In Latin America, tierra fría (Spanish for cold land) are mountain locations where high elevation results in a markedly cooler climate than that encountered in the lowlands at a comparable latitude. The combination of low latitude and high altitude — typically between approximately 2,000 m (about 6,500 ft) and 3,500 m (about 11,500 ft) in locations within 10° of the equator — produces a climate that falls into the same category as many oceanic climates found along the west coasts of the continents within the temperate zones — mild temperatures all year round, with monthly averages ranging from about 10°C (50°F) in the coldest months to about 18°C (64.4°F) in the warmest months (at places further poleward the range of altitudes where this climate exists becomes progressively lower). Common crops grown in the tierra fría are potatoes, wheat, barley, oats, corn, and rye.
Beyond the tierra fría is a region known as the suni , puna , or páramos ; near the Equator this encompasses places with altitudes of between roughly 3,500 m (11,500 ft) and 4,500 m (15,000 ft), representing the treeline and the snow line respectively. Vegetation here resembles that found in the tundra of the polar regions. Still higher is the tierra nevada , where permanent snow and ice prevail. The Peruvian geographer Javier Pulgar Vidal (Altitudinal zonation) used following altitudes: 2,300 m (end of the Cloud forest or Yunga fluvial ), 3,500 m (Treeline) and 4,800 m (Puna end).
Some of Latin America's largest cities are found in the tierra fria, most notably Bogotá, Colombia, altitude 2,640 m, Mexico City, Mexico, altitude 2,240 m and Quito, Ecuador, altitude 2,850 m; all three cities are also the capitals of their respective countries.
Agriculture in the region resembles that which is conducted in valley areas in the temperate zones, featuring such crops as barley and potatoes.
The Republic of Colombia is situated largely in the northwest of South America, with some territories falling within the boundaries of Central America. It is bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; and it shares maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, the Dominican Republic, and Haiti.
The tree line is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing. It is found at high elevations and high latitudes. Beyond the tree line, trees cannot tolerate the environmental conditions. The tree line is sometimes distinguished from a lower timberline or forest line, which is the line below which trees form a forest with a closed canopy.
The Altiplano, Collao or Andean Plateau, in west-central South America, is the most extensive high plateau on Earth outside Tibet. The plateau is located at the same latitude where the north-south trending Andes are the widest. The bulk of the Altiplano lies in Bolivia, but its northern parts lie in Peru, and its southwestern fringes lie in Chile.
Tierra caliente is an informal term used in Latin America to refer to places with a distinctly tropical climate. These are usually regions from sea level from 0–3,000 feet. The Peruvian geographer Javier Pulgar Vidal used the altitude of 1,000 m as the border between the tropical rain forest and the subtropical cloud forest.
Tierra templada is a pseudo-climatological term used in Latin America to refer to places which are either located in the tropics at a moderately high elevation or are marginally outside the astronomical tropics, producing a somewhat cooler overall climate than that found in the tropical lowlands, the zone of which is known as the tierra caliente.
Tierra Helada, also known as Tierra Nevada, is a term used in Latin America to refer to the highest places found within the Andes mountains.
The Yungas is a bioregion of a narrow band of forest along the eastern slope of the Andes Mountains from Peru and Bolivia, and extends into Northwest Argentina at the slope of the Andes pre-cordillera. It is a transitional zone between the Andean highlands and the eastern forests. Like the surrounding areas, the Yungas belong to the Neotropical realm; the climate is rainy, humid, and warm.
Huanta Province is the northernmost of the eleven provinces in the Ayacucho region in Peru. The capital of the Huanta province is the city of Huanta.
The Chala or "Coast" is one of the eight natural regions in Peru. It is formed by all the western lands that arise from sea level up to the height of 500 meters. The coastal desert of Peru is largely devoid of vegetation but a unique fog and mist-fed ecosystem called Lomas is scattered among hills near the Pacific coast as elevations up to 1,000 metres (3,300 ft).
Quechua is one of the eight Natural Regions of Peru and is between 2,300 and 3,500 m above sea level. It is composed of big valleys divided by rivers fed by estival rains.
Suni or Jalca is one of the eight Natural Regions of Peru. It is located in the Andes at an altitude between 3,500 and 4,000 metres above sea level. Suni has a dry and cold weather and there are many glacial valleys.
Janca is one of the eight Natural Regions of Peru. It is located in the frozen heights where the condor lives.
Rupa-Rupa or High Jungle is one of the eight natural regions of Peru. It is located between 400 and 1,000 m above the sea level to the east of the Andes mountain range in the Amazon basin of Peru. This region has many long, narrow valleys and fluvial mountain trails. The weather is warm, humid, and rainy.
Omagua or low jungle is one of the eight natural regions of Peru. It is located between 80 and 400m above sea level in the Peruvian Amazonia. In this region, there are a lot of rivers that create meanders, swamps and lagoons.
When the Spanish arrived, they divided Peru into three main regions: the coastal region, that is bounded by the Pacific Ocean; the highlands, that is located on the Andean Heights, and the jungle, that is located on the Amazonian Jungle. But Javier Pulgar Vidal, a geographer who studied the biogeographic reality of the Peruvian territory for a long time, proposed the creation of eight Natural Regions. In 1941, he presented his thesis "Las Ocho Regiones Naturales del Perú" at the III General Assembly of the Pan-American Institute of Geography and History.
Asunción Province is one of the 20 provinces of the Ancash Region in Peru, one of the smallest provinces of the region. It is located in the heart of the central highlands of the region, on the eastern slopes of the Cordillera Blanca, in the eastern area of the Ancash Region at a distance of 121 km from the city of Huaraz, the capital of the region, and 521 km from the city of Lima, the capital of Peru. Chacas, the capital of the province, is located about 3,350 m high in the midst of extremely rugged terrain.
The puna grassland ecoregion, of the montane grasslands and shrublands biome, is found in the central Andes Mountains of South America. It is considered one of the eight Natural Regions in Peru, but extends south, across Chile, Bolivia, and western northwest Argentina. The term puna encompasses diverse ecosystems of the high Central Andes above 3200–3400 m.
The Climate of Colombia is determined for geographic and atmospheric elements: temperature, precipitations, solar radiation, wind, latitude, altitude, atmospheric. This generate a large number of climate variants in Colombia, from more hottest, until the more cold with temperatures of 0 °C in high mountains. Generally is tropical and temperate as a result of its geographical location near the Equator presenting variations within five natural regions and depending on the altitude, being all isothermal. Because it has a very low latitude, there are no four seasons.
Altitudinal zonation in mountainous regions describes the natural layering of ecosystems that occurs at distinct elevations due to varying environmental conditions. Temperature, humidity, soil composition, and solar radiation are important factors in determining altitudinal zones, which consequently support different vegetation and animal species. Altitudinal zonation was first hypothesized by geographer Alexander von Humboldt who noticed that temperature drops with increasing elevation. Zonation also occurs in intertidal and marine environments, as well as on shorelines and in wetlands. Scientist C. Hart Merriam observed that changes in vegetation and animals in altitudinal zones map onto changes expected with increased latitude in his concept of life zones. Today, altitudinal zonation represents a core concept in mountain research.
The highland temperate climates are a temperate climate sub-type, although located in tropical zone, isothermal and with characteristics different from others temperate climates like oceanic or mediterranean where they are often are included without proper differentiation.