus a sub-Andean zone in-between the last two zones (Spanish : Región Sub-Andina Oriental). [9]

Geology

The geology of the archipelago is characterized by the effects of the Andean orogeny and the repeated Pleistocene glaciations. The geology of the island can be divided into large east–west-oriented units. The southwestern islands of the archipelago, including Cape Horn, are part of the South Patagonian Batholith, while Cordillera Darwin and the area around Beagle Channel form the principal cordillera hosting the highest mountains. The Magallanes fold and thrust belt extends north of Almirantazgo Fjord and Fagnano Lake, and north of this lies the Magallanes foreland; an old sedimentary basin that hosts hydrocarbon reserves. [10] Orthogneiss dated at 525 million years is known to underlie some of the oil wells in northern Tierra del Fuego. [11]

The Magallanes–Fagnano Fault, a sinistral strike slip fault crosses the southern part of the main island from west to east. It is an active fault, located inside and parallel to the Fuegian fold and thrust belt, and marks the boundary between a southern belt of Paleozoic meta sediments and a northern Mesozoic belt of sedimentary sequences. Fagnano Lake occupies a glacier-carved depression in a pull-apart basin that has developed along the Magallanes-Fagnano Fault zone. [12]

Podzols and inceptisols occur beneath Nothofagus betuloides forests in Tierra del Fuego. [13]

Climate

This region has a subpolar oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfc) with short, cool summers and long, wet, moderately mild winters: the precipitation averages 3,000 mm (118 in) a year in the far west, but precipitation decreases rapidly to the eastern side. Temperatures are steady throughout the year: in Ushuaia they hardly surpass 9 °C (48 °F) in summers and average 0 °C (32 °F) in winters. Snowfall can occur in summer. The cold and wet summers help preserve the ancient glaciers. The southernmost islands possess a sub-antarctic climate typical of tundra that makes the growth of trees impossible. Some areas in the interior have a polar climate. Regions in the world with similar climates to southern Tierra del Fuego are: the Aleutian islands, Iceland, the Alaska Peninsula, the Faroe Islands, Macquarie Island, and the Heard and McDonald Islands.

Flora

Only 30% of the islands have forests, which are classified as Magellanic subpolar. The northeast is made up of steppe and cool semi-desert.

Six species of tree are found in Tierra del Fuego: canelo or winter's bark ( Drimys winteri ), Maytenus magellanica , Pilgerodendron uviferum , the southernmost conifer in the world, and three kinds of southern beech: Nothofagus antarctica , Nothofagus pumilio , and the evergreen Nothofagus betuloides . Several kinds of fruit grow in open spaces in these forests, such as beach strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis var. chiloensis forma chiloensis) and calafate (Berberis buxifolia), which have long been gathered by both Native Americans and residents of European descent. [14] They are the only forests in the world to have developed in a climate with such cold summers. Tree cover extends very close to the southernmost tip of South America. Winds are so strong that trees in wind-exposed areas grow into twisted shapes, inspiring people to call them "flag-trees". Tree vegetation extends as far south as the Isla de los Estados, Navarino Island, and the northern part of Hoste Island. Dwarf nothofagus communities are found at altitudes above 500 m (1,640 ft). Going farther south, Wollaston Islands and the southern part of Hoste Island are covered by subantarctic tundra.

Forests from Tierra del Fuego have expanded beyond local importance; they have been a source of trees that have been planted abroad in places with practically the same climate but which were originally devoid of trees, such as the Faroe Islands and nearby archipelagos. Most species were gathered from the coldest places in Tierra del Fuego, mainly sites with tundra borders. This effort resulted in positive changes, as the heavy winds and cool summers in the Faroe Islands did not allow the growth of trees from other regions in the world. The imported trees are used ornamentally, as curtains against wind, and for fighting erosion caused by storms and grazing in the Faroe Islands. [15]

Fauna

Sea lions at Isla de los Lobos in the Beagle Channel, near Ushuaia IslaLosLobos.jpg
Sea lions at Isla de los Lobos in the Beagle Channel, near Ushuaia

Among the most notable animals in the archipelago are austral parakeets, sea gulls, guanacos, foxes, kingfishers, condors, king penguins, owls, and firecrown hummingbirds.

North American beavers, introduced during the 1940s, have proliferated and caused considerable damage to the island's forests. The governments have established a wide-reaching program to trap and kill beavers in Tierra del Fuego. [16]

Like the mainland of Chile and Argentina to the north, this archipelago boasts some of the finest trout fishing in the world. Sea-run brown trout often exceed 9 kg (20 lb), particularly in rivers such as the Rio Grande and the San Pablo and in the Lago Fagnano. Much of this water is privately owned, with catch and release and fly fishing only.[ citation needed ]

Waters adjacent to Tierra del Fuego are very rich in cetacean diversity. [17] Sightings of southern right whales in Tierra del Fuego [18] have increased in the 2000s, [19] as well as humpbacks [20] [21] and some others such as blue whales, [22] southern fins, southern seis, [23] and southern minkes. [24] [25] Beagle Channel is a prominent area to watch rare, endemic dolphins, [26] and the less-studied pygmy right whales.

Pinnipeds inhabiting the areas include South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens), [27] [28] South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis), [29] [30] carnivorous leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) [31] (seal-eating seal) and gigantic southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonine). [32] [33]

Economy

Today, the main economic activities of the archipelago are fishing, natural gas and oil extraction, sheep farming, and ecotourism. Tourism is gaining in importance and becoming increasingly important as it attracts numerous upmarket visitors. Much of the tourism is based on "southernmost" claims: for example, both Ushuaia and Puerto Williams claim to be the "southernmost city in the world." On the Argentine side of Tierra del Fuego, the government has promoted the establishment of several electronic companies via tributary exemptions, particularly in the city of Río Grande.

Energy production is a crucial economic activity. On the Argentine side of Tierra del Fuego during the 2005 to 2010 period, petroleum and natural gas extraction contributed to 20% of the region’s economic output. [34]

See also

Notes

  1. Iparraguirre, Sylvia. Tierra del fuego: a biography of the end of the world. p. 146.
  2. Hogan, C. Michael (4 April 2008). "Bahia Wulaia Dome Middens". Megalithic Portal. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
  3. Bergreen, Laurence (2003). Over the Edge of the World: Magellan's Terrifying Circumnavigation of the Globe. HarperCollins. p. 179. ISBN   978-0-06-186588-6.
  4. 1 2 "Cook Tried to Steal Parson's Life Work" (PDF). New York Times. 21 May 1910. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
  5. Martinić, Mateo (1982), La Tierra de los Fuegos (in Spanish), Punta Arenas, Chile: Municipalidad de Porvenir, pp. 164–171
  6. "Historia de Tierra del Fuego" (in Spanish). Tierradelfuego.gov.ar. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
  7. Pisano (1977), p. 124
  8. Pisano (1977), p. 128
  9. Pisano (1977), p. 125
  10. Menichetti, M.; Lodolo, E.; Tassone, A. (March 2008). "Structural geology of the Fuegian Andes and Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt – Tierra del Fuego Island". Geologica Acta . 6 (1). Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
  11. Hervé, Francisco; Miller, Hubert; Pimpirev Christo. 2003. Patagonia – Antarctica Connections before Gondwana Break-Up in Antarctica Contributions to Global Earth Sciences. Chapter 5.1
  12. Lodolo, Emanuele; Menichetti, Marco; Bartole, Roberto; Ben‐Avraham, Zvi; Tassone, Alejandro; Lippai, Horacio (2003). "Magallanes-Fagnano continental transform fault (Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America)". Tectonics. 22 (6): 1076. Bibcode:2003Tecto..22.1076L. doi:10.1029/2003TC001500.
  13. Gerding, Victor; Thiers, Oscar (2002), "Characterization of soils of Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb) Blume forests, in Tierra del Fuego, Chile", Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (in Spanish), 75 (4): 819–833, archived from the original on 26 August 2014
  14. Martínez Crovetto, Raúl. 1968. Estudios Etnobotánicos. Nombres de plantas y su utilidad según los indios Onas de Tierra del Fuego, Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía y Veterinaria de la Universidad del Nordeste, Corrientes, Argentina
  15. Højgaard, A., J. Jóhansen, and S. Ødum (eds) 1989. A Century of Tree Planting in the Faroe Islands, Føroya Frodskaparfelag, Tórshavn.
  16. Strieker, Gary (9 July 1999). "Argentina eager to rid island of beavers". Cable News Network. Archived from the original on 3 March 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2007.
  17. https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:LetUsI438EAJ:iwc.int/document_1215.download+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=nz%5B%5D
  18. "Hoy en Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego (ballena)". Archived from the original on 5 May 2014.
  19. Goodall, R. Natalie P.; Benegas, G. L.; Dellabianca, N.; Riccialdelli, L.; Pimper, E. L. (17 January 2014). "The Presence of Southern Right Whales off Eastern Tierra del Fuego, 1987–2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
  20. "Whale Watching in the Southern Cone – Argentina". Archived from the original on 31 May 2014.
  21. "Whale Watching in the Southern Cone – Gallery". Archived from the original on 31 May 2014.
  22. "Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) on Tierra del Fuego Check List". Archived from the original on 17 September 2016.
  23. "Minke Whale (Sei Whale?)". Archived from the original on 24 June 2016 via Flickr.
  24. "Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) on Tierra del Fuego Check List". Archived from the original on 4 January 2018.
  25. "Record of a dwarf minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in northern Brazil" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 May 2014.
  26. "Scotia Sea: Part 5. The Great Marine Mammals". Archived from the original on 5 May 2014.
  27. "Sailing to the Sea Lions and Les Eclaireurs Lighthouse in Catamarans". Archived from the original on 20 January 2013.
  28. "Southern Sea Lions: Tierra del Fuego, Argentina". 25 September 2011. Archived from the original on 5 May 2014.
  29. "Mark Horrell: Tierra del Fuego". Archived from the original on 4 November 2016 via Flickr.
  30. "Ballenas en el Canal de Beagle". Archived from the original on 5 May 2014.
  31. "Ushuaia Photo: leopard seal". Archived from the original on 20 September 2016.
  32. "Expedition Uncovers Wildlife Wonders at Tierra del Fuego". 25 February 2011. Archived from the original on 9 July 2011.
  33. "Cruceros Australis – Fjords of Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia & Cape Horn, Punta Arenas – Ushuaia – Punta Arenas". Archived from the original on 5 May 2014.
  34. "Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos". Archived from the original on 6 April 2007.

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Beagle Channel is a strait in Tierra del Fuego Archipelago on the extreme southern tip of South America between Chile and Argentina. The channel separates the larger main island of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego from various smaller islands including the islands of Picton, Lennox and Nueva; Navarino; Hoste; Londonderry; and Stewart. The channel's eastern area forms part of the border between Chile and Argentina and the western area is entirely within Chile.

Antártica Chilena Province Province in Magallanes y Antártica Chilena, Chile

Antártica Chilena Province is the southernmost and one of four provinces in Chile's southernmost region, Magallanes and Antártica Chilena Region (XII). The capital is Puerto Williams. The province comprises the extreme southern part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, the islands south and west of Isla Grande, and Chile's claims in Antarctica. The province is administratively divided into two communes (comunas): Cabo de Hornos, located at the southern tip of South America, and Antártica, a wedge-shaped claim of Antarctica, which is not internationally recognized. Its total area of 1,265,853.7 km2 (488,749 sq mi) makes it almost twice as large as all other provinces of Chile combined.

Hoste Island island of Chile

Hoste Island is one of the southernmost islands in Chile, lying south, across the Beagle Channel, from Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego and west of Navarino Island, from which it is separated by the Murray Channel. Hoste Island has the southernmost trees on earth, Nothofagus antarctica. In Magellania, Jules Verne described an imaginary republic on the island.

Tierra del Fuego Province, Chile Province in Magallanes y Antártica Chilena, Chile

Tierra del Fuego Province is one of four provinces in the southern Chilean region of Magallanes and Antártica Chilena (XII). It includes the Chilean or western part of the main island of Tierra del Fuego, except for the part south of the Cordillera Darwin, which is in Antártica Chilena Province.

Cami Lake lake

Fagnano Lake, also called Lake Cami, is a lake located on the main island of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago, and shared by Argentina and Chile.

Alberto de Agostini National Park National Park of Chile

Alberto de Agostini National Park is a protected area that was created on January 22, 1965, on land that was formerly part of the "Hollanda" forest reserve and "Hernando de Magallanes National Park". It covers 1,460,000 hectares and includes the Cordillera Darwin mountain range, which is the final land-based stretch of the Andes before it becomes a chain of mountains appearing as small islands that sink into the Pacific Ocean and the Beagle Channel.

<i>Nothofagus betuloides</i> species of plant

Nothofagus betuloides, Magellan's beech or guindo, is native to southern Patagonia.

Bahía Wulaia

Bahia Wulaia is a bay on the western shore of Isla Navarino along the Murray Channel in extreme southern Chile. The island and adjacent strait are part of the commune of Cabo de Hornos in the Antártica Chilena Province, which is part of the Magallanes and Antartica Chilena Region.

Tierra del Fuego National Park national park of Argentina

Tierra del Fuego National Park is a national park on the Argentine part of the island of Tierra del Fuego, within Tierra del Fuego Province in the ecoregion of Patagonic Forest and Altos Andes, a part of the subantarctic forest. Established on 15 October 1960 under the Law 15.554 and expanded in 1966, it was the first shoreline national park to be established in Argentina.

Martin Gusinde Anthropological Museum Archaeology museum in Aragay / Gusinde, Puerto Williams

The Martin Gusinde Anthropological Museum is an anthropology museum in Puerto Williams, Isla Navarino, in southernmost Chile. It is the southernmost museum of the world. The museum hosts artifacts, maps and photographs related to the 10,000-year history of the Yahgan people, as well as European settlers since the 19th century. Samples of local flora and fauna are also displayed, as well as photographs and text from the founding of Puerto Williams.

Fueguino is a volcanic field in Chile. The southernmost volcano in the Andes, it lies on Tierra del Fuego's Cook Island and also extends over nearby Londonderry Island. The field is formed by lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a crater lake.

References

Coordinates: 54°S70°W / 54°S 70°W / -54; -70