Tiglath-Pileser IV was one of the Kings of Assyria, more often known as Tiglath-Pileser III.
The confusion may stem from his being known in the Books of Chronicles as Tilgath-Pilneser (1 Chronicles 5:6, 26; 2 Chronicles 28:20), and also by the name Pul (1 Chronicles 5:26 and 2 Kings 15:19). Pul may have been his throne name, or his earlier name,but the Chronicler appears to treat the names as belonging to separate people.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel, was one of two successor states to the former United Kingdom of Israel and Judah. Historians often refer to the Kingdom of Israel as the "Northern Kingdom" or as the "Kingdom of Samaria" to differentiate it from the Southern Kingdom of Judah.
Ahaz an abbreviation of Jehoahaz II, "Yahweh has held" was the twelfth king of Judah, and the son and successor of Jotham. Ahaz was 20 when he became king of Judah and reigned for 16 years.
Tiglath-Pileser III was a prominent king of Assyria in the eighth century BCE who introduced advanced civil, military, and political systems into the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
Shalmaneser is documented by The Bible as an Assyrian king, identified with Shalmaneser II (by Archibald Sayce) or IV, the successor of Pul on the throne of Assyria. He made war against Hoshea, the king of Israel, whom he subdued and compelled to pay an annual tribute. Hoshea, however, soon after rebelled against his Assyrian conqueror. Shalmaneser again marched against Samaria, which, after a siege of three years, was taken by Sargon. A revolution meantime had broken out in Assyria, and Shalmaneser was deposed. Sargon usurped the vacant throne. Eberhard Schrader thought that this is probably the name of a king of Moab mentioned on an inscription of Tiglath-Pileser III as Salamanu.
Pekah was the eighteenth and penultimate king of Israel. He was a captain in the army of king Pekahiah of Israel, whom he killed to become king. Pekah was the son of Remaliah.
Shalmaneser V was king of Assyria and Babylon from 727 to 722 BCE. He first appears as governor of Zimirra in Phoenicia in the reign of his father, Tiglath-Pileser III. Evidence pertaining to his reign is scarce.
Hoshea was the nineteenth and last king of the Israelite Kingdom of Israel and son of Elah. William F. Albright dated his reign to 732–721 BC, while E. R. Thiele offered the dates 732–723 BC.
Menahem or Menachem was the sixteenth king of the northern Israelite Kingdom of Israel. He was the son of Gadi, and the founder of the dynasty known as the House of Gadi or House of Menahem. Some have speculated that Gadi was a scion of the tribe of Gad.
Jotham or Yotam was the eleventh king of Judah, and son of King Uzziah and Jerusha, daughter of Zadok. Jotham was 25 when he began his reign, and reigned for 16 years. Edwin R. Thiele concluded that his reign commenced as a coregency with his father, which lasted for 11 years. Because his father Uzziah was afflicted with tzaraath after he went into the Temple to burn incense, Jotham became governor of the palace and the land at that time, i.e. coregent, while his father lived in a separate house as a leper.
Uzziah, also known as Azariah, was the tenth king of the ancient Kingdom of Judah, and one of Amaziah's sons. Uzziah was 16 when he became king of Judah and reigned for 52 years. The first 24 years of his reign were as co-regent with his father, Amaziah.
Tiglath-Pileser II was King of Assyria from 967 BCE, when he succeeded his father Ashur-resh-ishi II, until his death in 935 BCE, when he was succeeded by his son Ashur-dan II. Little is known about his reign.
Tiglath-Pileser I was a king of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian period. According to Georges Roux, Tiglath-Pileser was "one of the two or three great Assyrian monarchs since the days of Shamshi-Adad I". He was known for his "wide-ranging military campaigns, his enthusiasm for building projects, and his interest in cuneiform tablet collections". Under him, Assyria became the leading power of the Ancient Near East, a position the kingdom largely maintained for the next five hundred years. He expanded Assyrian control into Anatolia and Syria, and to the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. From his surviving inscriptions, he seems to have carefully cultivated a fear of himself in his subjects and in his enemies alike.
The Kings of Judah were the monarchs who ruled over the ancient Kingdom of Judah. According to the biblical account, this kingdom was founded after the death of Saul, when the tribe of Judah elevated David to rule over it. After seven years, David became king of a reunited Kingdom of Israel. However, in about 930 BCE the united kingdom split, with ten of the twelve Tribes of Israel rejecting Solomon's son Rehoboam as their king. The tribes of Judah and Benjamin remained loyal to Rehoboam, and re-formed the Kingdom of Judah, while the other entity continued to be called the Kingdom of Israel, or just Israel.
Aram-Damascus was an Aramean state around Damascus in Syria, from the late 12th century BC to 732 BC.
Halah is a city that is mentioned in the Bible in 2 Kings 17:6 and in 1 Chronicles 5:26. It is noted when Tiglath Pileser III and later Sargon II invaded Israel, the Israelites were taken captive from Gilead and Samaria respectively and resettled in Halah and Gozan on the Khabur River in the Aram-Naharaim region, as well as in the towns of the Medes. The name should not be confused with the Assyrian city of Calah nor with Cilicia in Asia Minor, but is considered to be identical with the location near Gozan referred to as Chalcitis by Ptolemy.
Kir of Moab is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as one of the two main strongholds of Moab, the other being Ar. It is probably the same as the city called Kir-haresh, Kir-hareseth, and Kir-heres. The word Kir alludes to a wall or fortress. It is identified with the later city Al Karak.
King Rezin of Aram or Rasin of Syria in DRB ruled from Damascus during the 8th century BC. During his reign, he was a tributary of King Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria.
Ephah was one of Midian's five sons as listed in the Hebrew Bible. Midian, a son of Abraham, was the father of Ephah, Epher, Enoch, Abida, and Eldaah by his wife Keturah. These five were the progenitors of the Midianites.
2 Kings 16 is the sixteenth chapter of the second part of the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible or the Second Book of Kings in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. The book is a compilation of various annals recording the acts of the kings of Israel and Judah by a Deuteronomic compiler in the seventh century BCE, with a supplement added in the sixth century BCE. This chapter records the events during the reign of Ahaz, the king of Judah.
2 Kings 15 is the fifteenth chapter of the second part of the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible or the Second Book of Kings in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. The book is a compilation of various annals recording the acts of the kings of Israel and Judah by a Deuteronomic compiler in the seventh century BCE, with a supplement added in the sixth century BCE. This chapter records the events during the reigns of Azariah (Uzziah) and his son, Jotham, the kings of Judah, as well as of Zechariah, Shallum, Menahem, Pekahiah and Pekah, the kings of Israel. Twelve first verses of the narrative belong to a major section 2 Kings 9:1–15:12 covering the period of Jehu's dynasty.
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