Tigon

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Tigon
Tigon4.jpg
Tigon at National Zoo & Fish Aquarium in Canberra, Australia
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Felidae
Subfamily: Pantherinae
Genus: Panthera
Species:
P. tigris ♂ × P. leo

A tigon ( /ˈtɡən/ ) or tiglon ( /ˈtɡlən/ ) is the hybrid offspring of a male tiger (Panthera tigris) and a female lion (Panthera leo) thus, it has parents with the same genus, but of different species. A pairing of a male lion with a female tiger is called a liger, also by portmanteau.

Contents

The tigon's genome includes genetic components of both parents, [1] thus, they can exhibit visible characteristics from both parents: they can have both spots from the mother (lions carry genes for spots - lion cubs are spotted and some adults retain faint markings) and stripes from the father. Any mane that a male tigon may have will appear shorter and less noticeable than a lion's mane and is closer in type to the ruff of a male tiger. It is a common misconception that tigons are smaller than lions or tigers. They do not exceed the size of their parent species because they inherit growth-inhibitory genes from both parents, but they do not exhibit any kind of dwarfism or miniaturization; they often weigh around 180 kilograms (400 lb).[ citation needed ]

Fertility

Guggisberg wrote that ligers and tigons were long thought to be sterile; in 1943, however, a 15-year-old hybrid between a lion and an "Island" tiger was successfully mated with a lion at the Munich Hellabrunn Zoo. The female cub, although of delicate health, was raised to adulthood. [2]

At the Alipore Zoo in India, a tigoness named Rudhrani, born in 1971, was successfully mated to a male Asiatic lion named Secularabrata. The rare, second generation hybrid was called a litigon. Rudhrani produced seven litigons in her lifetime. Some of these reached impressive sizes - a litigon named Cubanacan weighed at least 363 kilograms (800 lb), stood 1.32 metres (4.3 ft) at the shoulder, and was 3.5 metres (11 ft) in total length. [3]

Reports also exist of the similar titigon /ˌtˈtɡən/ , resulting from the cross between a female tigon and a male tiger. Titigons resemble golden tigers, but with less contrast in their markings. A tigoness born in 1978, named Noelle, shared an enclosure in the Shambala Preserve with a male Siberian tiger called Anton, due to the keepers' belief that she was sterile. In 1983 Noelle produced a titigon named Nathaniel. As Nathaniel was three - quarters tiger, he had darker stripes than Noelle and vocalized more like a tiger, rather than with the mix of sounds used by his mother. Being only about quarter-lion, Nathaniel did not grow a mane. Nathaniel died of cancer at the age of eight or nine years old. Noelle also developed a severe cancer, that killed her not long after she was diagnosed.[ citation needed ]

Coexistence of parental species

As with the liger, the tigon is found only in captivity, [2] because the habitats of the lion and tiger do not overlap. In the past, however, the Asiatic lion did coexist with the Bengal tiger in the wilderness of India, besides occurring in countries where the Caspian tiger had been, such as Iran and Turkey. [4] [5] In India, there is a plan to shift some lions from their current home of the Gir Forest to Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary, which has some tigers, [6] but it has not been implemented as of December 2017. [7] [8]

See also

Related Research Articles

Lion A large cat native to Africa and Asia

The lion is a species in the family Felidae; it is a muscular, deep-chested cat with a short, rounded head, a reduced neck and round ears, and a hairy tuft at the end of its tail. It is sexually dimorphic; adult male lions have a prominent mane, which is the most recognisable feature of the species. With a typical head-to-body length of 184–208 cm (72–82 in) they are larger than females at 160–184 cm (63–72 in). It is a social species, forming groups called prides. A lion pride consists of a few adult males, related females and cubs. Groups of female lions usually hunt together, preying mostly on large ungulates. The lion is an apex and keystone predator, although some lions scavenge when opportunities occur, and have been known to hunt humans, although the species typically does not.

Domestic long-haired cat Breed of cat

A domestic long-haired cat is a cat of mixed ancestry – thus not belonging to any particular recognised cat breed – possessing a coat of semi-long to long fur. Domestic long-haired cats should not be confused with the British Longhair, American Longhair, or other breeds with "Longhair" names, which are standardized breeds defined by various registries. Domestic long-haireds are the second most popular cat in the United States after the domestic short-haired; one in ten of the 90 million cats in the US is a domestic long-hair. Other generic terms are long-haired house cat and, in British English, long-haired moggie.

Big cat larger felid species

The term "bigcat" is typically used to refer to any of the five living members of the genus Panthera, namely tiger, lion, jaguar, leopard, and snow leopard. Except the snow leopard, these species are able to roar. A more liberal and expansive definition of the term includes species outside of Panthera including the cougar, clouded leopard, Sunda clouded leopard, cheetah and sometimes the several lynx species, although these added species also do not roar.

Liger Lion and tigress hybrid

The liger is a hybrid offspring of a male lion and a female tiger. The liger has parents in the same genus but of different species. The liger is distinct from the similar hybrid called the tigon, and is the largest of all known extant felines. They enjoy swimming, which is a characteristic of tigers, and are very sociable like lions. Notably, ligers typically grow larger than either parent species, unlike tigons.

Leopon cross between a leopard and a lioness

A leopon is the hybrid offspring of a male leopard and a female lion. The head of the animal is similar to that of a lion while the rest of the body carries similarities to leopards. These hybrids are produced in captivity and are unlikely to occur in the wild.

Gir National Park Forest and wildlife sanctuary in Gujarat, India. The only natural habitat of the Asiatic Lion

Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary, also known as Sasan Gir, is a forest and wildlife sanctuary near Talala Gir in Gujarat, India. It is located 43 km (27 mi) north-east of Somnath, 65 km (40 mi) south-east of Junagadh and 60 km (37 mi) south-west of Amreli. It was established in 1965, with a total area of 1,412 km2 (545 sq mi), of which 258 km2 (100 sq mi) is fully protected as national park and 1,153 km2 (445 sq mi) as wildlife sanctuary. It is part of the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests ecoregion.

Congolese spotted lion

A Congolese spotted lion, also known by the portmanteau lijagulep, is the hybrid of a male lion and female jaguar-leopard. Several lijaguleps have been bred, but only one appears to have been exhibited as a Congolese spotted lion. It was most likely given that name by a showman because the public were more interested in exotic captured animals than in captive-bred hybrids.

Asiatic lion Lion population in India

The Asiatic lion is a Panthera leo leo population in India. Its range is restricted to the Gir National Park and environs in the Indian state of Gujarat. On the IUCN Red List, it is listed under its former scientific name Panthera leo persica as Endangered because of its small population size and area of occupancy.

Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests

The Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests is a mostly arid ecoregion in northwestern India that stretches over 103,100 sq mi (267,000 km2) across Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. The dry deciduous forests in the region are dominated by teak, and thorny trees and scrub in drier areas.

A Panthera hybrid is a crossbreed between any of four species—tiger, lion, jaguar and leopard—in captivity. Most hybrids would not be perpetuated in the wild as males are usually infertile. Mitochondrial genome research revealed that wild hybrids were also present in ancient times. The mitochondrial genomes of snow leopard and lion were more similar to each other than to other Panthera species, indicating that at some point in their history, the female progeny of male ancestors of modern snow leopards and female ancestors of modern lions interbred with male ancestors of modern snow leopards.

Felid hybrid Offspring of two different species of Felidae

A felid hybrid is any of a number of hybrid between various species of the cat family, Felidae. This article deals with hybrids between the species of the subfamily Felinae.

Mukundara Hills National Park

Darrah National Park in Rajasthan, India is a national park established in 2004 consisting of three wildlife sanctuaries: Darrah Wildlife Sanctuary, Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary, and Jawahar Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary. It is located within the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests' ecoregion.

Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project initiative of the Indian Government

The Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project is an initiative of the Indian Government to provide safeguards to the Asiatic lion from extinction in the wild by means of reintroduction. The last wild population of the Asiatic lion is found in the region of Gir Forest National Park, in the state of Gujarat. The single population faces the threats of epidemics, natural disasters and other anthropogenic factors. The project aims to establish a second independent population of Asiatic lions at the Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. However, the proposed translocation has been bitterly contested by the state government.

Zoological Garden, Alipore A zoo situated in Kolkata,India

The Zoological Garden, Alipore is India's oldest formally stated zoological park and a big tourist attraction in Kolkata, West Bengal. It has been open as a zoo since 1876, and covers 18.811 ha. It is probably best known as the home of the now expired Aldabra giant tortoise Adwaita, who was reputed to have been over 250 years old when he died in 2006. It is also home to one of the few captive breeding projects involving the Manipur brow-antlered deer. One of the most popular tourist attractions in Kolkata, it draws huge crowds during the winter season, especially during December and January. The highest attendance till date was on January 1, 2018 with 110,000 visitors.

Lake Parishan

Parishan Lake is a lake in Iran. The Parishan Lake is in Jereh and Baladeh District in Kazerun County, Fars Province and is the largest freshwater lake in the country. It receives only very small amount of water from feeder rivers and the whole lake or wetland is a protected area, as it is considered a globally significant wetland ecosystem.

Tiger versus lion Historical comparison of tiger and lion

Historically, a comparison of the tiger versus the lion has been a popular topic of discussion by hunters, naturalists, artists, and poets, and continues to inspire the popular imagination. In the past, lions and tigers reportedly competed in the wilderness, where their ranges overlapped in Eurasia. The most common reported circumstance of their meeting is in captivity, either deliberately or accidentally.

A litigon (/ˌlaɪˈtaɪɡən/) is a rare second generation hybrid from a female tigon and a male lion, specifically an Asiatic lion.

The liliger is the hybrid offspring of a male lion and a female liger. The first hybrid was born in 1943, at the Hellabrunn Zoo.

Tiliger hybrid offspring of a male tiger and a ligress

The Tiliger is a second generation hybrid from a male tiger and a ligress. The world's first tiligers were born on 16 August 2007 at Greater Wynnewood Exotic Animal Park in Wynnewood, Oklahoma.

Ligers, big mammals which have the features of both tigers and lions, are the offspring of a male lion and a female tiger. They are often bred by zoos, with only a small proportion produced through natural breeding, since lions and tigers are not native to the same regions.

References

  1. Techné v6n3 – Patenting and Transgenic Organisms: A Philosophical Exploration. Scholar.lib.vt.edu. Retrieved on 2013-09-17.
  2. 1 2 Guggisberg, Charles Albert Walter (1975). Wild Cats of the World. New York: Taplinger Publishing. ISBN   0795001282.
  3. The litigon rediscovered. www.natureasia.com. Retrieved on 2017-07-22.
  4. Pocock, R. I. (1939). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 1. Taylor and Francis Ltd., London. Pp. 199–222.
  5. Heptner, V. G.; Sludskij, A. A. (1992) [1972]. Mlekopitajuščie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Moskva: Vysšaia Škola [Mammals of the Soviet Union. Volume II, Part 2. Carnivora (Hyaenas and Cats)]. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation. pp. 1–732.
  6. Johnsingh, A.J.T. (2006). "Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary ready to play second home to Asiatic lions?". Field Days: A Naturalist's Journey Through South and Southeast Asia. Hyderabad: Universities Press. pp. 126–138. ISBN   8173715521.
  7. "Tired of Gujarat reluctance on Gir lions, MP to release tigers in Kuno". Times of India. 2017-12-05. Retrieved 2018-01-27.
  8. "Stalemate on translocation of Gir lions Kuno Palpur in Madhya Pradesh to be used as tiger habitat now". Hindustan Times. 2017-12-07. Retrieved 2018-01-27.