Tiger trout

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Tiger trout
TigerTrout3.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Salmoniformes
Family: Salmonidae
Subfamily: Salmoninae
Hybrid: Salmo Ford × Salvelinus fontinalis

The tiger trout (Salmo trutta × Salvelinus fontinalis) is a sterile, intergeneric hybrid of the brown trout (Salmo trutta) and the brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). The name derives from the pronounced vermiculations, which evoke the stripes of a tiger. The fish is an anomaly in the wild, with the brook trout having 84 chromosomes and the brown trout 80. [1] [2] Records show instances as far back as 1944. [3] The cross itself is unusual in that the parents are members of different genera. [4]

Contents

Artificial Selection

Tiger trout can be produced reliably in hatcheries. This is done by fertilizing brown trout eggs with brook trout milt and heat shocking, causing the creation of an extra set of chromosomes and increasing survival rates from 5% to 85%. [5] Tiger trout have been reported to grow faster than natural species, [6] though this assessment is not universal, [7] and they have been widely stocked for sport fishing.

Tiger trout are known to be highly piscivorous (fish-eating), and are a good control against rough fish populations. This makes tigers popular with many fish stocking programs, such as with the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources. [8] Their own population numbers can be tightly controlled as well, since they are sterile.

Many US states have had stocking programs for tiger trout. Wisconsin discontinued its program in the late 1970s. Tigers were exclusively stocked in the Great Lakes. After the stocking program was discontinued, a 20-pound-plus (9-kg-plus) world-record tiger trout was caught in the Great Lakes.

Hybridization experiments with salmonids were carried out with several world known sperm activating mediums for artificial insemination of eggs from freshwater fishes. In Bulgarian fish farms, experiments were carried to study the viability, performance traits and the fertility of hybrids. [9] It was achieved 100% fertilizing brook trout - Salvelinus fontinalis М. eggs with semen from brown trout - Salmo trutta m. fario L. using of medium 49282 - single or along with extender 49283, but embryonic mortality was 100%. The ultimate variant /♂ Salvelinus fontinalis М. Х ♀ Salmo trutta m. fario L./ was successful for optimize crossbreeding. Medium 49282 have the best sperm activating effect and may use along with extender 49283 for artificial insemination to produce tiger trout. Obtained fry are more vital and energetic with faster grow and developing. It was made basic definition of produced trout hybrids – soft snout, low situated eyes and typicalness tiger color. The experiment is continuing, it is evident that more research is necessary before the potential value of obtained hybrids for fish farming can be properly assessed.

Wild tiger trout

Wisconsin currently has no stocking program for tiger trout, but the hybrids show up naturally in the state's small streams (in particular in the Driftless Area). As brook trout populations have rebounded, incidences of tiger trout have improved from "exceedingly rare" to a "a bit better than rare." [10]

Michigan tends to have a number of tiger trout in its streams, due to its high population of brook trout,[ citation needed ] though catching them consistently would not be possible.[ citation needed ]

See also

Related Research Articles

Trout Number of species of freshwater fish

Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae. The word trout is also used as part of the name of some non-salmonid fish such as Cynoscion nebulosus, the spotted seatrout or speckled trout.

Lake trout Species of fish

Lake trout is a freshwater char living mainly in lakes in northern North America. Other names for it include mackinaw, namaycush,lake char (or charr), touladi, togue, and grey trout. In Lake Superior, it can also be variously known as siscowet, paperbelly and lean. The lake trout is prized both as a game fish and as a food fish. Those caught with dark coloration may be called mud hens.

Brown trout Species of fish

The brown trout is a European species of salmonid fish that has been widely introduced into suitable environments globally. It includes purely freshwater populations, referred to as the riverine ecotype, Salmo trutta morpha fario, a lacustrine ecotype, S. trutta morpha lacustris, also called the lake trout, and anadromous forms known as the sea trout, S. trutta morpha trutta. The latter migrates to the oceans for much of its life and returns to fresh water only to spawn. Sea trout in Ireland and Britain have many regional names: sewin in Wales, finnock in Scotland, peal in the West Country, mort in North West England, and white trout in Ireland.

Bull trout species of fish

The bull trout is a char of the family Salmonidae native to northwestern North America. Historically, S. confluentus has been known as the "Dolly Varden", but was reclassified as a separate species in 1980. Bull trout are listed as a threatened species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (1998) and as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Brook trout species of fish

The brook trout is a species of freshwater fish in the char genus Salvelinus of the salmon family Salmonidae. It is native to Eastern North America in the United States and Canada, but has been introduced elsewhere in North America, as well as to Iceland, Europe, and Asia. In parts of its range, it is also known as the eastern brook trout, speckled trout, brook charr, squaretail, or mud trout, among others. A potamodromous population in Lake Superior, as well as an anadromous population in Maine, is known as coaster trout or, simply, as coasters. The brook trout is the state fish of nine U.S. states: Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia, and the Provincial Fish of Nova Scotia in Canada.

Cutthroat trout Species of fish

The cutthroat trout(Oncorhynchus clarkii) is a fish species of the family Salmonidae native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean, Rocky Mountains, and Great Basin in North America. As a member of the genus Oncorhynchus, it is one of the Pacific trout, a group that includes the widely distributed rainbow trout. Cutthroat trout are popular gamefish, especially among anglers who enjoy fly fishing. The common name "cutthroat" refers to the distinctive red coloration on the underside of the lower jaw. The specific name clarkii was given to honor explorer William Clark, coleader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.

Sea trout subspecies of brown trout

Sea trout is the common name usually applied to anadromous forms of brown trout, and is often referred to as Salmo trutta morpha trutta. Other names for anadromous brown trout are sewin (Wales), peel or peal, mort, finnock (Scotland), white trout (Ireland) and salmon trout (culinary). The term sea trout is also used to describe other anadromous salmonids—coho salmon, brook trout, Arctic char, cutthroat trout and Dolly Varden. Even some non-salmonid species are also commonly known as sea trout—Northern pikeminnow and members of the weakfish family (Cynoscion).

Silver trout species of fish

The silver trout is an extinct char species or variety that inhabited a few waters in New Hampshire prior to 1939, when a biological survey conducted on the Connecticut watershed by the New Hampshire Fish and Game Department found none.

<i>Salvelinus</i> genus of fishes

Salvelinus is a genus of salmonid fish often called char or charr; some species are called "trout". Salvelinus is a member of the subfamily Salmoninae within the family Salmonidae. The genus has a northern circumpolar distribution, and most of its members are typically cold-water fish that primarily inhabit fresh waters. Many species also migrate to the sea.

<i>Salmo trutta fario</i> subspecies of fish

Salmo trutta fario, sometimes called the river trout, and also known by the name of its parent species, the brown trout, is a predatory fish of the family Salmonidae and a subspecies or morph of the brown trout species, Salmo trutta, which also includes sea trout and a lacustrine trout. Depending on the supply of food, river trout measure 20 to 80 cm (0.7–2.6 ft) in length; exceptionally they may be up to 1 m (3.3 ft) long and weigh up to over 13 kg (29 lb). Their back is olive-dark brown and silvery blue, red spots with light edges occur towards the belly, the belly itself is whitish yellow. River trout usually attains a weight of up to 2 kg (4.4 lb). They can live for up to 18 years.

Splake taxon of fishes

The splake or slake is a hybrid of two fish species resulting from the crossing of a male brook trout and a female lake trout. The name itself is a portmanteau of speckled trout and lake trout, and may have been used to describe such hybrids as early as the 1880s. Hybrids of the male lake trout with the female brook trout have also been produced, but are not as successful.

Naugatuck River river in the United States of America

The Naugatuck River is a 40.2-mile-long (64.7 km) river in the U.S. state of Connecticut. Its waters carve out the Naugatuck River Valley in the western reaches of the state, flowing generally due south and eventually emptying into the Housatonic River at Derby, Connecticut and thence 11 miles (18 km) to Long Island Sound. The Plume and Atwood Dam in Thomaston, completed in 1960 following the Great Flood of 1955, creates a reservoir on the river and is the last barrier to salmon and trout migrating up from the sea.

Weister Creek stream in Vernon County, Wisconsin, United States of America

Weister Creek is a stream, some 25 miles (40 km) long, in Vernon County in southwestern Wisconsin in the United States and is a tributary of the Kickapoo River. It lies in the Driftless Area which is characterized by hills and valleys apparently missed by the last glacial advance during the Pleistocene. Much of the lower half of Weister Creek is surrounded by wetlands and lies in the Kickapoo Valley Reserve.

Allegheny National Fish Hatchery

The Allegheny National Fish Hatchery was established by Congress in 1959 to produce rainbow, brook, and brown trout for northwestern Pennsylvania streams. Construction began in the late 1960s. Fish production began on site in 1974.

Spooner Lake

Spooner Lake is a man-made reservoir located just north of the intersection of Highway 50 and Highway 28 near Spooner Summit, a pass in the Carson Range of the Sierra Nevada leading to Carson City, Nevada from Lake Tahoe. It is located in Lake Tahoe – Nevada State Park.

References

  1. Mark A. Nale When a Trout is a Tiger! Pennsylvania Council of Trout Unlimited. Retrieved 11 September 2006
  2. "The Brown/Brook Trout Hybrid: Tiger Trout". Troutster.com - Fly Fishing and Trout Information - Facts, Tips and Tricks. 28 April 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  3. Salmo x Salvel hi inus trutta x fontinalis USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. Retrieved 11 September 2006
  4. "Beautiful Bastards: Check Out These Tiger Trout Photos". Field & Stream. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  5. Thousands of tigers released in Utah (trout that is!) Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, 24 May 2005. Retrieved 11 September 2006
  6. Watch out, Utah chubs: Tiger trout placed in Scofield Reservoir Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, 24 May 2005. Retrieved 11 September 2006
  7. Tiger Trout & Hybrids Archived 2006-08-28 at the Wayback Machine Pennsylvania Fish & Boat Commission. Retrieved 11 September 2006
  8. "Tiger Trout Fishing - Utah Fish Species". Utah Fishing Info. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  9. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-11-18. Retrieved 2014-06-19.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. Searock, Kevin (2013). Troutsmith: An Angler's Tales and Travels. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 32–35. ISBN   9780299293734.