Tiger attack

Last updated

Stereographic photograph (1903) of the captured Man-eater of Calcutta in the Calcutta zoo. The tiger had earlier claimed 200 human victims. Maneater calcutta1903 stereoscopic.jpg
Stereographic photograph (1903) of the captured Man-eater of Calcutta in the Calcutta zoo. The tiger had earlier claimed 200 human victims.

Tiger attacks are an extreme form of human–wildlife conflict which occur for various reasons and have claimed more human lives than attacks by any of the other big cats. The most comprehensive study of deaths due to tiger attacks estimates that at least 373,000 people died due to tiger attacks between 1800 and 2009, the majority of these attacks occurring in South and Southeast Asia. [1] [2] In Southeast Asia, attacks gradually declined after peaking in the nineteenth century, but attacks in South Asia have remained high, particularly in the Sundarbans. [1]

Contents

Reasons for attacking

"Caution Tigers Nearby" Sign in Russian Siberian Tiger Sign.JPG
"Caution Tigers Nearby" Sign in Russian

If a human comes too close and surprises a sleeping or a feeding tiger (particularly if it is a tigress with cubs), the tiger will attack and kill a human. Tigers also attack humans in a case of "mistaken identity" (for example, if a human is crouching while collecting firewood, or cutting grass) and sometimes when a tourist gets too close. Some also recommend not riding a bicycle, or running in a region where tigers live, in order to not provoke their chase. Peter Byrne [ who? ] wrote about an Indian postman who was working on foot for many years without any problems with resident tigers, but was chased by a tiger soon after he started riding a bicycle for his work. [3] While on average there are approximately 85 or fewer people killed and injured by tigers each year, India has seen sharper increases in tiger attacks, as was the case in 2014 and 2015 due to urban expansion into the tiger’s natural habitat and the outlawing of tiger killing. [4] Many human killings and injuries are due to incidents at zoos, or to the man-eating tigers in India.

In some cases, tigers will change their natural diet to become man-eaters. This is usually due to a tiger being incapacitated by a gunshot wound or porcupine quills, or some other factors, such as health issues and disabilities. In such cases, the animal's inability to take traditional prey forces it to stalk humans, which are less appetizing but much easier to chase, overpower and kill; this was the case with the man-eating tigress of Champawat, which was believed to have begun eating villagers at least partially in response to crippling tooth injuries. [5] As tigers in Asia often live in close proximity to humans, tigers have killed more people than any other big cat. Between 1876 and 1912, tigers killed 33,247 people in British India. [6]

Man-eaters have been a recurrent problem in India, especially in Kumaon, Garhwal and the Sundarbans mangrove swamps of Bengal. There, some healthy tigers have been known to hunt humans. Even though tigers usually avoid elephants, they have been known to jump on an elephant's back and severely injure the mahout riding on the elephant's back. Kesri Singh mentioned a case when a fatally wounded tiger attacked and killed the hunter who wounded it while the hunter was on the back of an elephant. Most man-eating tigers are eventually captured, shot or poisoned. [7]

During war, tigers may acquire a taste for human flesh from the consumption of corpses which have lain unburied, and go on to attack soldiers; this happened during the Vietnam and Second World Wars. [5] Tigers will stalk groups of people bending down while working in a field or cutting grass, but will lose interest as soon as the people stand upright. Consequently, it has been hypothesized that some attacks are a simple case of mistaken identity. [5]

Tigers typically surprise victims from the side or from behind: either approaching upwind or lying in wait downwind. Tigers rarely press an attack if they are seen before their ambush is mounted. [8]

Kenneth Anderson once commented on man-eating tigers;

"It is extraordinary how very cautious every man-eater becomes by practice, whether a tiger or panther and cowardly too. Invariably, it will only attack a solitary person, and that too, after prolonged and painstaking stalking, having assured itself that no other human being is in the immediate vicinity... These animals seem also to possess an astute sixth sense and be able to differentiate between an unarmed human being and an armed man deliberately pursuing them, for in most cases, only when cornered will they venture to attack the latter, while they go out of their way to stalk and attack the unarmed man. [9]

Tigers are sometimes intimidated from attacking humans, especially if they are unfamiliar with people. Tigers, even established man-eating tigers will seldom enter human settlements, usually sticking to village outskirts. [5] Nevertheless, attacks in human villages do occur. [5]

Most tigers will only attack a human if they cannot physically satisfy their needs otherwise. Tigers are typically wary of humans and usually show no preference for human meat. Although humans are relatively easy prey, they are not a desired source of food. Thus, most man-eating tigers are old, infirm, or have missing teeth, and choose human victims out of desperation. In one case, a post-mortem examination of a killed tigress revealed two broken canine teeth, four missing incisors and a loose upper molar, handicaps which would make capturing stronger prey extremely difficult. Only upon reaching this stage did she attack a workman. [5]

In some cases, rather than being predatory, tiger attacks on humans seem to be territorial in nature. In at least one case, a tigress with cubs killed eight people entering her territory without consuming them at all. [10]

Tiger attacks in the Sundarbans

The Bengal tigers of the Sundarbans (translation: 'beautiful forest'), bordering India and Bangladesh, used to regularly kill fifty or sixty people a year. This was strange given that the tigers were usually in prime condition and had adequate prey available. Approximately 100 tigers live in this region, [11] possibly the largest single population anywhere in the world. [12] The kill rate has dropped significantly due to better management techniques and now only about three people lose their lives each year [ citation needed ]. Despite the notoriety associated with this area, humans are only a supplement to the tigers' diet; they do not provide a primary food source. [5]

Tigers and locations known for attacks

The Champawat Tiger

The Champawat Tiger was a man-eating tigress which purportedly killed some 200 men and women before being driven out of Nepal. She moved to Champawat district in the state of Uttarakhand in North India, and continued to kill, bringing her total human kills up to 436. She was finally tracked down and killed in 1907. [13] She was known to enter villages, even during daylight, roaring and causing people to flee in panic to their huts. [14]

The Champawat Tiger was found and killed by Jim Corbett after he followed the trail of blood the tigress left behind after killing her last victim, a 16-year-old girl. [14] Later examination of the tigress showed the upper and lower canine teeth on the right side of her mouth were broken, the upper one in half, the lower one right down to the bone. This permanent injury, Corbett claimed, "had prevented her from killing her natural prey, and had been the cause of her becoming a man-eater." [5]

The Tiger of Segur

Body of the Tiger of Segur, killed by Kenneth Anderson on the banks of the Segur River Man-eater of Segur.jpg
Body of the Tiger of Segur, killed by Kenneth Anderson on the banks of the Segur River

The Tiger of Segur was a young man-eating male Bengal tiger who killed five people in the Nilgiri Hills of Tamil Nadu state in South India. Though originating in the District of Malabar District and Wayanad District below the south-western face of the Blue Mountains, the tiger later shifted its hunting grounds to Gudalur and between the Sigur Plateau and Anaikatty in Coimbatore district. It was killed by Kenneth Anderson on the banks of the Segur River, circa 1954. Anderson later wrote that the tiger had a disability preventing it from hunting its natural prey. [9]

Tigers of Chowgarh

The Tigers of Chowgarh were a pair of man-eating Bengal tigers, consisting of an old tigress and her sub-adult cub, which for over a five-year period killed a reported 64 people in eastern Kumaon Division of Uttarakhand in Northern India over an area spanning 1,500 square miles (3,900 km2). The figures however are uncertain, as the natives of the areas the tigers frequented claimed double that number, and they do not take into account victims who survived direct attacks but died subsequently. Both tigers were killed by Jim Corbett.

Thak man-eater

The Thak man-eater was a tigress from Eastern Kumaon division, who killed only four human victims, but was the last hunt of the hunter, conservationist and author Jim Corbett. Corbett called her up and killed her during late twilight, after he lost all other means to track her down. Postmortem revealed that this tigress had two old gunshot wounds, one of which had become septic. This, according to Corbett, forced her to turn from a normal predator hunting natural prey to a man-eater.

Tiger of Mundachipallam

The Tiger of Mundachipallam was a male Bengal tiger, which in the 1950s killed seven people in the vicinity of the village of Pennagram, four miles (6 km) from the Hogenakkal Falls in Dharmapuri district of Tamil Nadu. Unlike the Champawat man-eater, the Mundachipallam tiger had no known infirmities preventing it from hunting its natural prey. Its first three victims were killed in unprovoked attacks, while the subsequent victims were devoured. The Mundachipallam tiger was later killed by Kenneth Anderson.

Man-eater of Bhimashankar

A story was discovered by Pune-based author Sureshchandra Warghade when he ran into an old villager in the Bhimashankar forest which lies near Pune. The villager explained to the author how a man-eating tiger terrorized the entire Bhimashakar area during a span of two years in the 1940s. He was a police constable in that area and he had been responsible for dealing with the formalities surrounding the deaths (missing person reports and death certificates) and other jobs such as helping the hunting parties. During this time the tiger supposedly killed more than 100 people, but it was apparently very careful to avoid discovery; only 2 bodies were ever found. Several hunting parties were organized, but the only one to succeed was an Ambegaon-based hunter named Ismail. During his first attempt, Ismail had a direct confrontation with the tiger and was almost killed. He later called Kenneth Anderson. They returned and eliminated the man-eater. The tiger predominately killed the villagers who slept outside the huts.

The authenticity of the story told by the villager was confirmed when Warghade examined official reports, including a certificate given by the British authorities for killing the man-eating tiger. [15]

Tara of the Dudhwa National Park

While the Sundarbans are particularly well known for tiger attacks, Dudhwa National Park also had several man-eaters in the late 1970s. The first death was on 2 March 1978, closely followed by 3 further kills.

The population demanded action from authorities. The locals wanted the man-eater shot or poisoned. The killings continued, each one making headlines. Officials soon started to believe that the likely culprit was a tigress called Tara. Conservationist Billy Arjan Singh had taken the British-born cat from Twycross Zoo and raised her in India, with the goal of releasing her back into the wild. His experiments had also been carried out on leopards with some success.

Experts felt that Tara would not have the required skills and correct hunting techniques to survive in the wild and controversy surrounded the project. She also associated men with providing food and comfort, which increased the likelihood that she would approach villages.

Officials later became convinced that Tara had taken to easier prey and become a man-eater. A total of 24 people were killed before the tigress was shot. Singh also joined the hunt with the intent of identifying the man-eater, but firm confirmation of the identity of the tiger was never found.

The debate over the tiger's identity has continued in the years since the attacks. Singh's supporters continue to claim that the tiger was not Tara, and the conservationist has produced evidence to that effect. However, officials maintain that the tiger was definitely Tara. [5]

Other man-eaters from Dudhwa National Park have existed, [5] but this tiger was potentially the first captive-bred tiger to be trained and released into the wild. This controversy cast doubt on the success of Singh's rewilding project.

Problems at Dudhwa have been minor in the past few years. Occasional tiger attacks still occur, but these are no higher than at other wildlife reserves. On average, two villagers are attacked at Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve each year. These attacks generally occur during the monsoon season when the locals enter the reserve to collect grass. [5]

Tigress of Moradabad

In February 2014, reports emerged that a tigress had killed 7 people near the Jim Corbett National Park. The tigress was later called the man-eater of Moradabad, because it was hunting in the Bijnor and Moradabad region. The tigress could not be traced by about 50 camera traps and an unmanned aerial vehicle. [16] [17] In August 2014, it was reported that tigress had stopped killing humans. Its last victim was killed in February, with a total of 7 victims. The animal remained untraced. [18]

Tigress of Yavatmal

Between 2016 and 2018, a tigress known as T-1 was said to have killed 13 people in Yavatmal district, in the western Indian state of Maharashtra. [19] The tigress was shot dead after a major hunt in November 2018. [20] [21] The tiger was killed in self-defence, after charging those attempting to tranquilise her. [22]

The hunt for the tigress included more than 100 camera traps, bait in the form of horses and goats tied to trees, round-the-clock surveillance from treetop platforms and armed patrols. Drones and a hang glider were also used to try and locate T-1. [23] Wildlife officials also brought in bottles of the perfume Obsession for Men by Calvin Klein, which contains a pheromone called civetone, after an experiment in the US suggested that it could be used to attract jaguars. [24]

Measures to prevent tiger attacks

Various measures were taken to prevent and reduce the number of tiger attacks with limited success. For example, since tigers almost always attack from the rear, masks with human faces were worn on the back of the head by the villagers in 1986 in the Sundarbans, on the theory that tigers usually do not attack if seen by their prey. This had temporarily decreased the number of attacks, but only for a short while before the tigers figured out it was not the front of the human being so the villagers no longer wore them for protection. All other means to prevent tiger attacks, such as providing the tigers with more prey by releasing captive bred pigs to the reserve's buffer zones, or placing electrified human dummies to teach tigers to associate attacking people with electric shock, did not work as well and tiger attacks continue. Many measures were thus discontinued due to lack of success. [25]

In captivity

Tiger attacks have also happened in zoos and as exotic pets. Attacks by captive tigers are not that rare. Between 1998 and 2001 there were seven fatal tiger attacks in the United States and at least 20 more attacks that required emergency medical care.

See also

Related Research Articles

Tiger Largest species of the cat family

The tiger is the largest extant cat species and a member of the genus Panthera. It is most recognisable for its dark vertical stripes on orange-brown fur with a lighter underside. It is an apex predator, primarily preying on ungulates such as deer and wild boar. It is territorial and generally a solitary but social predator, requiring large contiguous areas of habitat, which support its requirements for prey and rearing of its offspring. Tiger cubs stay with their mother for about two years, before they become independent and leave their mother's home range to establish their own.

Bengal tiger Tiger population in Indian subcontinent

The Bengal tiger is a tiger from a specific population of the Panthera tigris tigris subspecies that is native to the Indian subcontinent. It is threatened by poaching, loss, and fragmentation of habitat, and was estimated at comprising fewer than 2,500 individuals by 2011. None of the Tiger Conservation Landscapes within its range is considered large enough to support an effective population of more than 250 adult individuals. India's tiger population was estimated at 1,706–1,909 individuals in 2010. By 2018, the population had increased to an estimated 2,603–3,346 individuals. Around 300–500 tigers are estimated in Bangladesh, 220–274 tigers in Nepal and 103 tigers in Bhutan.

Jim Corbett National Park national park in India

Jim Corbett National Park is the oldest national park in India and was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park to protect the endangered Bengal tiger. It is located in Nainital district and Pauri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand and was named after Jim Corbett, a well known hunter and naturalist. The park was the first to come under the Project Tiger initiative.

Kenneth Anderson (writer) British writer and hunter

Kenneth Douglas Stewart Anderson was an India-born, British writer and hunter who wrote books about his adventures in the jungles of South India.

Asian black bear species of mammal

The Asian black bear, also known as the Asiatic black bear, moon bear and white-chested bear, is a medium-sized bear species native to Asia that is largely adapted to an arboreal lifestyle. It lives in the Himalayas, in the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent, the Korean Peninsula, northeastern China, the Russian Far East, the Honshū and Shikoku islands of Japan, and Taiwan. It is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), mostly because of deforestation and hunting for its body parts. Although largely herbivorous, Asian black bears can be very aggressive toward humans, who frequently trap or kill them for traditional medicine.

Jim Corbett British hunter, tracker, naturalist and author

Edward James Corbett was a British hunter, tracker, naturalist, and author who hunted a number of man-eating tigers and leopards in India. He held the rank of colonel in the British Indian Army and was frequently called upon by the Government of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, now the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, to kill man-eating tigers and leopards that were preying on people in the nearby villages of the Kumaon-Garhwal Regions.

Tsavo Man-Eaters pair of Kenyan lions known to have killed and eaten several humans

The Tsavo Man-Eaters were a pair of man-eating lions in the Tsavo region, which were responsible for the deaths of a number of construction workers on the Kenya-Uganda Railway between March and December 1898. The significance of this lion pair was their unusual behavior of killing men and the manner of their attacks.

<i>Man-Eaters of Kumaon</i> 1944 book by Jim Corbett

Man-Eaters of Kumaon is a 1944 book written by hunter-naturalist Jim Corbett. It details the experiences that Corbett had in the Kumaon region of India from the 1900s to the 1930s, while hunting man-eating Bengal tigers and Indian leopards. One tiger, for example, was responsible for over 400 human deaths. Man-Eaters of Kumaon is the best known of Corbett's books and contains 10 stories of tracking and shooting man-eaters in the Indian Himalayas during the early years of the twentieth century. The text also contains incidental information on flora, fauna and village life. Seven of the stories were first published privately as Jungle Stories.

The Champawat Tiger was a Bengal tigress responsible for an estimated 436 deaths in Nepal and the Kumaon area of India, during the last years of the 19th century and the first years of the 20th century. Her attacks have been listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the highest number of fatalities from a tiger. She was shot in 1907 by Jim Corbett.

Leopard of Rudraprayag

The Leopard of Rudraprayag was a male man-eating leopard, reputed to have killed over 125 people. It was eventually killed by hunter and author Jim Corbett.

Indian leopard Leopard subspecies

The Indian leopard is a leopard subspecies widely distributed on the Indian subcontinent. The species Panthera pardus is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because populations have declined following habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching for the illegal trade of skins and body parts, and persecution due to conflict situations.

Man-eater is a colloquial term for an individual animal that preys on humans as a pattern of hunting behavior. This does not include the scavenging of corpses, a single attack born of opportunity or desperate hunger, or the incidental eating of a human that the animal has killed in self-defense. However, all three cases may habituate an animal to eating human flesh or to attacking humans, and may foster the development of man-eating behavior.

Tiger attacks in the Sundarbans

Tiger attacks in the Sundarbans, in India and Bangladesh are estimated to kill from 0-50 people per year. The Sundarbans is home to over 100 Bengal tigers, one of the largest single populations of tigers in one area. Before modern times, Sundarbans were said to "regularly kill fifty or sixty people a year".

The Tigers of Chowgarh were a pair of man-eating Bengal tigers, consisting of an old tigress and her sub-adult cub, which for over a five-year period killed a reported 64 people in eastern Kumaon over an area spanning 1,500 square miles (3,900 km2). The tigress was attacking humans initially alone, but later she was assisted by her sub-adult cub. The figures however are uncertain, as the natives of the areas the tigers frequented claimed double that number, and they do not take into account victims who survived direct attacks but died subsequently. Both tigers were killed by Jim Corbett.

The Wolves of Ashta were a pack of 6 man-eating Indian wolves which between the last quarter of 1985 to January 1986, killed 17 children in Ashta, Madhya Pradesh, a town in the Sehore district. The pack consisted of two adult males, one adult female, one subadult female and two pups. Initially thought to be a lone animal, the fear caused by the wolves had serious repercussions on the life of the villagers within their hunting range. Farmers became too frightened to leave their huts, leaving crops out of cultivation, and several parents prohibited their children from attending school, for fear that the man-eaters would catch them on the way. So great was their fear, that some village elders doubted the man-eaters were truly wolves at all, but Shaitans. With the exception of the pups, which were adopted by Pardhi tribesmen, all wolves were killed by hunters and forest officials.

Tiger versus lion Historical comparison of tiger and lion

Historically, a comparison of the tiger versus the lion has been a popular topic of discussion by hunters, naturalists, artists, and poets, and continues to inspire the popular imagination. In the past, lions and tigers reportedly competed in the wilderness, where their ranges overlapped in Eurasia. The most common reported circumstance of their meeting is in captivity, either deliberately or accidentally.

The Thak man-eater was a female Bengal tiger who killed and ate four human victims between September and November 1938. She was operating in Kumaon, at the Nepalese border, between the villages Thak, Chuka, Kot Kindri and Sem. The tigress was shot at about 6:00pm on 30 November 1938 by Jim Corbett. This was the last man-eater killed by Corbett. The story about Thak man-eater is known as one of the most dramatic stories about man-eating animals. It was the last story in the USA edition of the bestselling book Man-Eaters of Kumaon. In the UK edition the last story of the book was "Just Tigers". The book Man-Eaters of Kumaon became the book of the year in USA in 1945, and a Hollywood film Man-Eater of Kumaon was made in 1948.

India: Kingdom of the Tiger is a 2002 IMAX documentary, based on the writings of Jim Corbett. The film was directed by Bruce Neibaur. It depicts man-eating tigers and the conservation efforts of the tiger in India.

The Chuka man-eating tiger was a male Bengal tiger responsible for the death of three boys from Thak village in the Ladhya Valley in 1937. It was shot by Jim Corbett in April 1937 who noted that the animal had a broken canine tooth and several gunshot wounds in various parts of his body.

Leopard attack Leopard Hunting Prey

Leopard attacks are attacks inflicted upon humans, other leopards and other animals by the leopard. The frequency of leopard attacks on humans varies by geographical region and historical period. Despite the leopard's extensive range from sub-Saharan Africa to Southeast Asia, attacks are regularly reported only in India and Nepal. Among the five "big cats", leopards are less likely to become man-eaters—only jaguars and snow leopards have a less fearsome reputation. However, leopards are established predators of non-human primates, sometimes preying on species as large as the western lowland gorilla. Other primates may make up 80% of the leopard's diet. While leopards generally avoid humans, they tolerate proximity to humans better than lions and tigers, and often come into conflict with humans when raiding livestock.

References

  1. 1 2 Nyhus, P. J.; Dufraine, C. E.; Ambrogi, M. C.; Hart, S. E.; Carroll, C.; Tilson, R. (2010). "Human–tiger conflict over time". In Tilson, R.; Nyhus, P. J. (eds.). Tigers of the world: The science, politics, and conservation of Panthera tigris (2nd ed.). Burlington, Massachusetts: Academic Press. pp. 132–135. ISBN   978-0-8155-1570-8.
  2. Auerbach, Paul (31 October 2011). Wilderness Medicine E-Book (Expert Consult Premium Edition - Enhanced Online Features ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 1114. ISBN   1455733563 . Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  3. Byrne, Peter. (2002) Shikari Sahib. Pilgrims Publishing. Pg. 291292
  4. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/aug/01/over-1000-people-killed-india-humans-wildlife-territories-meet
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "Man-eaters. The tiger and lion, attacks on humans". Lairweb.org.nz. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
  6. Compiled from official British records available at the Digital South Asia Library (University of Chicago and the Center for Research Libraries).
    1. "Number of persons and cattle killed in British India by wild beasts and snakes", Statistical abstract relating to British India from 1867–68 to 1876–77, (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office): p. 132, 1878, retrieved 30 March 2013.
    2. "Number of persons and cattle killed in British India by wild beasts and snakes", Statistical abstract relating to British India from 1876–77 to 1885–86, (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office): p. 240, 1887, retrieved 30 March 2013.
    3. "Number of persons and cattle killed in British India by wild beasts and snakes", Statistical abstract relating to British India from 1885–86 to 1894–95, (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office): p. 268, 1896, retrieved 30 March 2013.
    4. "Number of persons and cattle killed in British India by wild animals and snakes", Statistical abstract relating to British India from 1894–95 to 1903–04, (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office): p. 238, 1905, retrieved 30 March 2013.
    5. "Number of persons and cattle killed in British India by wild animals and snakes", Statistical abstract relating to British India from 1903–04 to 1912–13, (London: His Majesty's Stationery Office): p. 240, 1915, retrieved 30 March 2013.
  7. Singh, Kesri. (1959) The tiger of Rajasthan. Hale
  8. Perry, Richard (1965). The World of the Tiger. 260. ASIN: B0007DU2IU.
  9. 1 2 The Man-Eater of Segur", from Nine Man-Eaters and One Rogue, Kenneth Anderson, Allen & Unwin, 1954
  10. Ethirajan, A. (2012). "Rogue tigress 'terrorises Bangladesh villagers'". BBC News. BBC.
  11. "Only 100 tigers left in Bangladesh's famed Sundarbans forest | Environment". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
  12. "sunderbans tiger reserve, sunderbans wildlife,sunderbans national park". Journeymart.com. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
  13. "Predators: Beasts". Betabunny.com. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
  14. 1 2 "Interspecies Conflict: Lion vs Tiger". Archived from the original on 3 May 2008. Retrieved 22 December 2007.
  15. Bhimanshankarcha Narbhakshak (Maneater of Bhimashankar) - A Marathi book by Author Sureshchandra Warghade
  16. "Spy drones couldn't catch Bijnor's maneater tigress". India Today . 5 March 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
  17. "Hunting for India's deadliest man-eating tiger". BBC News . 26 February 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
  18. "For Moradabad man-eater, is man off the menu?". The Times of India . 17 August 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
  19. Pinjarkar, Vijay (2 October 2018). "In Yavatmal, 9-month-long hunt for killer tigress may be about to end". The Times of India. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  20. "'Man-eater' tigress Avni shot dead at Yavatmal in Maharashtra". The Economic Times. 3 November 2018. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  21. Nanisetti, Serish (2 March 2019). "Changing the stripes of conservation". The Hindu. ISSN   0971-751X . Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  22. Kumar, Hari; Gettleman, Jeffrey (3 November 2018). "Man-Eating Tiger Is Shot Dead in India". The New York Times. New Delhi. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  23. "'Man-eater' tigress Avni killed in Yavatmal after 3-month chase that included drones, hand-gliders, sniffer dogs, elephants". Firstpost. 3 November 2018. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  24. "Calvin Klein's Obsession Could Be The Trick To Catching A Tiger". NPR. 14 October 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  25. Montgomery, Sy (2009). Spell of the Tiger: The Man-Eaters of Sundarbans . Chelsea Green Publishing. pp.  37–38. ISBN   0395641691.
  26. "Woman mauled to death by tiger in B.C. Interior".
  27. "License revoked for Kansas facility where tiger killed teen".
  28. "Trespassing charges in Calgary Zoo tiger attack".
  29. 1 2 https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/gqmd37/this-wasnt-nearly-the-first-time-a-tiger-has-killed-a-zoo-keeper
  30. https://abcnews.go.com/US/conservationist-attacked-tigers-animal-sanctuary/story?id=67575571