Tietea singularis

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Tietea singularis
Temporal range: Late Carboniferous–Permian
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Tietea - Perm Brazil.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pteridophyta
Class: Marattiopsida
Order: Marattiales
Family: Psaroniaceae
Genus: Tietea
Species:Tietea singularis

Tietea singularis was a Marattialean tree fern from the Late Carboniferous to Permian which grew up to 12 metres (39 ft) in height. It is estimated to represent close to 90% of some fossil assemblages in Brazil. [1] [2]

Tree fern ferns that grow with a trunk elevating the fronds above ground level

The tree ferns are the ferns that grow with a trunk elevating the fronds above ground level. Most tree ferns are members of the "core tree ferns", belonging to the families Dicksoniaceae, Metaxyaceae, and Cibotiaceae in the order Cyatheales.

The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period 298.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic era; the following Triassic period belongs to the Mesozoic era. The concept of the Permian was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison, who named it after the city of Perm.

Brazil Federal republic in South America

Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Brazil borders every South American country except Chile and Ecuador. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populated city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, and the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world.

Tietea singularis stems usually are less than 20 centimetres (7.9 in) in diameter, bearing four orthostichies of leaves in a decussate arrangement. The stem is surrounded by a continuous ring of sclerenchyma that separates it from the root mantle. [3] T. singularis stem transverse sections have the same basic structure as Psaronius, but are composed of central vascular bundles having smaller, O- and C-shaped forms, or wavy segments having a short, rounded or fat configuration. Leaf traces are polymeristelic in Tietea, while they are monomeristelic in Psaronius. [4] The Tietea root mantle is composed of polyarch roots embedded in a parenchymatous tissue that is produced both by the stem and the roots. [5]

<i>Psaronius</i> genus of plants (fossil)

Psaronius was a Marattialean tree fern which grew to 10m in height, and is associated with leaves of the organ genus Pecopteris and other extinct tree ferns. Originally, Psaronius was a name for the petrified stems, but today the genus is used for the entire tree fern. Psaronius tree fern fossils are found from the Carboniferous through the Permian.

The preserved examples from Pedra do Fogo Formation, in the Maranhão Basin (northeastern Brazil, near Araguaína) exhibit remarkable cell preservation and exquisite coloration. Much of the recovered wood material from this formation is of the tree ferns Psaronius and T. singularis, with fewer examples of the fossilized stems being of Calamites. Conifers such as Dadoxylon are also found.

The Maranhão River is a river of Goiás state in central Brazil.

Araguaína Place in Norte, Brazil

Araguaína is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Tocantins. Its population was 153,350 (2010), and its area is 4,000.40 square kilometres (1,544.56 sq mi).

<i>Calamites</i> genus of plants (fossil)

Calamites is a genus of extinct arborescent (tree-like) horsetails to which the modern horsetails are closely related. Unlike their herbaceous modern cousins, these plants were medium-sized trees, growing to heights of more than 30 meters (100 feet). They were components of the understories of coal swamps of the Carboniferous Period.

Tietea singularis is also seen abundantly in the Motuca Formation, Parnaíba Basin in Filadélfia, Tocantins. In 2000, the área of the Motuca formation was transformed into a Natural monument, the Monumento Natural das Árvores Fossilizadas-MONAF (Tocantins Fossil Trees Natural Monument). [6] [7]

Parnaíba River river in Brazil

The Parnaíba River is a river in Brazil, which forms the border between the states of Maranhão and Piauí. Its main course is 1,400 km (870 mi) long and the Parnaíba River Basin covers 344,112 km2 (132,862 sq mi). The Parnaíba River rises in the Chapada das Mangabeiras range, and flows northeastward to empty into the Atlantic Ocean, being the longest river entirely located within Brazil's Northeast Region. The middle and upper regions of this river are separated by waterfalls, but is otherwise navigable.

Filadélfia, Tocantins is a municipality in the state of Tocantins in the Northern region of Brazil.

Tocantins State of Brazil

Tocantins is one of the states of Brazil.. It is the newest of the 26 Brazilian states, formed in 1988 and encompassing what had formerly been the northern two-fifths of the state of Goiás. Tocantins covers 277,620.91 square kilometres (107,190.03 sq mi) and has a population of 1,496,880. Construction of its capital, Palmas, began in 1989; most of the other cities in the state date to the Portuguese colonial period. With the exception of Araguaína there are few other cities with a significant population in the state. The government has invested in a new capital, a major hydropower dam, railroads and related infrastructure to develop this primarily agricultural area.

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Polystrate fossil

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<i>Archaeopteris</i> genus of plants (fossil)

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<i>Pecopteris</i> genus of plants (fossil)

Pecopteris is a very common form genus of leaves. Most Pecopteris leaves and fronds are associated with the marattialean tree fern Psaronius. However, Pecopteris-type foliage also is borne on several filicalean ferns, and at least one seed fern. Pecopteris first appeared in the Devonian period, but flourished in the Carboniferous, especially the Pennsylvanian. Plants bearing these leaves became extinct in the Permian period.

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Chemnitz petrified forest

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Puyango Petrified Forest

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References

  1. Rössler & Galtier (2002a)
  2. Petrified Wood Museum: The Anatomy of Arborescent Plant Life Through Time
  3. Herbst, 1986
  4. Petrified Wood Museum: Tietea vs. Psaronius
  5. Edith L. Taylor, Thomas N. Taylor, Michael Krings: Paleobotany: The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants (2009), page 425
  6. Dissertation: Study of marattiales in the Tocantins Fossilized Forest
  7. FAPESP Research Magazine, Edition 210 - August 2013