Tighearnán Mór Ua Ruairc (older spelling: Tigernán Mór Ua Ruairc), anglicised as Tiernan O'Rourke (fl. 1124 – 1172) ruled the Kingdom of Bréifne as the 19th king in its Ua Ruairc (later O'Rourke) dynasty (964–1605 CE), a branch of the Uí Briúin. He was a descendant of Uí Riagain,[ clarification needed ] and one of the provincial kings in Ireland in the twelfth century, constantly expanding his kingdom through shifting alliances, of which the most long-standing was with Toirdelbach Ua Conchobair King of Connacht and High King of Ireland, and subsequently his son and successor Ruaidhrí Ua Conchobair. He is known for his role in the expulsion of Diarmait Mac Murchada, King of Leinster, from Ireland in 1166. Mac Murchada's subsequent recruitment of Marcher Lords to assist him in the recovery of his Kingdom of Leinster ultimately led to the Norman invasion of Ireland.
Ua Ruairc may have ruled Bréifne as early as 1124, as indicated in Mac Carthaigh's Bookand the Annals of the Four Masters, the former indicating he allied at the time with the kings of Meath and Leinster against Toirdelbach Ua Conchobair. However the Annals of Ulster and the Annals of Tigernach do not mention him until 1128, where they record his robbing and killing of some of the Archbishop of Armagh's company, the former calling it 'A detestable and unprecedented deed of evil consequence'.
He appears to have carried out a number of raids into other territories in 1130s and in 1143 assisted Toirdelbach Ua Conchobair in the capture of his son Ruaidhrí.In 1144 he was given half of East Meath, with the other half going to Diarmait Mac Murchada, king of Leinster, by Ua Choncobair. Both Ua Ruairc and Mac Murchadh joined the High King in a raid into Munster in 1151.
In 1152, Ua Ruairc's wife, Derbforgaill, was abducted along with her cattle and material wealth by Mac Murchada, who made a hosting into Ua Ruairc's territory aided by Toirdelbach Ua Conchobair.Although the Annals of the Four Masters state that Derbforgaill returned to Ua Ruairc the following year, the matter may not have ended there. In 1166, Mac Murchada was driven from Leinster by Ua Ruairc, Ruaidhrí Ua Conchobair, who had succeeded his father as king of Connacht and High King of Ireland, and Diarmait Ua Mealseachlainn, King of Meath. Despite the fourteen-year gap between Derbforgaill's abduction and Mac Murchada's expulsion from Leinster, several sources attribute Ua Ruairc's role in Mac Murchada's expulsion to a desire for revenge for the kidknapping of Derbforgaill.
Mac Murchadh fled to the court of Henry II of England in Aquitaine, where he asked Henry for help in regaining his territory in Leinster. Henry agreed to allow Mac Murchada to recruit mercenary soldiers from amongst his subjects. He ultimately persuaded Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, known as Strongbow, to assist him, promising the inheritance of Leinster in return.He initially returned to Leinster in 1167 with a small band of Norman knights and was defeated by Ruaidhrí Ua Conchobair, Ua Ruairc and Ua Maelseachlainn. On this occasion he was allowed to remain in Ireland, but was forced to pay one hundred ounces of gold to Ua Ruairc for the kidnapping of Derbforgaill and submit and give hostages to Ruaidhrí.Thus proving under Brehon law that the abduction of his wife was unlawful. It wasn't until the arrival of Robert Fitz Stephen, Hervey de Montmorency, Raymond le Gros and eventually Strongbow himself that Mac Murchada met with success.
Ua Ruairc had his territories in Meath plundered by Mac Murchada and Strongbow in 1170.In response, the Annals of Tigernach state that he persuaded Ruaidhrí Ua Conchobair to execute hostages he had taken from Mac Murchada the previous year. In 1171 he joined Ruaidhrí in an unsuccessful siege of Dublin, which had by then been captured by Mac Murchada and Strongbow. He raided the territory around Dublin later in the year, unsuccessfully engaging the Normans stationed there under Miles De Cogan. In this engagement, his son, Aodh, was killed.
According to Giraldus Cambrensis, Ua Ruairc was one of the Kings of Ireland who submitted allegiance to Henry II after his arrival to assert control over Strongbow in 1171.
According to Giraldus Cambrensis, Ua Ruairc was killed by a Cambro-Norman knight named Griffin FitzWilliam, acting in defence of Hugh de Lacy and Maurice FitzGerald, whom Giraldus claims Ua Ruairc attempted to kill after failed negotiations. This occurred shortly after the departure of Henry II from Ireland.However, the Annals of Tigernach indicate that he was betrayed and killed by Eoan Mer, Richard de Clare the Younger, a son of Strongbow, and Domhnall, a son of Annach Ua Ruairc in 1172. The Annals of the Four Masters, which claims that his death was at the hands of de Lacy and Domhnall states that he was 'a man of great power for a long time'. Prior to his departure, Henry, in his capacity as Lord of Ireland, granted the Lordship of Meath to de Lacy in 1172.
Via his mother, Ua Ruairc was a half-brother of Donnchad Ua Cerbaill (d. 1168).
Ua Ruairc had at least three children, a son Maelseachlainn Ua Ruairc, who was killed in 1162, [ citation needed ]a son Aodh Ua Ruairc, who was killed attacking Dublin, and a daughter Dubhchoblaigh, who was married to Ruaidhrí Ua Conchobair.
Diarmait Mac Murchada, anglicised as Dermot MacMurrough, Dermod MacMurrough, or Dermot MacMorrogh, was a King of Leinster in Ireland. In 1167, he was deposed by the High King of Ireland – Ruaidri Ua Conchobair. The grounds for the deposition were that Mac Murchada had, in 1152, abducted Derbforgaill, the wife of the King of Breifne, Tiernan O'Rourke. To recover his kingdom, Mac Murchada solicited help from King Henry II of England. His issue unresolved, he gained the military support of the Earl of Pembroke. At that time, Strongbow was in opposition to Henry II due to his support for Stephen, King of England against Henry's mother in The Anarchy. In exchange for his aid, Strongbow was promised in marriage to Mac Murchada's daughter Aoife with the right to succeed to the Kingship of Leinster. Henry II then mounted a larger second invasion in 1171 to ensure his control over Strongbow, resulting in the Norman Lordship of Ireland. Mac Murchada was later known as Diarmait na nGall.
Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, Lord of Leinster, Justiciar of Ireland was an Anglo-Norman nobleman notable for his leading role in the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland. Like his father, Richard fitz Gilbert has since become commonly known by his nickname Strongbow, which may be a mistranscription or mistranslation of "Striguil."
Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair was King of Connacht from 1156 to 1186, and High King of Ireland from 1166 to 1193. He was the last High King of Ireland before the Norman invasion.
Lorcán Ua Tuathail, also known as Saint Laurence O'Toole, was Archbishop of Dublin at the time of the Norman invasion of Ireland. He played a prominent role in the Irish Church Reform Movement of the 12th century and mediated between the parties during and after the invasion. He was canonised in 1225 by Pope Honorius III.
Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobhair anglicised Turlough Mór O'Connor / O'Conor, was King of Connacht (1106–1156) and High King of Ireland.
Toirdhealbhach Ua Briain, anglicised Turlough O'Brien, was King of Munster and effectively High King of Ireland. A grandson of Brian Bóruma, Toirdelbach was the son of Tadc mac Briain who was killed in 1023 by his half-brother Donnchad mac Briain.
Dearbhfhorghaill (1108–1193), anglicized as Derval, was a daughter of Murchad Ua Maeleachlainn, king of Meath, and of his wife Mor, daughter of Muirchertach Ua Briain. She is famously known as the "Helen of Ireland" as her abduction from her husband Tigernán Ua Ruairc by Diarmait Mac Murchada, king of Leinster, in 1152 played some part in bringing the Anglo-Normans to Irish shores, although this is a role that has often been greatly exaggerated and often misinterpreted.
The Anglo Norman invasion of Ireland took place in stages during the late 12th century and led to the Anglo-Normans Kingdom of England conquering large swaths of land from the Irish. At the time, Gaelic Ireland was made up of several kingdoms, with a High King claiming lordship over the lesser kings. The Norman invasion was a watershed in the history of Ireland, marking the beginning of more than 800 years of direct English and, later, British involvement in Ireland.
Events from the year 1166 in Ireland.
Hugh de Lacy, Lord of Meath, 4th Baron Lacy, was an Anglo-Norman landowner and royal office-holder. He had substantial land holdings in Herefordshire and Shropshire, England. Following his participation in the Norman Invasion of Ireland, he was granted, in 1172, the lands of the Kingdom of Meath by the Anglo-Norman King Henry II, but he had to gain control of them. The Lordship of Meath was then the most extensive liberty in Ireland.
Ascall mac Ragnaill meic Torcaill, also known as Ascall Mac Torcaill, was the last Norse-Gaelic King of Dublin. He was a member of the Meic Torcaill, a Dublin family of significance since the early twelfth century.
Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, called Ruaidrí na Saide Buide was King of Connacht, perhaps twice.
Maurice de Prendergast was a Norman knight, fl. 1169–1174.
Mór Ní Thuathail was a Queen-consort of Leinster as the principal first wife of King Diarmait Mac Murchada. Under Brehon Law, Irish men were allowed more than one wife. King Dermot's second wife was Sadhbh Ní Fhaolain.
Conchobar Ua Conchobair, served as tánaiste of Connacht, fl. 1126–1144.
The siege of Wexford took place in early May 1169 and was the first major clash of the Norman invasion of Ireland. The town was besieged by a combined force of Normans under Robert Fitz-Stephen and soldiers loyal to Diarmait mac Murchadha. After being ousted as King of Leinster, Diarmait had recruited the Normans to help him regain control of Leinster and the semi-independent Norse-Gaelic seaport of Wexford. Although the attackers did not breach the town's walls, Wexford surrendered after almost two days and came under Norman control.
Events from the year 1167 in Ireland.
Domhnall Caomhánach is the ancestor of the Caomhánach line of the Uí Ceinnselaig dynasty and was King of Leinster from 1171 to 1175. Domhnall was the eldest son of the 12th century King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada in Ireland.
Domnall Gerrlámhach, also known as Domnall Gerrlámhach Ua Briain, Domnall mac Muirchertaig, and Domnall Ua Briain, was an obscure twelfth-century Uí Briain dynast and King of Dublin. He was one of two sons of Muirchertach Ua Briain, High King of Ireland. Domnall's father appears to have installed him as King of Dublin in the late eleventh- or early twelfth century, which suggests that he was his father's successor-designate. Although Domnall won a remarkable victory in the defence of the Kingdom of Dublin in the face of an invasion from the Kingdom of Leinster in 1115, he failed to achieve the successes of his father. After his final expulsion from Dublin at the hands of Toirdelbach Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, and the death of his father, Domnall disappears from record until his own death in 1135. He was perhaps survived by two sons.
Énna Mac Murchada, or Enna Mac Murchada, also known as Énna mac Donnchada, and Énna mac Donnchada mic Murchada, was a twelfth-century ruler of Uí Chennselaig, Leinster, and Dublin. Énna was a member of the Meic Murchada, a branch of the Uí Chennselaig dynasty that came to power in Leinster in the person of his paternal great-grandfather. Énna himself gained power following the death of his cousin Diarmait mac Énna. Throughout much of his reign, Énna acknowledged the overlordship of Toirdelbach Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, although he participated in a failed revolt against the latter in 1124 before making amends. When Énna died in 1126, Toirdelbach successfully took advantage of the resulting power vacuum.