- Interior showing raised bimah topped by ornate ironwork, vintage postcard c. 1900.
- Interior design showing uppermost section of bimah ironwork, c. 1940.
- Inside of synagogue dome decorated with painted murals, c. 1940.
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
|Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue|
בית הכנסת תפארת ישראל
The Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue, before 1948
|Patron||Rabbi Yisrael Friedman of Ruzhin|
|Location||Jewish Quarter of the Old City|
|Destroyed||21 May 1948|
Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue (Hebrew : בית הכנסת תפארת ישראל; Ashkenazi Hebrew: Tiferes Yisroel), most often spelled Tiferet Israel, also known as the Nisan Bak Shul, (Yiddish : ניסן ב"ק שול), after its co-founder, Nisan Bak. was a prominent synagogue in the Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem in the 19th and 20th centuries. The synagogue was established by the Ruzhin Hasidim among the members of the Old Yishuv [ citation needed ] and was destroyed by the Jordanian Arab Legion on 21 May 1948, during the Battle for Jerusalem of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
Hebrew is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel. Modern Hebrew was spoken by over nine million people worldwide in 2013. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name "Hebrew" in the Tanakh itself. The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only Canaanite language still spoken, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language.
Ashkenazi Hebrew is the pronunciation system for Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew favored for liturgical use and study by Ashkenazi Jewish practice. It survives today as a separate religious dialect within some parts of the Haredi community, even alongside Modern Hebrew in Israel, although its use amongst non-Israeli Ashkenazi Jews has greatly diminished.
Nisan Bak was a leader of the Hasidic Jewish community of the Old Yishuv in Ottoman Palestine. He was the founder of two Jewish neighborhoods in Jerusalem, Kirya Ne'emana and a Yemenite neighborhood, and builder of the Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue, also known as the Nisan Bak Shul.
The synagogue was left as ruins after the recapture of the Old City in the Six-Day War. In November 2012 the Jerusalem municipality announced its approval for plans to rebuild the synagogue.The cornerstone was laid on May 27, 2014.
The Six-Day War, also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria.
The synagogue was built in the 1860s by the followers of Rabbi Yisrael Friedman of Ruzhinand his son Rabbi Avrohom Yaakov of Sadigura, and was named "Tiferet Yisrael" after Reb Yisrael - tiferet means "glory" or "splendour" in Hebrew, and Rabbi Yisrael was famous for conducting his court with a regal display of gold and wealth. Nevertheless, the strong involvement of Nissan Bak, led to the widespread use of the name "Nissan Bak synagogue".
Israel Friedman of Ruzhyn, also called Israel Ruzhin, was a Hasidic rebbe in 19th-century Ukraine and Austria. Known as Der Heiliger Ruzhiner, he conducted his court with regal pomp and splendor. Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, who was said to be jealous of the Rebbe's wealth and influence, had the Rebbe imprisoned for nearly two years on an unsubstantiated murder charge. After his release, the Rebbe fled to Austria, where he re-established his court in Sadigura, Bukovina, attracted thousands of Hasidim, provided for the Hasidic community in Israel, and inaugurated the construction of the Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue in the Old City of Jerusalem.
Avrohom Yaakov Friedman was the first Rebbe of the Sadigura Hasidic dynasty. He lived in the palatial home constructed by his father, Rabbi Yisrael Friedman of Ruzhyn, who fled to the Austrian town of Sadhora due to persecution by the Russian Tsar. He maintained his father's extravagant lifestyle while immersing himself in Torah study and mysticism. He was considered the greatest Rebbe of his era, attracting hundreds of thousands of Jews as well as prominent Christian leaders to his court.
Another tradition, published by a relative of the Bak family, holds that it was named after Yisrael Bak, who had a decisive role in the construction of the synagogue.
Although Hasidim had arrived in Jerusalem by 1747, it was only in 1839 that Nissan Bak began plans for a Hasidic synagogue. Until then they had prayed in small, private locations like Yisrael Bak's house.
A synagogue is a Jewish or Samaritan house of worship.
In 1843 Yisrael Bak travelled from Jerusalem to visit the Ruzhiner Rebbe in Sadigura. He informed him that Czar Nikolai I intended to buy a plot of land near the Western Wall with the intention of building a church and monastery there. The Ruzhiner Rebbe, who was very involved in assisting the yishuv, gave Bak the task to thwart the Czar's attempt. Bak managed to buy the land from its Arab owners for an exorbitant sum mere days before the Czar ordered the Russian counsul in Jerusalem to make the purchase for him. The Czar was forced to buy a different plot of land for a church, which is known today as the Russian Compound.When Rabbi Friedman died in 1851, his son, Rabbi Avrohom Yaakov Friedman, the first Rebbe of Sadigura, continued the task of raising the necessary funds for the project.
Nisan Bak was the architect and contractor of the project.Initially the Ottoman authorities refused to grant permission to dig the foundations, and when permission was eventually granted, the crew discovered a Muslim sheik's grave on the site. Eventually the Muslim religious judge agreed for the tomb to be moved outside the city walls. After the foundations had been dug, another setback cropped up. It became apparent that it was necessary to obtain a building permit from the officials in Turkey who were not keen to grant the request. Bak, an Austrian national, convinced Franz Joseph I of Austria to intercede, and in 1858 a firman was granted. Over ten years were spent raising funds as the building slowly took shape.
There is a legend, proven by researcher Tamar Hayardeni to be non-factual and to have emerged a good 30 years after the end of the synagogue's construction, [ which? ] and others, he asked why the synagogue was standing without a roof. Bak quipped, "Why, the synagogue took off its hat in honour of Your Majesty!" The Kaiser smiled and replied, "I hope the roof will be built soon", and left the Austrian counsel with 1,000 French francs for the dome's construction. From then on, the dome was referred to by locals as "Franz Joseph's cap".that in November 1869 Franz Joseph, en route to the inauguration of the Suez Canal, made a visit to Jerusalem. Included in his itinerary was a tour of the Jewish institutions of the city. When he toured the Old City with Bak
The three-story synagogue was inaugurated on 19 August 1872, 29 years after the land had been purchased. For the next 75 years, it served as the centre for the Hasidic community in the city. It was considered one of the most beautiful synagogues of Jerusalem, with a commanding view of the Temple Mount, ornate decorations, and beautiful silver objects donated by Hasidim.
During the Israel War of Independence, the Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue was used as a post by the Haganah in the defense of the Old City. During the Jordanian Legion's campaign to capture the Old City, it blew up the synagogue an hour after midnight on the night of May 20–21, 1948.
|“||The first major Haganah stronghold to fall was the Nissan Bek Synagogue, the building whose dome had been donated by the Emperor Franz Joseph. It was essential to Rusnack defence plan and the Haganah fought tenaciously to hold on to it…Fawzi el Kutub finally ordered eight of his men to rush across an open space and place a charge at the base of the synagogue. All of them were killed or wounded. No one would volunteer for a second try. Hoping to force his men's hands by his example, Kutub sprinted across the space himself. When he got to the base of the synagogue, he saw that no one had followed him. Like a spider he pressed himself up against its wall until finally the Tunisian to whom he had promised a wife rushed out to him carrying a fifty-five pound charge. The explosion barely chipped the wall. Three more unsuccessful attempts were required before Kutub managed to blow a hole in the synagogue wall and a party of Legionnaires rushed through the smoke into Nissan Bek's interior. Sure that the Haganah would counterattack and that the irregulars swarming into the synagogue would quickly turn to looting, Kutub decided to destroy it with a 220-pound charge. His strongest follower, a one-eyed former porter in the railroad station nicknamed the Whale, staggered up with the explosive. A terrible roar shook the quarter and blew out the heart of the building. As the smoke cleared and the frightful devastation caused by the bomb became apparent, Kutub heard a cry of consternation rising from the Jewish posts around him. It was quickly replaced by a triumphant yell. A small group of Haganah led by Judith Jaharan counterattacked and took the smoking ruins of Nissan Bek from the Arabs. As Kutub had suspected, the irregulars had spent their time looting the synagogue. The Haganah found the bodies of Arab irregulars killed in their counterattack with altar cloths around their waist, pages of the Torah stuffed into their shirts, pieces of chandeliers and lamps in their pockets.||”|
Following the Six-Day War, the decision was made to leave the ruins of the synagogue as they were. Only its western wall remains. In 2010, at the dedication of the reconstructed Hurva Synagogue, also destroyed in 1948, plans were announced by the same donors who sponsored the Hurva rebuilding, to rebuild the Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue as well.[ citation needed ]
In November 2012, the Jerusalem municipality approved a plan to rebuild the synagogue. Funding would come from an anonymous donor.In 2014, the synagogue is being rebuilt.
In 1953 Rabbi Mordechai Shlomo Friedman, the Boyaner Rebbe of New York, laid foundations for a new Ruzhiner Torah centre in the New City of Jerusalem to replace the destroyed Ruzhiner synagogue. In 1957 the Ruzhiner yeshiva, called Mesivta Tiferes Yisroel, was inaugurated with the support of all of the Rebbes of the Ruzhiner dynasty.A large synagogue was built adjacent to it, also bearing the name Tiferes Yisroel; the current Boyaner Rebbe, Rabbi Nachum Dov Brayer, leads his Hasidut from here. The design of the synagogue, located on the western end of Malkhei Yisrael Street close to the Central Bus Station, includes a large white dome, reminiscent of the domed Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue that was destroyed in the Old City.
The Aleksander hasidic movement flourished in Poland from 1880 until it was largely destroyed by Nazi Germany during World War II. The sect is named after the town of its origin, Aleksandrow Lodzki, Poland,, which was called Aleksander in Yiddish.
Chortkov is a Hasidic dynasty that originated in Chortkov, present-day Ukraine. The town was part of the Tarnopol Voivodeship of the Second Polish Republic until September 1939. The town itself was founded in 1522 by Polish King Sigismund I the Old. The dynasty had a large following before the Second World War, but most of its adherents perished in the Holocaust.
Ruzhin is the name of a Hasidic dynasty founded by Rabbi Yisroel Friedman (1796–1850) in the town of Ruzhyn, Ukraine, today an urban-type settlement in Zhytomyr Oblast, Ukraine.
Boyan is a Hasidic dynasty named after the town of Boiany in the historic region of Bukovina, now in Ukraine. The Hasidut is headquartered in Jerusalem, Israel, with communities in Beitar Ilit, Bnei Brak, Manchester, Australia, Beis Shemesh, London, Antwerp, Manhattan, Brooklyn, Monsey, New York and Lakewood, New Jersey.
Sadigura is a Hasidic dynasty named for the city of Sadhora, Bukovina, which belonged to Austria. The dynasty began in 1850 with Rabbi Avrohom Yaakov Friedman, a son of Rabbi Yisrael Friedman of Ruzhyn, and was based in Sadigura until 1914. During the interwar period the dynasty was led by Rebbes in Vienna and Przemyśl, Poland, and on the eve of World War II was transplanted to Israel, where it thrives to this day.
Boiany is a commune (selsoviet) in the Chernivtsi Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. It is located in the Novoselytsia Raion (district) close to Sadagura in the historic region of Bukovina. It is composed of two villages, Boiany and Hai.
Sadhora is a settlement in Ukraine, now a Sadhirskyi District of Chernivtsi city, which is located 6 km from the city center. Previously, it was an independent town.
A Moetzes Gedolei HaTorah is the supreme rabbinical policy-making council of the Agudat Yisrael and Degel HaTorah movements. Rabbis sitting on the various Moetzos are usually either one of the more prestigious Roshei Yeshiva or Hasidic rebbes who are also usually regarded by many Haredi Jews to be the Gedolim ("great/est") sages of Torah Judaism. Before the Holocaust it was the supreme authority for the World Agudath Israel in Europe.
Bohush is a Hasidic dynasty named for the town of Buhuși, Romania. The dynasty began in the mid-nineteenth century with Rabbi Yitzchok Friedman of Bohush, the eldest grandson of Rabbi Yisrael Friedman of Ruzhyn, and was based in that town until 1951, when his great-grandson, Rabbi Yitzchok Friedman of Bohush-Tel Aviv, moved the dynasty to Tel Aviv. In 1987 the Bohush beis medrash was transferred to Bnei Brak, where the dynasty is led today by Rabbi Yaakov Mendel Friedman, a great-great-grandson of the first Bohusher Rebbe.
Husiatyn is the name of a Hasidic dynasty, whose founder was a scion of the Ruzhiner dynasty. Husiatyn is located in present-day Ukraine.
Shtefanesht was a Hasidic dynasty named for the town of Ştefăneşti, Romania. It was one of the branches of the Ruzhiner dynasty, together with Bohush, Boyan, Chortkov, Husiatyn, and Sadigura. The dynasty lasted from 1851 to 1933 and had only two Rebbes: Rabbi Menachem Nochum Friedman, a son of the Ruzhiner Rebbe, and Rabbi Avrohom Mattisyohu Friedman, the only son of Rabbi Menachem Nochum. During the latter’s reign, Ştefăneşti became one of the most important Hasidic centers in Eastern Europe.
Skulen (סקולען) Hasidic dynasty was founded by Rav Eliezer Zusia Portugal. It was headed by his son, Rav Yisroel Avrohom Portugal until his death on April 1 2019. Its name is originated from Sculeni, a town in Bessarabia where Rabbi Eliezer Zusia was born and served as rabbi.
Yitzchok Friedman was the founder and first Rebbe of the Boyan Hasidic dynasty. He was known as the Pachad Yitzchok.
Nachum Dov Brayer is the Rebbe of the Boyan Hasidic dynasty. He is the grandson of the former Boyaner Rebbe of New York, Rabbi Mordechai Shlomo Friedman. On Hanukkah 1984, at the age of 25, he was crowned Boyaner Rebbe. He lives in Jerusalem.
Mordechai Shlomo Friedman, sometimes called Solomon Mordecai Friedman, was the Boyaner Rebbe of New York for over 40 years. In 1927 he left Europe to become one of the first Hasidic Rebbes in America, establishing his court on the Lower East Side of New York City and attracting many American Jewish youth with his charismatic and warm personality. He also played a role in American Jewish leadership with positions on Agudath Israel of America, the Moetzes Gedolei HaTorah, and Holocaust rescue organizations. In 1957 he built the flagship Ruzhiner yeshiva, Tiferet Yisroel, at the top of Malkhei Yisrael Street in Jerusalem.
Avrohom Yaakov Friedman, in English also spelled Abraham Jacob Friedman was the third Rebbe of the Sadigura Hasidic dynasty. He was a prominent Jewish leader in Vienna in the interwar period and in the nascent State of Israel, where he established his court in Tel Aviv. He was one of the first members of Agudat Israel and occupied a seat on the Moetzes Gedolei HaTorah.
Avrohom Yaakov Friedman was the fifth Rebbe of the Sadigura Hasidic dynasty. In 1979 he succeeded his father, the fourth Sadigura Rebbe, and took his seat on the Moetzes Gedolei HaTorah. He oversaw the growth of Sadigura communities in Israel and in London, Antwerp, and New York City.
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