Tigernmas

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Tigernmas, [1] son of Follach, son of Ethriel, a descendant of Érimón, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical traditions, an early High King of Ireland.

According to the Lebor Gabála Érenn he became king when he overthrew his predecessor Conmáel in the Battle of Óenach Macha, and within a year of his accession had won twenty-seven battles against the descendants of Eber Finn, almost completely destroying Eber's line. It is said that during his reign gold was first smelted in Ireland, by the wright Iuchadán. Tigernmas was the first king to give drinking-horns to his followers, and the first to have clothes dyed purple, blue and green and decorated with brooches, fringes and ornaments. Seven lakes and three rivers burst from the ground during his reign. After reigning for seventy-seven years (or 100 years according to the Book of Fenagh, P 23), he and three-quarters of the men of Ireland died on Magh Slécht while worshipping Crom Cruach, a cruel deity propitiated with human sacrifice. [2] [3] According to the Annals of the Four Masters , Ireland was without a High King for seven years after his death, before Eochaid Étgudach took the kingship. [4]

The Lebor Gabála synchronises his reign with the deaths of Thineas and Decylas, kings of Assyria, and the reigns of David and Solomon in Israel; [2] the Laud Synchronisms with the Judean kings Asa and Jehoshaphat and the Assyrian king Pertiades (Pyriatides) 985 B.C. [5] The Annals of the Four Masters dates his reign to 1621–1544 BC; [4] Geoffrey Keating to 1209–1159 BC. [6]

Preceded by
Conmael
High King of Ireland
AFM 1621–1544 BC
FFE 1209–1159 BC
Succeeded by
Eochaid Étgudach

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Éber Finn, son of Míl Espáine, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland and one of the founders of the Milesian lineage, to which medieval genealogists traced all the important Gaelic royal lines.

Érimón, son of Míl Espáine, according to medieval Irish legends and historical traditions, was one of the chieftains who took part in the Milesian invasion of Ireland, which conquered the island from the Tuatha Dé Danann, and one of the first Milesian High Kings.

Irial Fáid, the youngest son of Érimón by his wife Tea, according to medieval Irish legends and historical traditions, became High King of Ireland after killing Ér, Orba, Ferón and Fergna, sons of Éber Finn, in the Battle of Cul Martha, in revenge for their killing of his brothers Luigne and Laigne. He cleared twelve plains, dug seven royal forts, and fought four battles against the Fomorians. Having ruled for ten years, he died at Mag Muaide, and was succeeded by his son Ethriel. The Lebor Gabála Érenn places his death during the reign of Tautanes in Assyria. Geoffrey Keating dates his reign from 1269 to 1259 BC, the Annals of the Four Masters from 1681–1671 BC.

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Conmáel, son of Éber Finn, according to medieval Irish legend and historical traditions, became High King of Ireland when he killed Ethriel, son of Íriel Fáid, in the Battle of Rairiu. He was the first Milesian High King to have been born in Ireland, and the first to have been based in Munster. He fought twenty-five battles against the descendants of Érimón, and ruled for thirty years, until he was killed by Tigernmas in the Battle of Óenach Macha. The Eóganachta are said to be his descendants. The Lebor Gabála Érenn synchronises his reign with the deaths of Samson in ancient Israel, and Fleuthius, king of Assyria. Geoffrey Keating dates his reign from 1239–1209 BC, the Annals of the Four Masters from 1651 to 1621 BC BC.

Eochaid or Eochu Étgudach or Etgedach ("negligent"?), son of Daire Doimthech, son of Conghal, son of Eadaman, son of Mal, son of Lugaid, son of Íth, son of Breogán, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. According to the Lebor Gabála Érenn he was chosen as king by the remaining quarter of the men of Ireland after the other three-quarters had died with the former king, Tigernmas, while worshipping the deity Crom Cruach. He introduced a system whereby the number of colours a man could wear in his clothes depended on his social rank, from one colour for a slave to seven for a king or queen. He ruled for four years, until he was killed in battle at Tara by Cermna Finn, who succeeded to the throne jointly with his brother Sobairce. His reign is synchronised with that of Eupales in Assyria. The chronology of Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 1159–1155 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 1537–1533 BC.

Cermna Finn, son of Ebric and a great, great grandson of Míl Espáine, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, joint High King of Ireland with his brother Sobairce.

Eochaid Faebar Glas, son of Conmáel, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. His epithet means "blue-green sharp edge". According to the Lebor Gabála Érenn, Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn and the Annals of the Four Masters, he came to power after killing the joint High King, Cermna Finn, in battle at Dún Cermna, and Cermna's brother and colleague Sobairce was killed by Eochaid Menn of the Fomorians. He killed Smirgoll, grandson of Tigernmas, in the battle of Druimm Liatháin. He ruled for twenty years, until he was killed by Smirgoll's son Fiacha Labrainne in the battle of Carman. The Lebor Gabála synchronises his reign with that of Piritiades in Assyria. Keating's chronology dates his reign to 1115–1095 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 1493–1473 BC.

Fíachu Labhrainne, son of Smirgoll, son of Enboth, son of Tigernmas, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He came to power by killing the previous incumbent, Eochaid Faebar Glas, in the battle of Carman, in vengeance for his father, who had been killed by Eochaid in the battle of Druimm Liatháin. He was named after the river Labrainn, which burst from the ground during his reign. He fought a sea battle against the descendants of Éber Finn, and fought a battle against the Érainn at Mag Genainn in County Fermanagh, which resulted in Loch Erne bursting from the ground. In another battle he killed Eochaid's son Mofebis. Mofebis's son Eochu Mumu killed him in vengeance in the battle of Sliab Belgatain. Geoffrey Keating adds that during his reign, his son Aengus Olmucada conquered Scotland. The Lebor Gabála Érenn synchronises his reign with those of Piritiades and Ofratalus in Assyria. The chronology of Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 1095–1071 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 1473–1449 BC.

Eochu Mumu, son of Mofebis, son of Eochaid Faebar Glas, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. According to the Lebor Gabála Érenn he came to power after killing the previous incumbent, Fíachu Labrainne, who had killed his father in battle. The province of Munster is named after him. He ruled for 21 years, fighting many battles against the descendants of Érimón, before he was killed by Fíachu's son Óengus Olmucaid in the battle of Clíu. He would later be avenged by his own son Enna Airgdech.

Óengus Olmucaid, son of Fíachu Labrainne, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. During the reign of his father, he conquered Scotland. He came to power by killing the incumbent High King, Eochu Mumu, who had killed his father twenty-one years earlier. He fought many battles against the Cruithne, the Fir Bolg, the Fomorians and other peoples of Ireland, the people of the Orkney islands, and even the Longobardi. He was killed by Enna Airgdech, son of Eochu Mumu, in the battle of Carman, continuing the feud between the descendants of Erimon and Éber Finn. Geoffrey Keating, who interprets his epithet as meaning "great hogs", dates his reign to 1050–1032 BC, the Annals of the Four Masters to 1428–1410 BC.

Ailill, son of Slánoll, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland; scholars now believe these kings to be a pseudohistorical construct of the eighth century AD, a projection into the distant past of a political entity which did not become a reality till Maelseachlainn I. He took power after killing his cousin Berngal. He ruled for twelve, fifteen or sixteen years, according to various versions of the Lebor Gabála Érenn before he was killed by Sírna Sáeglach, a great grandson of Rothechtaid mac Main. The Lebor Gabála synchronises his reign with that of Deioces of the Medes. The chronology of Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 831–815 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 1197–1181 BC.

Sírna Sáeglach, son of Dian mac Demal, son of Demal mac Rothechtaid, son of Rothechtaid mac Main, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He separated the province of Ulster from the authority of the High King, and is said to have made war against the Ulaid, who had killed his great grandfather, for a hundred years according to the Lebor Gabála Érenn, 150 years according to the Annals of the Four Masters, but Geoffrey Keating, citing an ancient poem, gives him only twenty-one years. According to one version of the Lebor Gabála, the Ulaid united with the Fomorians and gave him battle at Móin Trógaide in County Meath, but a plague fell on them and the leaders of both sides died. According to another version, agreed by Keating and the Four Masters, Sírna was killed by Rothechtaid Rotha at Alind. The Lebor Gabála synchronises the start of his reign with the reign of Deioces of the Medes, and his death with his successor Phraortes. The chronology of Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 814–794 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 1181–1031 BC.

Fíachu Tolgrach, son of Muiredach Bolgrach, was a legendary High King of Ireland, according to some medieval and early modern Irish sources. In the Lebor Gabála Érenn he is not a High King: he kills the former High King Art mac Lugdach, but during the reign of Art's son Ailill Finn he is killed in battle against Airgetmar. His son Dui Ladrach later becomes High King. However, in Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn and the Annals of the Four Masters he succeeds Art as High King and rules for seven or ten years, until he is killed by Ailill Finn, who succeeds him. The chronology of Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 593–586 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 806–796 BC.

Airgetmar, son of Sirlám, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. The Lebor Gabála Érenn says that, during the reign of Ailill Finn, he killed Fíachu Tolgrach in battle, but was forced into exile overseas by Ailill's son Eochu, Lugaid son of Eochu Fíadmuine, and the men of Munster. He returned to Ireland after seven years, and, with the help of Dui Ladrach, killed Ailill. Eochu became king, but Airgetmar and Dui soon killed him as well, and Airgetmar took power.

Óengus Tuirmech Temrach, son of Eochaid Ailtlethan, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He came to power after killing his predecessor, and his father's killer, Fergus Fortamail. His sons included Énna Aignech and Fiacha Fer Mara. Énna later became High King himself and was the ancestor of Conn of the Hundred Battles and thus the Connachta and Uí Néill High Kings, while Fiacha was the ancestor of Ailill Érann and the Clanna Dedad.

Eterscél Mór, son of Íar mac Dedad, a descendant of Óengus Tuirmech Temrach, of the Érainn of Munster was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He succeeded Eochu Airem.

Muimne, Luigne and Laigne, sons of Érimón by his wife Odba, were, according to medieval Irish legends and historical traditions, joint High Kings of Ireland following the death of their father. They ruled for three years, until Muimne died of plague at Cruachan, and Luigne and Laigne were killed by their cousins Ér, Orba, Ferón and Fergna, sons of Éber Finn, in the Battle of Árd Ladrann, leaving no heirs. The Lebor Gabála Érenn synchronises their reign to the last year of Mithraeus and the first two years of Tautanes as kings of Assyria. Geoffrey Keating dates their reign from 1272 to 1269 BC, the Annals of the Four Masters from 1684 to 1681 BC.

Ér, Orba, Ferón and Fergna, sons of Éber Finn, were, according to medieval Irish legends and historical traditions, joint High Kings of Ireland for half a year after they killed their cousins Luigne and Laigne, sons of Érimón, in the Battle of Árd Ladrann. They were soon killed by Érimón's son Íriel Fáid in the Battle of Cul Martha in revenge for his brothers. Geoffrey Keating dates their reign to 1269 BC, the Annals of the Four Masters to 1681 BC.

References

  1. Also spelled Tigernmais, Tigernmus, Tighearnmhas etc.
  2. 1 2 R. A. Stewart Macalister (ed. & trans.), Lebor Gabála Érenn: The Book of the Taking of Ireland Part V, Irish Texts Society, 1956, pp. 198-209
  3. E. Gwynn (ed & trans), The Metrical Dindshenchas Vol. 3 poem 50, Vol. 4 poem 7
  4. 1 2 John O'Donovan (ed. & trans.), Annala Rioghachta Éireann: Annals of the kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters, Dublin, 1848-1851, Vol. 1 p. 39-44
  5. http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G105018/index.html [ bare URL ]
  6. D. Comyn & P. S. Dinneen (ed .& trans.), The History of Ireland by Geoffrey Keating, Irish Texts Society, 1902-1914, Book 1 Chapter 25