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|Tigers in Korean culture|
Minhwa (Korean folk painting)
|Revised Romanization||horang-i, beom, ho|
|McCune–Reischauer||horang-i, pŏm, ho|
The tiger has been strongly associated with Korean people and Korean culture. It appears in not only the Korean foundation mythology but also in folklore, as well as a favorite subject of Korean art such as painting and sculpture. The mascot of the 1988 Summer Olympics held in Seoul, South Korea is Hodori, a stylized tiger to represent Korean people.
The oldest historical record about the tiger can be found in the myth of Dangun, the legendary founding father of Gojoseon, told in the Samguk Yusa, or the Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms. According to the myth, a bear and a tiger wished to become human beings. The bear turned into a woman by observing the commandments to eat only mugwort and garlic for 100 days in the cave. But the tiger couldn’t endure the ordeal and ran off, failing to realize its wish.
There are 635 historical records about tigers in the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty.The story of a tiger that began from a myth can be also found in daily life as well. For example, the 19th-century painting named “Sansindo” depicts the guardian spirit of a mountain leaning against a tiger or riding on the back of the animal. The animal is also known to do the errands for the mountain’s guardian spirit which is known to wish for peace and the well-being of the village. So, the tiger was ordered by the spiritual guardian of the mountain to give protection and wish for peace in the village. People drew such paintings and hung them in the shrine built in the mountain of the village where memorial rituals were performed regularly. In Buddhism, there is also a shrine that keeps the painting of the guardian spirit of the mountain. Called “Sansintaenghwa”, it is depiction of the guardian spirit of the mountain and a tiger.
The painting “Jakhodo”(in leopard painting, "Jakpyodo"; the letter "pyo" means leopard) is about a magpie and a tiger. The letter “jak” means magpie; “ho” means tiger; and “do” means painting. Since the work is known to keep away evil influence, there is a tradition to hang the art piece in the house in the first month of the lunar calendar. On a branch of a green pine tree sits a magpie and the tiger(or the leopard), with a humorous expression, looks up at the bird. The tiger in “Jakhodo” doesn’t look anything like a strong creature with power and authority.
Kkachi horangi, paintings depicting magpies and tigers, was a prominent motif in the minhwa folk art of the Joseon period. In kkachi horangi paintings, the tiger, which is intentionally given a ridiculous and stupid appearance (hence its nickname "idiot tiger" 바보호랑이), represents authority and the aristocratic yangban, while the dignified magpie represents the common man. Hence, kkachi horangi paintings of magpies and tigers were a satire of the hierarchical structure of Joseon's feudal society.Kkachi pyobeom paintings depict magpies and leopards.
They can be also found around the royal tombs. In front of the burial mound stands the stone tiger sculptures. People believed that tigers also safeguarded the tomb, the permanent home for the dead. The sacredness of the tiger was also utilized for holding rituals that pray for rain. According to the historical records of the early Joseon era, the head of a tiger was offered as the sacrificial offering when performing a ritual praying for rain while Joseon was under the reign of kings such as Taejong, Sejong, Munjong, and Danjong.
Dangun or Dangun Wanggeom was the legendary founder and god-king of Gojoseon, the first Korean kingdom, around present-day Liaoning, Manchuria, and the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. He is said to be the "grandson of heaven" and "son of a bear", and to have founded the kingdom in 2333 BC. The earliest recorded version of the Dangun legend appears in the 13th-century Samguk Yusa, which cites China's Book of Wei and Korea's lost historical record Gogi.
The music of Korea refers to music from the Korean peninsula ranging from prehistoric times to the division of Korea into South and North in 1945. It includes court music, folk music, poetic songs, and religious music used in shamanistic and Buddhist traditions. Together, traditional Korean music is referred to as gugak, which literally means "national music."
The culture of Korea is the shared cultural and historical heritage of Korea and southern Manchuria. As one of the oldest continuous cultures in the world, Koreans have passed down their traditional narratives in a variety of ways. Since the mid-20th century, Korea has been split between the North and South Korean states, resulting today in a number of cultural differences. Before the Joseon Dynasty, the practice of Korean shamanism was deeply rooted in Korean culture.
Korean shamanism or Korean folk religion, also known as Shinism or Sinism or Shindo, is the polytheistic and animistic ethnic religion of Korea which dates back to prehistory and consists in the worship of gods and ancestors as well as nature spirits. When referring specifically to the shamanic practice, the term Muism is used.
Korean mythology are the stories passed down by word of mouth over thousands of years on the Korean Peninsula and only written down in historical times. These stories serve as creation myths about the world and origin myths about nature or the social world. Korean myths are often localized and concern specific villages or clans.
Gojoseon, originally named Joseon, was an ancient Korean Kingdom on the Korean Peninsula. The addition of Go, meaning "ancient", is used to distinguish it from the later Joseon kingdom (1392–1897).
Animal worship is rituals involving animals, such as the glorification of animal deities or animal sacrifice. When a god is respected or worshipped by means of a representative animal, an animal cult is formed. Animal cults may be classified according to their outward form or according to their inward meaning, which may of course undergo transformations.
Haneullim or Haneulnim, also spelled Hanunim (하느님), birth name Hwanin, also called Sangje also known simply as Haneul or Cheon, or Cheon-sin/ Cheon-shin, is the concept of the sky God peculiar to Korean shamanism, and religions rooted in Korean shamanism.
Korean folklore is well established, going back several thousand years. The folklore's basis derives from a variety of belief systems, including Shamanism, Confucianism, Buddhism and more recently Christianity. Mythical creatures often abound in the tales, including the Korean conception of goblins[Dokkaebi ]. Korean folklore began to be organized after folklore lectures were started by Cho-Chi hun. It is still deeply embedded in Korean society. It appears deeply in the fields of religion, story, art, custom, etc.
Korean arts include traditions in calligraphy, music, painting and pottery, often marked by the use of natural forms, surface decoration and bold colors or sounds.
Korean painting includes paintings made in Korea or by overseas Koreans on all surfaces. It includes art as old as the petroglyphs through post-modern conceptual art using transient forms of light. Calligraphy rarely occurs in oil paintings and is dealt with in the brushwork entry, Korean calligraphy. Like arts of East Asia, beauty of space is important for Korean painting.
Minhwa refers to Korean folk art produced mostly by itinerant or unknown artists without formal training, emulating contemporary trends in fine art for the purpose of everyday use or decoration. The term "minhwa" was coined by Yanagi Muneyoshi.
Ungnyeo, Sino-Korean for "bear woman," was a bear that became a woman. She was featured prominently in the creation myth of the Korean nation.
Kkachi durumagi is a children's colorful overcoat in hanbok, traditional Korean clothing, which was worn on Seollal, New Year's Day in the Lunar calendar. It was worn mostly by young boys and literally means "a magpie's overcoat". The clothes is also called obangjang durumagi which denotes "an overcoat of five directions". It was worn over jeogori and jokki while the wearer could put jeonbok over it. Kkachi durumagi was also worn along with headgear such as bokgeon, hogeon for young boys or gulle for young girls.
Nuo opera or Nuo drama is one of the most popular folk operas in southern China. Characterized by its special features such as ferocious masks, unique dresses and adornments, the strange language used in performance, and mysterious scenes, Nuo opera has been selected as one of the non-material cultural legacies of China. The opera is a religious performance intrinsic to the culture of Nuoism, a type of Chinese folk religion. The purpose of Nuo opera is to drive away devils, disease and evil influences, and also to petition for blessings from the gods. Singing and dancing are included in Nuo opera and performers wear costumes and masks.
Yemaek or Yamaek were an ancient tribal group in Manchuria and the northern Korean Peninsula who are regarded by many scholars as the ancestors of modern Koreans. They had ancestral ties to various Korean kingdoms including Gojoseon, Buyeo, Goguryeo, and tribes including Okjeo, Dongye, Yangmaek and Sosumaek.
Mu (무) is an ancient Korean word defining a shaman in the Korean traditional religion. Korean shamans hold rituals called gut for the welfare of the individuals and the society.
Soohorang is the official mascot of the 2018 Winter Olympics, and Bandabi is the official mascot of the 2018 Winter Paralympics. Both events were held in Pyeongchang, Gangwon, South Korea. Soohorang is a white tiger and Bandabi is an Asiatic black bear. The mascots were selected through a national tender process held in 2014 and were approved of by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) on June 2, 2016.
Korean traditional patterns are featured on Korean cultural assets such as structure, clothes, porcelain, necessities, etc. Korean traditional patterns can be categorized by period or shape. First, Korean traditional patterns can be divided into four periods. Second, patterns can be categorized by shape such as character, nature, letter, geometric, etc. Due to Chinese cultural influences on Korea, both countries share similar legends of origin and meanings of patterns. Buddhism also had a large influence on Korea traditional patterns.
Chaekgeori, translated as "books and things", is a genre of still-life painting from the Joseon period of Korea that features books as the dominant subject. The chaekgeori tradition flourished from the second half of the 18th century to the first half of the 20th century and was enjoyed by all members of the population, from the king to the commoners, revealing the infatuation with books and learning in Korean culture.
『조선왕조실록』에 실린 호랑이 관련 기사는 모두 635건에 이른다.