Last updated
The 33 letters of the Neo-Tifinagh alphabet, used by the Moroccan IRCAM (Royal Institute of Amazigh Culture), and below the correspondences in the Berber Latin alphabet. Tifinagh alphabet.png
The 33 letters of the Neo-Tifinagh alphabet, used by the Moroccan IRCAM (Royal Institute of Amazigh Culture), and below the correspondences in the Berber Latin alphabet.
Traditional Tifinagh Tifinagh abjad.png
Traditional Tifinagh

Tifinagh (Tuareg Berber language: ⵜⴼⵏⵗ or ⵜⴼⵉⵏⵗ, Berber pronunciation:  [tifinaɣ] ) is an abjad script used to write the Berber languages. Tifinagh is descended from the ancient Libyco-Berber alphabet. [1] The traditional Tifinagh, sometimes called Tuareg Tifinagh, is still favored by the Tuareg Berbers of the Sahara desert in southern Algeria, northeastern Mali, northern Niger and northern Burkina Faso for use writing the Tuareg Berber language. Neo-Tifinagh (ⵜⵉⴼⵉⵏⴰⵖ) is an alphabet that was created in northern Algeria around the 1980s as an updated version. [2] Neo-Tifinagh has been used since largely by Algerians and Moroccans for the symbolic promotion of the Berber language, while mainly using the Berber Latin alphabet in most publications. Neo-Tifinagh is often simply called "Tifinagh".


The script has evolved over time. The early forms of the Libyco-Berber script loosely date from around the 2nd century BCE; traditional Tifinagh seems to have formed in the 1st millenium at some point; and Neo-Tifinagh dates to the 1980s. There are significant differences between the ancient Libyco-Berber script and the Tuareg Tifinagh script. Many letters from the ancient Libyco-Berber script do not exist (anymore) in the Tuareg Tifinagh, while other letters evolved into a different pronunciation in the current Tuareg Tifinagh script. There are also significant differences between the classic script and the more modern Neo-Tifinagh alphabet. Many Tuareg Tifinagh letters are discarded in Neo-Tifinagh, and other ones are modified in form or in pronunciation. The Neo-Tifinagh alphabet also features invented vowels and other letters not found in Tuareg Tifinagh. About half of the letters in the Neo-Tifinagh alphabet were either completely invented (ⵥ,ⴻ,ⵕ,ⵄ,ⵃ,ⵞ,ⵯ,ⵇ,ⵚ,ⴽ,ⵅ,ⴿ,ⵖ,ⵠ), modified in form (ⴰ,ⵓ,ⴼ,ⵁ,ⵍ) or repurposed for a different pronunciation (ⵀ,ⵡ,ⴵ). All traditional Tuareg Tifinagh letters that consist entirely of dots (ⵗ,ⵈ,ⴾ,ⵆ,ⵘ,ⵂ) were discarded by the creators of Neo-Tifinagh and were replaced by newly invented ones. Tuareg people in the Sahara desert continue to use these dotted letters as part of their traditional script, thus deliberately distinguishing their writings from the northern Berbers of Morocco and northern Algeria who use the Neo-Tifinagh alphabet or the Berber Latin alphabet in writing the Berber language.

The ancient Libyco-Berber script [3] [4] (or the Libyc script) was used by the ancient northern Berbers known as Libyco-Berbers, [5] [6] also known as Libyc people, Numidians, Afri and Mauretanians who inhabited the northern parts of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya as well as the Canary Islands west of Morocco.

The name Tifinagh is stylized as Tifinaɣ in the Berber Latin alphabet, and in the Neo-Tifinagh alphabet it is written as ⵜⵉⴼⵉⵏⴰⵖ, while in the Tuareg people's traditional Tifinagh it's written as ⵜⴼⵉⵏⵗ or ⵜⴼⵏⵗ.


The word tifinagh (singular tafinəq < *ta-finəɣ-t) is thought by some scholars to be a Berberized feminine plural cognate or adaptation of the Latin word "Punicus", (meaning "Punic" or "Phoenician") through the Berber feminine prefix ti- and the root FNƔ < *PNQ < Latin Punicus; thus tifinagh could possibly mean "the Phoenician (letters)" [7] [8] [9] or "the Punic letters". Others support an etymology involving the Tuareg verb efnegh, meaning to write. [10] However, the Tuareg verb efnegh is probably derived from the noun "Tifinagh" because all the northern Berbers of Morocco, northern Algeria, Tunisia and northern Libya have a different (and probably older) verb "ari, aru, ara" which means "to write".


Libyco-Berber inscriptions in Oukaimeden, Morocco Libyco-Berber inscriptions in Oukaimeden, Morocco.jpg
Libyco-Berber inscriptions in Oukaimeden, Morocco

Before or during the existence of the ancient Berber kingdoms of Numidia (northern Algeria) and Mauretania (northern Morocco) many inscriptions were engraved using the Libyco-Berber script, also known as Ancient Libyan or the Libyc script (libyque). The Libyco-Berber script is found in thousands of stone inscriptions and engravings throughout Morocco, northern Algeria, Tunisia, northern Libya and the Canary Islands.

The traditional Tuareg Tifinagh and Saharan Tifinagh inscriptions and rock paintings are found in the Sahara deserts of southern Algeria, northern Mali and northern Niger. Thus, the Libyco-Berber script is a northern script, while Tifinagh is a southern / Saharan script.

The exact evolution of both Libyco-Berber and Tifinagh is still unclear. [11] The latter writing system was widely used in antiquity by speakers of the largely undeciphered Numidian language, also called Old Libyan, throughout Africa and on the Canary Islands. The script's origin is uncertain, with some scholars suggesting it is related to, descended or developed from the Phoenician alphabet, [12] while others arguing an independent conception with slight Phoenician influences. [13] Its first appearance is also uncertain, but it is no older than the first millennium BCE, [14] with the oldest remains likely originating from the 6th-century BCE. [15] It disappeared in the northernmost areas of North Africa during the 8th-century, after the Arab conquest of the Maghreb, and Lybico-Berber along with Latin being replaced by the Arabic script. [16]

There are two known variants of the Libyco-Berber script: eastern and western. The eastern variant was used in what is now Constantine and the Aurès regions of Algeria and in Tunisia. It is the best-deciphered variant, due to the discovery of several Numidian bilingual inscriptions in Libyco-Berber and Punic (notably at Dougga in Tunisia). Since 1843, 22 letters out of the 24 have been deciphered. The western variant was more primitive. It was used along the Mediterranean coast from Kabylia to the Canary Islands. It used 13 supplementary letters.

The Libyco-Berber script was a pure abjad; it had no vowels. Gemination was not marked. The writing was usually from the bottom to the top, although right-to-left, and even other orders, were also found. The letters took different forms when written vertically than when they were written horizontally. [17]

Tuareg Tifinagh

Entrance to the town of Kidal. The name is written in Tuareg Tifinagh (ⴾⴸⵍ/Kdl) and Latin script.
Script type
Time period
Unknown to today
Directionleft-to-right  OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
Languages Tuareg Berber language
Related scripts
Parent systems
Child systems
Neo-Tifinagh (20th century)

The ancient Libyco-Berber script branched into the Tuareg Tifinagh script which is used to this day to write the Berber Tuareg languages, which belong to the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic family. Early uses of the script have been found on rock art and in various sepulchres. Among these are the 1,500 year old monumental tomb of the Tuareg matriarch Tin Hinan, where vestiges of a Tifinagh inscription have been found on one of its walls. [19]

According to M.C.A. MacDonald, the Tuareg are "an entirely oral society in which memory and oral communication perform all the functions which reading and writing have in a literate society ... The Tifinagh are used primarily for games and puzzles, short graffiti and brief messages." [11]

Occasionally, the script has been used to write other neighbouring languages such as Tagdal, which belongs to a separate Songhay family.


Common forms of the letters are illustrated at left, including various ligatures of t and n. Gemination, though phonemic, is not indicated in Tifinagh. The letter t, +, is often combined with a preceding letter to form a ligature. Most of the letters have more than one common form, including mirror-images of the forms shown here.

When the letters l and n are adjacent to themselves or to each other, the second is offset, either by inclining, lowering, raising, or shortening it. For example, since the letter l is a double line, ||, and n a single line, |, the sequence nn may be written |/ to differentiate it from l. Similarly, ln is ||/, nl|//, ll||//, nnn|/|, etc.

Traditionally, the Tifinagh script does not indicate vowels except word-finally, where a single dot stands for any vowel. In some areas, Arabic vowel diacritics are combined with Tifinagh letters to transcribe vowels, or y, w may be used for long ī and ū.


Script type
Time period
1970 to present
Directionleft-to-right  OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
Languages Standard Moroccan Berber and other Northern Berber languages
Related scripts
Parent systems
ISO 15924
ISO 15924 Tfng(120),Tifinagh (Berber)
Unicode alias
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.For the distinction between [ ], / / and  , see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

Neo-Tifinagh is the modern fully alphabetic script developed in northern Algeria from the traditional Tifinagh. Neo-Tifinagh is written left to right. Neo-Tifinagh was created in northern Algeria during the 1980s. Neo-Tifinagh spread from Algeria to Morocco and was rebranded by the Moroccan Royal Institute of the Amazigh Culture (IRCAM) as "Tifinaghe-Ircam" or simply "Tifinaghe", and is used in a small part of Moroccan and some Libyan elementary schools to teach the Berber language to children, as well as in a number of literary publications and some websites and media. [21] [22] In Algeria, most Berber language education programs in elementary schools, high schools and university use the Berber Latin alphabet, while a small number of schools use Neo-Tifinagh, Tuareg Tifinagh in the south, or even the Arabic alphabet.

Until recently, virtually no books or websites were published in the Neo-Tifinagh alphabet, with activists favouring the Latin (or, more rarely, Arabic) scripts for serious use; however, Neo-Tifinagh is popular for symbolic use in Morocco and northern Algeria, with many books and websites written in a different script featuring logos or title pages using Neo-Tifinagh.

In Morocco, the king took a "neutral" position between the claims of Latin script and Arabic script by adopting Neo-Tifinagh in 2003; as a result, books and websites are beginning to be published in this script (for instance, the Berber version of the Moroccan Department of Education website is written in Tifinagh), and it is taught in some schools. However, many independent Berber-language publications are still published using the Berber Latin alphabet. Outside Morocco, it has no official status. The Moroccan state arrested and imprisoned people using this script during the 1980s and 1990s. [23] The Algerian Black Spring was also partly caused by this repression of Berber language. [24]

In Algeria, almost all Berber publications use the Berber Latin Alphabet.

In Libya, the government of Muammar Gaddafi consistently banned Tifinagh from being used in public contexts such as store displays and banners. [25]

After the Libyan Civil War, the National Transitional Council has shown an openness towards the Berber language. The rebel Libya TV, based in Qatar, has included the Berber language and the Neo-Tifinagh alphabet in some of its programming. [26]


An IRCAM version of Neo-Tifinagh 2008 - Marocko - berbertext utanfor kafe i Agadir 3.JPG
An IRCAM version of Neo-Tifinagh

The following are the letters and a few ligatures of traditional Tuareg Tifinagh and Neo-Tifinagh: [27]

Unicode ImageFontTransliterationName
Latin Arabic IPA
U+2D30 2D30.png aاæya
U+2D31 2D31.png bبbyab
U+2D32 2D32.png bٻβyab fricative
U+2D33 2D33.png gگɡyag
U+2D34 2D34.png gڲɣyag fricative
U+2D35 2D35.png dj, ǧجd͡ʒBerber Academy yadj
U+2D36 2D36.png dj, ǧجd͡ʒyadj
U+2D37 2D37.png dدdyad
U+2D38 2D38.png dذðyad fricative
U+2D39 2D39.png ضyaḍ
U+2D3A 2D3A.png ظðˤyaḍ fricative
U+2D3B 2D3B.png eهəyey
U+2D3C 2D3C.png fفfyaf
U+2D3D 2D3D.png kکkyak
U+2D3E 2D3E.png kکkTuareg yak
U+2D3F 2D3F.png ⴿkکxyak fricative
U+2D40 2D40.png h
= Tuareg yab
U+2D41 2D41.png hھhBerber Academy yah
U+2D42 2D42.png hھhTuareg yah
U+2D43 2D43.png حħyaḥ
U+2D44 2D44.png ʕ (ɛ)عʕyaʕ (yaɛ)
U+2D45 2D45.png kh (x)خχyax
U+2D46 2D46.png kh (x)خχTuareg yax
U+2D47 2D47.png qقqyaq
U+2D48 2D48.png qقqTuareg yaq
U+2D49 2D49.png iيiyi
U+2D4A 2D4A.png jجʒyaj
U+2D4B 2D4B.png jجʒAhaggar yaj
U+2D4C 2D4C.png jجʒTuareg yaj
U+2D4D 2D4D.png lلlyal
U+2D4E 2D4E.png mمmyam
U+2D4F 2D4F.png nنnyan
U+2D50 2D50.png nyنيɲTuareg yagn
U+2D51 2D51.png ngڭŋTuareg yang
U+2D52 2D52.png pپpyap
U+2D53 2D53.png u
= Tuareg yaw
U+2D54 2D54.png rرryar
U+2D55 2D55.png ڕyaṛ
U+2D56 2D56.png gh (ɣ)غɣyaɣ
U+2D57 2D57.png gh (ɣ)غɣTuareg yaɣ
U+2D58 2D58.png gh (ɣ)
Aïr yaɣ
= Adrar yaj
U+2D59 2D59.png sسsyas
U+2D5A 2D5A.png صyaṣ
U+2D5B 2D5B.png sh, c (š)شʃyaš (yac)
U+2D5C 2D5C.png tتtyat
U+2D5D 2D5D.png tتθyat fricative
U+2D5E 2D5E.png ch, č (tš)تشt͡ʃyatš (yač)
U+2D5F 2D5F.png طyaṭ
U+2D60 2D60.png vۋvyav
U+2D61 2D61.png wۉwyaw
U+2D62 2D62.png yيjyay
U+2D63 2D63.png zزzyaz
U+2D64 2D64.png zزzTawellemet yaz
= Harpoon yaz
U+2D65 2D65.png ژyaẓ
U+2D66 2D66.png e eye (APT)
U+2D67 2D67.png o oyo (APT)
U+2D6F 2D6F.png  +ʷ+ ٗʷLabio-velarization mark
= Tamatart
≈ <super> 2D61
Digraphs (for which ligatures are possible)
U+2D5C U+2D59 2D5C.png 2D59.png ⵜⵙtsتسt͡syats
U+2D37 U+2D63 2D37.png 2D63.png ⴷⵣdzدزd͡zyadz
U+2D5C U+2D5B 2D5C.png 2D5B.png ⵜⵛch (tš)تشt͡ʃyatš
U+2D37 U+2D4A 2D37.png 2D4A.png ⴷⵊdjدجd͡ʒyadj
Color Key
Basic Tifinagh (IRCAM) [28] Extended Tifinagh (IRCAM) [27] Other Tifinagh lettersModern Tuareg letters


Tifinagh was added to the Unicode Standard in March 2005, with the release of version 4.1.

The Unicode block range for Tifinagh is U+2D30U+2D7F:

Tifinagh [1] [2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
U+2D7x  ⵿  
1. ^ As of Unicode version 14.0
2. ^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Related Research Articles

Berber languages Family of languages and dialects indigenous to North Africa

The Berber languages, also known as the Amazigh languages, are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They comprise a group of closely related languages spoken by the Berbers, who are indigenous to North Africa. The languages were traditionally written with the ancient Libyco-Berber script, which now exists in the form of Tifinagh.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tuareg languages</span> Group of closely related Berber languages and dialects

The Tuareg languages constitute a group of closely related Berber languages and dialects. They are spoken by the Tuareg Berbers in large parts of Mali, Niger, Algeria, Libya and Burkina Faso, with a few speakers, the Kinnin, in Chad.

Phoenician is an extinct Canaanite Semitic language originally spoken in the region surrounding the cities of Tyre and Sidon. Extensive Tyro-Sidonian trade and commercial dominance led to Phoenician becoming a lingua franca of the maritime Mediterranean during the Iron Age. The Phoenician alphabet spread to Greece during this period, where it became the source of all modern European scripts.

Awjila is a severely endangered Eastern Berber language spoken in Cyrenaica, Libya, in the Awjila oasis. Due to the political situation in Libya, immediate data on the language has been inaccessible. However, Facebook postings by speakers and younger semi-speakers have provided some recent supplementary data.

Kabyle language Berber language of northern Algeria

Kabyle or Kabylian is a Berber language spoken by the Kabyle people in the north and northeast of Algeria. It is spoken primarily in Kabylia, east of the capital Algiers and in Algiers itself, but also by various groups near Blida, such as the Beni Salah and Beni Bou Yaqob.(extinct?)

The Zenati languages are a branch of the Northern Berber language family of North Africa. They were named after the medieval Zenata Berber tribal confederation. They were first proposed in the works of French linguist Edmond Destaing (1915) (1920–23). Zenata dialects are distributed across the central Berber world (Maghreb), from northeastern Morocco to just west of Algiers, and the northern Sahara, from southwestern Algeria around Bechar to Zuwara in Libya. The most widely spoken Zenati languages are Tmazight of the Rif in northern Morocco and Tashawit Berber in northeastern Algeria, each of which have over 3 million speakers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tarifit</span> Zenati Berber language of northern Morocco

Tmazight or Tarifit Berber, also known as Riffian is a Zenati Berber language spoken in the Rif region in northern Morocco. It is spoken natively by some 1,271,000 Rifians primarily in the Rif provinces of Al Hoceima, Nador, Driouch, and as a minority language in Oujda, Tetouan and Berkane.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ancient Libya</span> Region west of the Nile Valley

The Latin name Libya referred to North Africa during the Iron Age and Classical Antiquity. Berbers occupied the area for thousands of years before the recording of history in ancient Egypt. Climate changes affected the locations of the settlements.

Royal Institute of Amazigh Culture Institute of Morocco responsible for the promotion of the Berber languages and culture

The Royal Institute of Amazigh Culture is an academic institute of the Moroccan government in charge with the development and the promotion of the Berber languages and culture and of the development of Berber language courses for Morocco's public schools.

The Berber Latin alphabet is the version of the Latin alphabet used to write the Berber languages. It was adopted in the 19th century, using varieties of letters.

Berber alphabet may refer to:

Central Atlas Tamazight Berber language of central Morocco

Central Atlas Tamazight or Atlasic is a Berber language of the Afroasiatic language family spoken by 2.3 million in the Atlas Mountains of Central Morocco as well as by smaller emigrant communities in France and elsewhere.

The Berber Academy was an Algerian cultural association founded in 1966 by Mohand Arav Bessaoud and a group of Algerian Berbers, including Ramdane Haifi. This group consisted of intellectuals, artists and journalists, all eager to develop the Berber language using the Neo-Tifinagh alphabet and Berber Latin alphabet.

Proto-Berber or Proto-Libyan is the reconstructed proto-language from which the modern Berber languages descend. Proto-Berber was an Afroasiatic language, and thus its descendant Berber languages are cousins to the Egyptian language, Cushitic languages, Semitic languages, Chadic languages, and the Omotic languages.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Berber flag</span>

The Berber flag is a flag that has been adopted by many Berber populations including protestors, cultural and political activists. It is currently used by Berber political and cultural activists and organizations in 10 African countries, namely: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso, Egypt and the Canary Islands.

Berber orthography Writing systems for the Berber languages

Berber orthography is the writing system(s) used to transcribe the Berber languages. In antiquity, the Libyco-Berber script (Tifinagh) was utilized to write Berber. Early uses of the script have been found on rock art and in various sepulchres. Following the spread of Islam, some Berber scholars also utilized the Arabic script. There are now three writing systems in use for Berber languages: Tifinagh (Libyco-Berber), the Arabic script, and the Berber Latin alphabet. Different groups in North Africa have different preferences of writing system, often motivated by ideology and politics.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Numidian language</span> Language spoken in ancient North Africa

Numidian was a language spoken in ancient Numidia, a territory covering much of northern Africa. Although the script in which it was written, the Libyco-Berber alphabet, has been almost fully deciphered and most characters have known values, the language has barely been deciphered and only a few words are known. Libyco-Berber inscriptions are attested from the 3rd century BC to the 3rd century AD. The language is scarcely attested and can be confidently identified only as belonging to the Afroasiatic family.

Standard Moroccan Amazigh ,(Arabic: الأمازيغية المعيارية), also known as Standard Moroccan Berber, is a standardized national Moroccan variety of the Berber language.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yennayer</span>

Yennayer is the first month of the Amazigh Year or the Amazigh year used since antiquity by the Imazighen in North Africa. Its first day corresponds to the first day of January of the Julian Calendar, which is shifted thirteen days compared to the Gregorian calendar, i.e. 14 January of every year. The Amazigh calendar was created in 1980 by Ammar Negadi, a Paris-based Algerian scholar. He chose 943 BC, the year in which the Amazigh Shoshenq I ascended to the throne of Egypt, as the first year of the Amazigh calendar.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Libyco-Berber alphabet</span>

The Libyco-Berber alphabet or the Libyc alphabet is an abjad writing system that was used during the first millennium BC by various Berber peoples of North Africa and the Canary Islands, to write ancient varieties of the Berber language like the Numidian language in ancient North Africa.


  2. Evolution of the Tifinagh script in Unicode
  3. Libyco-Berber - 2nd (9th?) century BC-7th century AD
  4. Written in stone: the Libyco-Berber scripts
  5. Libyco-Berber relations with ancient Egypt: the Tehenu in Egyptian records
  6. History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century. Edited by Sigfried J. de Laet
  7. L'ECRITURE LIBYCO-BERBERE: Etat des lieux et perspectives
  8. Penchoen (1973 :3)
  9. O'Connor (2006 :115)
  10. D. Vance Smith. "Africa's ancient scripts counter European ideas of literacy". Aeon. Retrieved 2021-06-24.
  11. 1 2 M.C.A. MacDonald (2005). Elizabeth A. Slater, C.B. Mee and Piotr Bienkowski (ed.). Writing and Ancient Near East Society: Essays in Honor of Alan Millard. T.& T.Clark Ltd. p. 60. ISBN   9780567026910.
  12. L'ECRITURE LIBYCO-BERBERE: Etat des lieux et perspectives
  13. Suleiman, Yasir (1996). Language and Identity in the Middle East and North Africa. Psychology Press. p. 173. ISBN   978-0-7007-0410-1.
  14. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, p. 129
  15. Written Culture in a Colonial Context: Africa and the Americas 1500 - 1900, p. 11
  16. Landscapes, Sources and Intellectual Projects of the West African Past: Essays in Honour of Paulo Fernando de Moraes Farias, p. 185
  17. "Berber". Ancient Scripts. Archived from the original on 2017-08-26. Retrieved 2017-10-09.
  18. L'ECRITURE LIBYCO-BERBERE: Etat des lieux et perspectives
  19. Briggs, L. Cabot (February 1957). "A Review of the Physical Anthropology of the Sahara and Its Prehistoric Implications". Man. 56: 20–23. doi:10.2307/2793877. JSTOR   2793877.
  20. L'ECRITURE LIBYCO-BERBERE: Etat des lieux et perspectives
  21. "Institut Royal de la Culture Amazighe" (in French). Ircam.ma. Archived from the original on April 25, 2008. Retrieved 2015-07-14.
  22. "Institut Royal de la Culture Amazighe". Ircam.ma. Archived from the original on April 21, 2008. Retrieved 2015-07-14.
  23. "Rapport sur le calvaire de l'écriture en Tifinagh au Maroc". Amazighworld.org. Retrieved 2017-10-09.
  24. "Algérie: 10 ans après son « printemps noir », la Kabylie réclame justice – Jeune Afrique". JeuneAfrique.com (in French). 2011-04-20. Retrieved 2021-05-08.
  25. سلطات الامن الليبية تمنع نشر الملصق الرسمي لمهرجان الزي التقليدي بكباو [Libyan security authorities to prevent the publication of the official poster for the festival traditional costume Pkpau] (in Arabic). TAWALT. 2007.
  26. "Libya TV – News in Berber". Blip.tv. Retrieved 2015-07-14.[ permanent dead link ]
  27. 1 2 P. Andries, Proposition d'ajout de l'écriture tifinaghe. Organisation internationale de normalisation, Jeu universel des caractères codés sur octets (JUC). ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2 WG, vol.2, p.2739R, 2004.
  28. "Polices et Claviers Unicode" (in French). IRCAM. Archived from the original on 2012-03-10. Retrieved 2012-08-20.