Tiger quoll

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Tiger quoll [1]
Tiger Quoll 6178.jpg
Scientific classification OOjs UI icon edit-ltr.svg
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Marsupialia
Order: Dasyuromorphia
Family: Dasyuridae
Genus: Dasyurus
Species:
D. maculatus
Binomial name
Dasyurus maculatus
(Kerr, 1792)
Subspecies
  • Dasyurus maculatus maculatus
  • Dasyurus maculatus gracilis
Spotted-tailed Quoll.JPG
Range of the tiger quoll

The tiger quoll (Dasyurus maculatus), also known as the spotted-tail quoll, the spotted quoll, the spotted-tail dasyure, native cat or the tiger cat, is a carnivorous marsupial of the quoll genus Dasyurus native to Australia. With males and females weighing around 3.5 and 1.8 kg (7.7 and 4.0 lb), respectively, it is the world's second-largest extant carnivorous marsupial, behind the Tasmanian devil. Two subspecies are recognised; the nominate is found in wet forests of southeastern Australia and Tasmania, and a northern subspecies, D. m. gracilis, is found in a small area of northern Queensland and is endangered.

Contents

Taxonomy

The tiger quoll is a member of the family Dasyuridae, which includes most carnivorous marsupial mammals. This quoll was first described in 1792 by Robert Kerr, the Scottish writer and naturalist, who placed it in the genus Didelphis , which includes several species of American opossum. The species name, maculatus, indicates this species is spotted. [4]

Two subspecies are recognised: [4]

Description

Skeleton of tiger quoll Dasyurus maculatus skeleton.jpg
Skeleton of tiger quoll

The tiger quoll is the largest of the quolls. [5] Males and females of D. m. maculatus weigh on average 3.5 and 1.8 kg, respectively, and males and females of D. m. gracilis weigh on average 1.60 and 1.15 kg, respectively. [6] The next-largest species, the western quoll, weighs on average 1.31 kg for males and 0.89 kg for females. [7] The tiger quoll has relatively short legs, but its tail is as long as its body and head combined. [6] It has a thick head and neck and a slightly rounded and elongated snout. [6] It has five toes on each foot, both front and hind, and the hind feet have well-developed halluces. Its long pink foot pads are ridged, an adaptation for its arboreal lifestyle. [8] This makes up for the fact that its tail is not prehensile. The tiger quoll usually has a reddish-brown pelage (a minority have black fur) with white spots, and colourations do not change seasonally. It is the only quoll species with spots on its tail in addition to its body. Its fur and skin are covered in orange-brown-coloured oil. The underside is typically greyish or creamy white. The average length of D. m. maculatus is 930 mm for males and 811 mm for females, respectively. For D. m. gracilis, the average length of males and females, respectively, is 801 and 742 mm. [6]

The tiger quoll has the second most powerful bite relative to body size of any living mammalian carnivore, exerting a force of 308  N (31.4  kgf ). [9] [10]

Range and ecology

Tiger quoll at Healesville Sanctuary, Victoria Dasyurus maculatus -Healesville Sanctuary, Australia-8a.jpg
Tiger quoll at Healesville Sanctuary, Victoria
Tiger quoll sleeping at the window of the nocturnal animals exhibit at Sydney Wildlife World Spotted-tail quoll sleeping at Sydney Wildlife World.jpg
Tiger quoll sleeping at the window of the nocturnal animals exhibit at Sydney Wildlife World
A tiger quoll standing on hind legs, at a wildlife sanctuary at Queens Park, Ipswich, Queensland Spotted-tail Quoll standing-on-hind-legs.jpg
A tiger quoll standing on hind legs, at a wildlife sanctuary at Queens Park, Ipswich, Queensland

The tiger quoll is found in eastern Australia where more than 600 mm (24 in) of rain falls per year. [11] [12] Historically, the quoll was present throughout southeastern Queensland, through eastern New South Wales, Victoria, southeastern South Australia, and Tasmania. European settlement has severely impacted and fragmented the quoll's mainland distribution. [13] Tiger quolls are rare in southeastern Queensland and mainly restricted to national parks. [14] In Victoria, quoll populations have declined by nearly 50%. [12] The range decline was not as severe in New South Wales, but they are still rare. [12] The quoll was probably never very numerous in South Australia, but although considered locally extinct for 130 years, one was captured in the state's south-east in 2023. [5]

In Tasmania, the tiger quoll mostly frequents the northern and western areas where rains are seasonal. [15] Tiger quolls were once native to Flinders Island and King Island, but were extirpated since the 20th century, so are not present on Tasmanian offshore islands. [16]

Tiger quolls live in a variety of habitats, but seem to prefer wet forests such as rainforests and closed eucalypt forest. [8] [15] They are arboreal, but only moderately, [17] as 11% of their travelling is done above ground. [8]

Prey items eaten by quolls include insects, crayfish, lizards, snakes, birds, domestic poultry, small mammals, platypus, rabbits, arboreal possums, cuscuses, greater gliders, bandicoots, pademelons, small wallabies, and wombats. [6] [18] They may scavenge larger prey such as kangaroos, feral pigs, cattle, and dingoes. [6] [17] However, the tiger quoll does not scavenge as much as the Tasmanian devil. [8] Much of the prey eaten by the quoll are arboreal. [17] They can climb high into trees and make nocturnal hunts for possums and birds. [8] The flexibility of their diets suggests their prey base is not detrimentally affected by bushfires. [19] When hunting, a quoll stalks its prey, stopping only when its head is up. [6] It then launches its attack, executing a killing bite to the base of the skull or top of the neck, depending on the size of the prey. [8] The quoll will pin small prey down with its forepaws and then deliver the bite. With large prey, it jumps and latches on its back and bites the neck. [6]

Quolls, in turn, may be preyed on by Tasmanian devils and masked owls in Tasmania and dingos and dogs in mainland Australia. [6] It may also be preyed on by wedge-tailed eagles and large pythons. Tiger quolls yield to adult devils, but will chase subadults away from carcasses. Quolls also probably compete with introduced carnivores, such as foxes, cats, and feral dogs. Tiger quolls are also hosts to numerous species of endoparasites. [6]

Life history

Tiger quolls are generally nocturnal, and rest during the day in dens. However, juveniles and females with young in the den can be seen during the day and may leave their dens when it is light out. [11] [14] [17] Quoll dens take the form of burrows, caves, rock crevices, tree hollows, hollow logs, or under houses or sheds. [8] [11] [14] Quolls move by walking and bounding gaits. [6] Trails are not particularly important for quoll, although they forage and scent mark along runways and roads. Tiger quolls may live in home ranges that range from 580 to 875 ha for males and 90–188 for females. [6] Most resident quolls are female, although one population study found both males and females were split between transients and residents. [17] Males have overlapping home ranges, but each has its own core area of at least 128 ha. [14] The home ranges of females may overlap less. [17] Quolls sometimes share dens during the breeding season. [14] After copulation, females act aggressively towards males, especially when close to parturition. For the tiger quoll, olfactory and auditory signals are used more often than visual signals when communicating. Quolls greet each other with nose-to-nose sniffs, and males will sniff the backsides of females to check for estrus. [6] Quolls also mark themselves with mouth and ear secretions. [20] Some populations have communal latrines, while others do not. Rocky creek beds, cliff bases, and roads serve as locations for latrines. [17]

Tiger quolls are generally not vocal, but vocalisations can be heard in any social interaction. [21] Antagonistic or disturbed vocalisations are guttural huffs, coughs, hisses, and piercing screams. [6] "Cp-cp-cp" sounds are produced by females in estrus. [21] Females communicate with their young with "chh-chh" and "echh-echh" calls. The former are made by females and the latter are made by young. "Juveniles vocalise frequently when fighting and their mother will hiss when they clamber over her." [6] During antagonistic encounters, quolls also threaten each other with open mouths and teeth displays. At this time, the ears are laid back and the eyes are narrowed. Males grasp and bite each other in combat. [8]

Tiger quolls reproduce seasonally. They mate in midwinter (June/July), but females can breed as early as April. [22] The mating behaviour of the tiger quoll is unique among the quoll species in that the female vocalises when in estrus and easily accepts the male's mounting. [6] In addition, the female's neck swells up. Mating involves the male holding on the female's sides with his paws and holding on the neck with his mouth. [21] Copulation can last as long as 24 hours. Females give birth with their hindquarters raised and their tails curled. [6] For the time the young is in the pouch, a female rests on her sides. After the young have left the pouch, females stay in nests they have built. [6] For their first 50–60 days of life, the young cannot see, so they rely on vocalisations and touch to find their mother or siblings. It stops when their eyes open after 70 days. Young are not carried on the back, but they do rest on their mother [21] and cling to her when frightened. By 100 days the young become more independent of their mothers, and the mothers more aggressive towards their young. [23]

They do not usually last more than around three years in the wild. [5]

Conservation status

The tiger quoll is listed by the IUCN on the Red List of Threatened Species with the status "near threatened". [2] As of 2023, since listing in 2004 under the EPBC Act, the Tasmanian population of Dasyurus maculatus maculatus tiger quoll is regarded as a vulnerable species, [24] while the Queensland population of Dasyurus maculatus maculatus has been listed as endangered since July 2000. [25]

This species is vulnerable to decline because it requires certain climates and habitats, it tends to live in low densities, it is likely to compete with introduced predators (mainly foxes and feral cats [5] ) and requires much space, and it does not live very long. [6]

The biggest threat to the quoll is habitat destruction. [6] Humans may directly contribute to quoll deaths through persecution, motor collisions, and 1080 poisoning. [26]

Conservationists are using population monitoring and public education to preserve the species and intend to preserve their habitat and minimise the impacts of 1080 baiting. Savage River National Park in the Tarkine area of Tasmania is an example of suitable habitat protection.[ citation needed ]

Related Research Articles

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tasmanian devil</span> Australian carnivorous marsupial

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brisbane Water National Park</span> Protected area in New South Wales, Australia

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dasyuridae</span> Family of marsupials

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Quoll</span> Genus of marsupial mammals

Quolls are carnivorous marsupials native to Australia and New Guinea. They are primarily nocturnal and spend most of the day in a den. Of the six species of quoll, four are found in Australia and two in New Guinea. Another two species are known from fossil remains in Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits in Queensland. Genetic evidence indicates that quolls evolved around 15 million years ago in the Miocene, and that the ancestors of the six species had all diverged by around four million years ago. The six species vary in weight and size, from 300 g (11 oz) to 7 kg (15 lb). They have brown or black fur and pink noses. They are largely solitary, but come together for a few social interactions such as mating which occurs during the winter season. A female gives birth to up to 30 pups, but the number that can be raised to adulthood is limited by the number of teats (6–7). They have a life span of 1–5 years.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kowari</span> Species of marsupial

The kowari, also known by its Diyari name kariri, is a small carnivorous marsupial native to the gibber deserts of central Australia. It is the sole member of the genus Dasyuroides.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dasyurinae</span> Subfamily of mammals

The subfamily Dasyurinae includes several genera of small carnivorous marsupials native to Australia: quolls, kowari, mulgara, kaluta, dibblers, phascogales, pseudantechinuses, and the Tasmanian devil. The subfamily is defined largely on biochemical criteria.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Northern quoll</span> Species of marsupial native to Australia

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Threatened fauna of Australia</span> Animals at risk of becoming extinct

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Eastern quoll</span> Species of marsupial

The eastern quoll is a medium-sized carnivorous marsupial (dasyurid), and one of six extant species of quolls. Endemic to Australia, they occur on the island state of Tasmania, but were considered extinct on the mainland after 1963. The species has been reintroduced to fox-proof fenced sanctuaries Victoria in 2003 and to the Australian Capital Territory in 2016.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dasyurini</span> Tribe of marsupials

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fat-tailed dunnart</span> Species of mammal

The fat-tailed dunnart is a species of mouse-like marsupial of the Dasyuridae, the family that includes the little red kaluta, quolls, and the Tasmanian devil.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Swamp antechinus</span> Species of marsupial

The swamp antechinus, also known as the little Tasmanian marsupial mouse, is a species of shrew-like marsupial of the family Dasyuridae and as such is related to dunnarts, quolls and the Tasmanian devil.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Western quoll</span> Species of marsupial

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Eastern pygmy possum</span> Species of marsupial

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">New Guinean quoll</span> Species of marsupial

The New Guinean quoll, also known as the New Guinea quoll or New Guinea native cat, is a carnivorous marsupial mammal native to New Guinea. It is the second-largest surviving marsupial carnivore of New Guinea. It is known as suatg in the Kalam language of Papua New Guinea.

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