Tiger penis

Last updated

In traditional Chinese medicine, a tiger penis (Vietnamese: Pín hổ; Chinese :虎鞭; pinyin :hǔ biān) is said to have important therapeutic properties. However, there is no scientific proof that tiger penis can be used to treat any medical disorder. The demand for tiger parts exacerbates the endangered status of the tiger by providing a market for poachers. While tiger penis is consumed in parts of China and Southeast Asia, the consumption of tiger penis is often condemned by most countries and various environmental groups. [1]

Contents

Genuine tiger penises are unlikely to be found for sale in public markets; what is usually sold as a tiger penis is made from cattle. [2]

A fake tiger penis made from cattle Tiger penis.jpg
A fake tiger penis made from cattle

Health

The penis of a tiger, when consumed, is said to be a potent aphrodisiac and an effective treatment for erectile dysfunction. [3] However, there is no scientific evidence to support the usage of tiger penis in the treatment of any disorder. [4] This persistent folk belief has contributed to the poaching of tigers for their presumed benefits, the penis being just one of the tiger's many medicinal assets. [4] A very large underground market in China and other parts of Asia exists to keep up with constant demand for tiger parts. [4]

Medical studies conducted by scholars at the University of New South Wales and the University of Alaska claim that as the Chinese people are rapidly modernizing, more and more men are using sildenafil (Viagra) instead of folk remedies to treat erectile dysfunction. [5] The researchers surveyed 256 Chinese men, aged 50 to 76, who sought treatment at a large TCM clinic in Hong Kong over their methods to treat impotence. [5] Although the studies indicated that older men in China are finding sildenafil (Viagra) to be a more effective treatment, they also indicated that they still resort to alternative treatments of (other) ailments such as arthritis, indigestion and gout. [5]

Cuisine

People have been known to spend up to $5700 (£3000) on a particularly rare tiger penis dish, which needed to be ordered months in advance. [4] In the 1990s, dried tiger penis was reported to have been sold at around $2500 (£1300) in Singapore and Taiwan. [6] The penis can be taken in soup, ground in wine (tiger penis wine), or soaked in rice. One method of preparation, particularly in the Mekong River Delta, is to place a dried tiger penis, with testicles still attached, into a bottle of French cognac or Chinese wine and let it soak for a number of weeks. [6] Then, as it matures, the liquor is taken in sips every night. [6]

See also

Related Research Articles

Erectile dysfunction (ED), also called impotence, is the type of sexual dysfunction in which the penis fails to become or stay erect during sexual activity. It is the most common sexual problem in men. Through its connection to self-image and to problems in sexual relationships, erectile dysfunction can cause psychological harm.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sildenafil</span> Drug for erectile dysfunction and hypertension

Sildenafil, sold under the brand name Viagra, among others, is a medication used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is also sometimes used off-label for the treatment of certain symptoms in secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. It is unclear if it is effective for treating sexual dysfunction in women. It can be taken orally, intravenously, or sublingually. Onset when taken orally is typically within twenty minutes and lasts for about two hours.

An aphrodisiac is a substance alleged to increase libido, sexual desire, sexual attraction, sexual pleasure, or sexual behavior. These substances range from a variety of plants, spices and foods to synthetic chemicals. Natural aphrodisiacs like cannabis or cocaine are classified into plant-based and non-plant-based substances. Synthetic aphrodisiacs include MDMA and methamphetamine. Aphrodisiacs can be classified by their type of effects. Aphrodisiacs that contain hallucinogenic properties like Bufotenin have psychological effects on a person that can increase sexual desire and sexual pleasure. Aphrodisiacs that contain smooth muscle relaxing properties like yohimbine have physiological effects on a person that can affect hormone levels and increase blood flow.

Anorgasmia is a type of sexual dysfunction in which a person cannot achieve orgasm despite adequate stimulation. Anorgasmia is far more common in females than in males and is especially rare in younger men. The problem is greater in women who are post-menopausal. In males, it is most closely associated with delayed ejaculation. Anorgasmia can often cause sexual frustration.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tadalafil</span> Medication used to treat erectile dysfunction

Tadalafil, sold under the brand name Cialis among others, is a medication used to treat erectile dysfunction, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is taken by mouth. Onset is typically within half an hour and the duration is up to 36 hours.

Sexual dysfunction is difficulty experienced by an individual or partners during any stage of normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal, or orgasm. The World Health Organization defines sexual dysfunction as a "person's inability to participate in a sexual relationship as they would wish". This definition is broad and is subject to many interpretations. A diagnosis of sexual dysfunction under the DSM-5 requires a person to feel extreme distress and interpersonal strain for a minimum of six months. Sexual dysfunction can have a profound impact on an individual's perceived quality of sexual life. The term sexual disorder may not only refer to physical sexual dysfunction, but to paraphilias as well; this is sometimes termed disorder of sexual preference.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vardenafil</span> Chemical compound

Vardenafil, sold under the brand name Levitra among others, is a medication that is used for treating erectile dysfunction. It is a PDE5 inhibitor. It is taken by mouth.

Sex therapy is a therapeutic strategy for the improvement of sexual function and treatment of sexual dysfunction. This includes dysfunctions such as premature ejaculation and delayed ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, lack of sexual interest or arousal, and painful sex ; as well as problems imposed by atypical sexual interests (paraphilias), gender dysphoria, highly overactive libido or hypersexuality, a lack of sexual confidence, and recovering from sexual abuse ; and also includes sexual issues related to aging, illness, or disability.

Sexual medicine or Psychosexual medicine as defined by Masters and Johnsons in their classic Textbook of Sexual Medicine, is "that branch of medicine that focuses on the evaluation and treatment of sexual disorders, which have a high prevalence rate." Examples of disorders treated with sexual medicine are erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism, and prostate cancer. Sexual medicine often uses a multidisciplinary approach involving physicians, mental health professionals, social workers, and sex therapists. Sexual medicine physicians often approach treatment with medicine and surgery, while sex therapists often focus on behavioral treatments.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">PDE5 inhibitor</span> Vasodilating drug

A phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor is a vasodilating drug that works by blocking the degradative action of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) on cyclic GMP in the smooth muscle cells lining the blood vessels supplying various tissues. These drugs dilate the corpora cavernosa of the penis, facilitating erection with sexual stimulation, and are used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). Sildenafil was the first effective oral treatment available for ED. Because PDE5 is also present in the smooth muscle of the walls of the arterioles within the lungs, two PDE5 inhibitors, sildenafil and tadalafil, are FDA-approved for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. As of 2019, the wider cardiovascular benefits of PDE5 inhibitors are being appreciated.

cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 Mammalian protein found in Homo sapiens

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 is an enzyme from the phosphodiesterase class. It is found in various tissues, most prominently the corpus cavernosum and the retina. It has also been recently discovered to play a vital role in the cardiovascular system.

Venous leak, also called venogenic erectile dysfunction and penile venous insufficiency, is one category of vasculogenic impotence — a cause of erectile dysfunction in males. It affects all ages, being particularly awkward in young men. Much about venous leaks has not reached a consensus among the medical community, and many aspects of the condition, particularly its treatment strategies, are controversial. The prevalence of the condition is still unknown, although some sources claim it to be a common cause of erectile dysfunction.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Herbal viagra</span> A class of herbal products said to treat erectile dysfunction

Herbal viagra is a herbal product advertised as treating erectile dysfunction. Many different products are advertised as herbal viagra, but with varying ingredients. No clinical trials or scientific studies support the effectiveness of any of these ingredients for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and some products have been found to contain drugs and other adulterants, and have been the subject of FDA and FTC warnings and actions to remove them from the market.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Acetildenafil</span> Chemical compound

Acetildenafil (hongdenafil) is a synthetic drug which acts as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is an analog of sildenafil (Viagra) which has been detected in numerous different brands of supposedly "herbal" aphrodisiac products sold to boost libido and alleviate erectile dysfunction.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Deer penis</span> Traditional chinese medicine

In traditional Chinese medicine, a deer penis is said to have important therapeutic properties.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sulfoaildenafil</span> Chemical compound

Sulfoaildenafil (thioaildenafil) is a synthetic drug that is a structural analog of sildenafil (Viagra). It was first reported in 2005, and it is not approved by any health regulation agency. Like sildenafil, sulfoaildenafil is a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aildenafil</span> Chemical compound

Aildenafil (methisosildenafil) is a synthetic drug that is a structural analog of sildenafil (Viagra). It was first reported in 2003, and it is not approved by any health regulation agency. Like sildenafil, aildenafil is a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ronald Virag</span> French cardiovascular surgeon

Ronald Virag is a French cardiovascular surgeon who specialises in andrology, the study of the male reproductive system. After training in general and cardiovascular surgery at Paris University, he shifted his focus to the study of erectile dysfunction, which has been his primary area of study since 1978. In 1981, he founded a private institute in France dedicated to the clinical study of erectile dysfunction and developed early programs using intracavernosal drugs to treat the condition.

Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a superfamily of enzymes. This superfamily is further classified into 11 families, PDE1 - PDE11, on the basis of regulatory properties, amino acid sequences, substrate specificities, pharmacological properties and tissue distribution. Their function is to degrade intracellular second messengers such as cyclic adenine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which leads to several biological processes like effect on intracellular calcium level by the Ca2+ pathway.

Tiger penis soup is a Chinese soup prepared with tiger penis. It is typically an expensive dish, due to the rarity of tiger penis. In some cultures and countries, people believe that the dish can enhance male virility—a notion that has not been supported by scientific evidence. There has been opposition to the dish from environmental organizations, and ongoing consumption of the soup has contributed to the decline of tiger populations. The legality of the dish varies in different countries, as tigers are a protected species.

References

  1. "What China wants: Breast milk and tiger penis | Public Radio International". Globalpost.com. 2013-08-20. Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  2. 1 2 "Distinguishing Real vs Fake Tiger Penises" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 13, 2021.
  3. "Aphrodisiacs and the Myth of Tiger Penis Magical Cures", Tigerhomes.org
  4. 1 2 3 4 Harding, Andrew (September 23, 2006). "Beijing's penis emporium". BBC. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
  5. 1 2 3 "Chinese men swapping tiger penis for Viagra". News Medical. October 10, 2005. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
  6. 1 2 3 Ellis, Richard (2005). Tiger bone & rhino horn: the destruction of wildlife for traditional Chinese medicine. Island Press. p. 159. ISBN   1559635320.