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|Native name||Rio Tietê (Portuguese)|
|Source||Salesópolis, Serra do Mar|
|• elevation||1,120 m (3,670 ft)|
|Mouth||Lake at the Eng Souza Dias (Jupiá) Dam, Paraná River|
|280.5 m (920 ft)|
|Length||1,150 km (710 mi)|
|Basin size||150,000 km2 (58,000 sq mi)|
|• average||2,500 m3/s (88,000 cu ft/s)|
The Tietê River (Portuguese, Rio Tietê, Portuguese pronunciation: [tʃi.eˈte] ) is a Brazilian river in the state of São Paulo.
The first known use of the name Tietê was on a map published in 1748 by d’Anville. [ citation needed ]The name means "truthful river", or "truthful waters”, in Tupi.
The Tietê River is a historically significant and economically important river, which stretches 450 kilometers and allows for navigation of barges carrying various goods.
Pollution of the Tietê River began subtly in the 1920s, but it has worsened significantly over time. In September 2010, National Geographic identified the river as the most polluted in Brazil. Despite efforts to clean up the river, it still suffers from pollution and environmental degradation, and some species are threatened, or possibly extinct.
The headwaters are in the Serra do Mar, to the east of São Paulo.
One of the first hydroelectric power stations constructed in Brazil, "Usina Parque de Salesópolis", constructed in 1912 by the São Paulo Tramway, Light and Power Company, is on the Tietê, in the municipality of Salesópolis. It generated energy from the water dropping a height of 72m through a pair of surface pipes. The dam was built at the lip of a waterfall, and thus is only 5m high.
Several dams ( for instance the Barra Bonita ) on the river have ship locks to ensure that navigation on the river is possible. The waterway of the Tietê-Paraná permits navigation over a length of 1,100 kilometres (680 mi) between Conchas on the River Tietê (São Paulo) and São Simão (Goiás), on the Paranaíba River and then, up to ltaipu, attaining 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) of waterway. Barges transport produce at a cost which is lower than road transport with, for example, more than one million metric tons of grains (maize) per year being transported an average distance of 700 kilometres (430 mi). All river ship freight including such commodities like sand, gravel, and sugarcane, total approximately 2 million metric tons. (source : DNIT) About 450 kilometres (280 mi) of the Tietê River is fully navigable
Although the Tiete River is said to be one of the most important rivers economically for the state of São Paulo and for the country, the Tietê River is best known for its environmental problems, especially for the stretch through the city of São Paulo. [ citation needed ]
The pollution of the Tietê River did not start long ago. Even in the 1960s, the river still had fish in the stretch within the capital. However, the environmental degradation of the Tietê River started subtly in the 1920s with the construction of the Guarapiranga Reservoir, by the Canadian firm São Paulo Tramway, Light and Power Company, for the later generation of electrical energy in the hydroelectric power stations Edgar de Souza and Rasgão, situated in Santana de Parnaíba. This intervention altered the regime of the waters in the capital and was accompanied with some rectification works also by the São Paulo Tramway, Light and Power Company, which left the bed of the river less winding, in the region between Vila Maria and “Freguesia do Ó.”
Even in the 1920s and 1930s, the river was utilised for fishing and sports activities were famous as were the nautical races on the river. During this period boat race clubs were created along the length of the river, such as the Club of the Tietê races and the Espéria, clubs that exist till now.
In September 2010 National Geographic identified the river as the most polluted in Brazil.
Several species from the Tietê River are considered threatened and one of these, the catfish Heptapterus multiradiatus, is possibly already extinct.
The governor of São Paulo ordered Sabesp, the company responsible for sanitation in the state, to establish a program to clean up the river. The state at the same time sought help at the Inter American Development Bank, and proposed a project based on the former studies of SANEGRAN.[ citation needed ]
After more than 16 years, the cleaning up of the River Tietê is still far short of desired levels, but encouraging progress has been made. At the end of the 1990s, the capacity of sewage treatment has been expanded: Sabesp has expanded the treatment capacity of the Wastewater Treatment Plant in Barueri, and the Seasons of the Sewage Treatment at San Miguel, to treat the rest of the sewage of the city of São Paulo.[ citation needed ]
São Carlos is a Brazilian municipality in the interior of the state of São Paulo, 254 kilometers from the city of São Paulo. With a population of 254,484 inhabitants, it is the 13th largest city in the state in terms of the number of residents, being almost in the center of the state of São Paulo. The municipality is formed by the headquarters and the districts of Água Vermelha, Bela Vista São-Carlense, Santa Eudóxia and Vila Nery.
Ibitinga is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. The population is 60,600 in an area of 689 km² (266 mi²). The elevation is 491 m (1,611 ft). The name comes from the Tupi language, meaning "White Lands". The main rivers near Ibitinga are the Tietê River and its tributaries Jacaré-Pepira River and Jacaré-Guaçu River.
The Paranapanema River is one of the most important rivers of the interior of the Brazilian state of São Paulo. The river forms most of the boundary between the states of São Paulo and Paraná.
The Reservoir of Guarapiranga is a reservoir in the southern area of the city of São Paulo, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.
Sabesp is a Brazilian water and waste management company owned by the state of São Paulo. It provides water and sewage services to residential, commercial and industrial users in São Paulo and in 363 of the 645 municipalities in São Paulo State, typically under 30-year concession contracts. It provides water to 26.7 million customers, or 60% of the population of the state. It is the largest water and waste management company in Latin América. It provides basic sanitation services, which include all phases and the collection, treatment and reuse of sewage. The São Paulo Metropolitan Region and the Regional Systems accounted for 74.5% and 25.5% of the sales and services rendered during the year ended December 31, 2004 respectively. Sabesp also supplies water on a bulk basis to municipalities in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area, in which it does not operate water systems to local operators.
Brotas is a Brazilian municipality located in the state of São Paulo. The population is 24,636 in an area of 1101 km2. The town is known locally for its coffee, on which its economy relies.
Águas de São Pedro is a Brazilian municipality in the state of São Paulo located 184 kilometres from the state capital. At only 3.61 square kilometres, it is the second-smallest Brazilian municipality in terms of area, and had an estimated population of 3,521 as of 2020. Águas de São Pedro means "Waters of Saint Peter". Its name is derived from the mineral springs in its territory and their location, which before the city's founding were part of the municipality of São Pedro.
Tietê is a Brazilian municipality in the state of São Paulo, located in the Metropolitan Region of Sorocaba, in the Meso-region of Piracicaba and in the Microregion of Piracicaba. It is located at latitude 23º06'07 "south and at a longitude 47º42'53" west, being at an altitude of 508 meters. Its estimated population in 2020 was 42,517 inhabitants. It has an area of 392,509 km2. This corresponds to a population density of 86.6 inhabitants/km2.
Water resources management is a key element of Brazil's strategy to promote sustainable growth and a more equitable and inclusive society. Brazil's achievements over the past 70 years have been closely linked to the development of hydraulic infrastructure for hydroelectric power generation and just recently to the development of irrigation infrastructure, especially in the Northeast region.
Water management in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil faces several challenges, including pollution of drinking water reservoirs that are surrounded by slums, water scarcity leading to conflicts with the Campinas Metropolitan area to the north, inefficient water use, and flooding. The sprawling Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP) with close to 20 million people is the seventh most populous urban area in the world and the economic, financial and technical hub of Brazil. The main stakeholders in water management in MRSP are the state government, the state water and sanitation utility Sabesp and 39 municipal governments. A basin committee for the Alto Tietê basin, which covers the entire area of the MRSP and supplies half of its water, brings together all stakeholders. It has drawn up two master plans for the management of water resources in the basin. The first was approved in 2003 and focused on urban sprawl. The second was approved in 2009 and focused on water use conflicts.
The Jacaré-Guaçu River is a river of São Paulo state in southeastern Brazil. It flows into the Tietê River near Ibitinga.
The Jacaré-Pepira River is a river of São Paulo state in southeastern Brazil. It flows into the Tietê River near Ibitinga.
The Piracicaba River is a river of São Paulo state in southeastern Brazil. It is a tributary of the Tietê River, which it joins in the reservoir created by Barra Bonita Dam. There is also another Piracicaba river in the state of Minas Gerais, named after the one from São Paulo state, since the early colonizers of Minas Gerais largely came from São Paulo.
The Sorocaba River is a river of São Paulo state in southeastern Brazil. It is a tributary of the Tietê River. The river runs large and important part of the municipality of Sorocaba.
The Tietê Bus Terminal is the largest bus terminal in Latin America, and the second largest in the world, after the Port Authority Bus Terminal in New York City. The terminal is located in the Santana district in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The official name in Portuguese is Terminal Rodoviário Governador Carvalho Pinto, named after Carlos Alberto Alves de Carvalho Pinto, a former Governor of the State of São Paulo.
The Três Irmãos Dam is an embankment dam with gravity sections on the Tietê River in Pereira Barreto of São Paulo state in Brazil. The dam is about 28 kilometres (17 mi) upstream of the river's confluence with the Paraná River. It supports the largest hydroelectric power station on the river with an installed capacity of 807.5 megawatts (1,082,900 hp). The dam was completed in 1991 and the five 161.5 megawatts (216,600 hp) Francis turbine-generators were commissioned between November 1993 and January 1999. It is owned and operated by Companhia Energética de São Paulo (CESP). The dam also provides for navigation with two ship locks.