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Tigrana is a village and Indus Valley civilisation (IVC) archaeological sites in the Bhiwani district of Haryana state of India. It lies on the NH-709A (Loharu-Bhiwani-Mundhal-Jind route) approximately 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) north of the district headquarters town of Bhiwani.
As of the 2011 Census of India [update] , the village had 2,053 households with a population of 10,712 of which 5,703 were male and 5,009 female. All inhabitants are Hindus and the dominant castes are Rajputs,Brahmins, OBC and SC.
Tigrana is famous for the temple Baba Paramhans Tigrania (BabaChorewala) Coordinates(28.858697,76.139496). Each year the temple celebrates a Hindu festival (melā) in the month of Shraavana (5th tithi of the month of Shraavana and 700 years old lord shiva temple Coordinates(28.862761,76.141006)
In 2021, Central University of Haryana under the leadership of the Excavation Director Professor Dr. Narendra Parmar. It is carried out in association with the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute in which students from Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Maharashtra, and Kerala also participated. Excavation is also aimed at finding out the source and trade network of bronze, copper, precious stones, jewellery, agriculture, economics, food habits and consumables, domestic and wildlife species, etc.
Dating and scientific tests were done at the laboratory of Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences (BSIP) at Lucknow. Artifacts were dated to be 5000 years old belonging to the "Early Harappan Phase".
A 5000 year old seal was found with 4 alphabets of the IVC script and language painted in black. This seal has 4 alphabets or characters, from right to left, a vertical fish shaped character, followed by two upward arrow shaped characters and finally a U-shaped character. Elsewhere, overall nearly 500 characters or alphabets of IVC script have been found which are yet to be deciphered.
A house made of 10 x 20 x 34 cm mud bricks was found which had one large room, courtyard, gallery or veranda, two small rooms and a kitchen. Pottery of baked clay found here includes kitchen utensils, such as thali (platter), matka (pot), bowl, "bela" (flat-bottomed wide and shallow bowl with rim), and other kitchen artifacts with attractive paintings.
Bronze metal was found. Other finds include semi-precious stones such as agate, carnelian, sodalite, steatite (soapstone), faience, etc. which were used for making jewelry and lockets. Bangles and beads made from conch shell, baked clay beads and bangles, etc. were also found.
BSIP tests concluded that 5000 years ago five crops, namely "bajara" (pearl millet), barley, "jawar" (sorghum), and pulses were cultivated at Tigrana. Some of the pottery is painted with the pictures of paddy (rice) crop. Finds include terracotta figurines of animals of which the bull figurines are most numerous indicating the abundance and importance of domesticated bull in the local agriculture and economy. Figurine of bullock cart was also found.
Carnelian found here, which is not found locally and is found around Gulf of Khambhat, indicates trade with Gujarat via shipping channels of paleo-Sarasvati River.
There are several Indus Valley civilisation sites and cultures nearby.
Rakhigarhi or Rakhi Garhi is a village and an archaeological site belonging to the Indus Valley civilisation in Hisar District of the northern Indian state of Haryana, situated about 150 km northwest of Delhi. It was part of the mature phase of the Indus Valley Civilisation, dating to 2600-1900 BCE. It was among the largest settlements of the ancient civilisation, though most of it remains unexcavated. The site is located in the Ghaggar River plain, some 27 km from the seasonal Ghaggar river. Initial excavations at the site happened in the 1960s, followed by further excavations in the late 1990s, however more sustained excavations have taken place in the past decade.
Kalibangān is a town located at on the left or southern banks of the Ghaggar in Tehsil Pilibangān, between Suratgarh and Hanumangarh in Hanumangarh District, Rajasthan, India 205 km. from Bikaner. It is also identified as being established in the triangle of land at the confluence of Drishadvati and Sarasvati Rivers. The prehistoric and pre-Mauryan character of Indus Valley civilization was first identified by Luigi Tessitori at this site. Kalibangan's excavation report was published in its entirety in 2003 by the Archaeological Survey of India, 34 years after the completion of excavations. The report concluded that Kalibangan was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization. Kalibangan is distinguished by its unique fire altars and "world's earliest attested ploughed field". It is around 2900 BC that the region of Kalibangan developed into what can be considered a planned city.
The ancient site at Kot Diji was the forerunner of the Indus Civilization. The occupation of this site is attested already at 3300 BCE. The remains consist of two parts; the citadel area on high ground ), and outer area. The Pakistan Department of Archaeology excavated at Kot Diji in 1955 and 1957.
Amri is an ancient settlement in modern-day Sindh, Pakistan, that goes back to 3600 BCE. The site is located south of Mohenjo Daro on Hyderabad-Dadu Road more than 100 kilometres north of Hyderabad, Pakistan.
Amri–Nal culture is attributed to Amri archaeological sites in Sindh and Balochistan provinces of Pakistan. It flourished in the 4th and 3rd millennia BC. The dual typesites are Amri and Nal.
Shortugai (Shortughai), in Darqad District of northern Afghanistan, was a trading colony of the Indus Valley civilization established around 2000 BC on the Oxus river near the lapis lazuli mines. It is considered to be the northernmost settlement of the Indus Valley Civilization. According to Bernard Sergent, "not one of the standard characteristics of the Harappan cultural complex is missing from it".
Pottery in the Indian subcontinent has an ancient history and is one of the most tangible and iconic elements of Indian art. Evidence of pottery has been found in the early settlements of Lahuradewa and later the Indus Valley Civilisation. Today, it is a cultural art that is still practiced extensively in Indian subcontinent. Until recent times all Indian pottery has been earthenware, including terracotta.
Banawali is an archaeological site belonging to Indus Valley civilization period in Fatehabad district, Haryana, India and is located about 120 km northeast of Kalibangan and 16 km from Fatehabad. Banawali, which is earlier called Vanavali, is on the left banks of dried up Sarasvati River. Comparing to Kalibangan, which was a town established in lower middle valley of dried up Sarasvathi River, Banawali was built over upper middle valley of Sarasvati River.
Bhirrana, also Bhirdana and Birhana, is an archaeological site, located in a small village in the Fatehabad district of the north Indian state of Haryana. Bhirrana's earliest archaeological layers predates Indus Valley civilisation times, dating to the 8th-7th millennium BCE. The site is one of the many sites seen along the channels of the seasonal Ghaggar river, thought by some to be the Rigvedic Saraswati river.
Siswal is a village in Hisar district, Haryana, India. It located 28 km from Hisar city. It is a site of Chalcolithic age. It is a typesite for Siswal culture, dating from around 3800 BC, also known as Sothi–Siswal culture.
Bara Culture was a culture that emerged in the eastern region of the Indus Valley civilization around 2000 BCE. It developed in the doab between the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers, hemmed on its eastern periphery by the Shivalik ranges of the lower Himalayas. This territory corresponds to modern-day Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh in North India. Older publications regard the Baran pottery to have initially developed independently of the Harappan culture branch of the Indus Valley Civilization from a pre-Harappan tradition, although the two cultures later intermingled in locations such as Kotla Nihang Khan and Bara, Punjab. According to Akinori Uesugi and Vivek Dangi, Bara pottery is a stylistic development of Late Harappan pottery. In the conventional timeline demarcations of the Indus Valley Tradition, the Bara culture is usually placed in the Late Harappan period.
Mitathal is a village and Indus Valley civilization (IVC) Archaeological sites in the Bhiwani tehsil of the Bhiwani district in the Indian state of Haryana. Part of Hisar division, it lies 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) north of the district headquarters Bhiwani and 249 kilometres (155 mi) from the state capital Chandigarh. As of the 2011 Census of India, the village had 1,448 households with a total population of 7,434 of which 4,002 were male and 3,432 female.
Lohari Ragho is a village and Indus Valley civilization archaeological site located in Hisar district of Haryana state in India. It has 3 separate mounds, each 1 to 1.5 km apart within the peripheral suburban zone of Rakhigarhi city cite, where artifacts belonging to Mature Harappan and Sothi-Siswal cultural period have been confirmed based on filed visits. These mounds, unprotected and under risk of encroachment and threat of obliteration, are yet to be excavated, fenced, protected or conserved.
Kunal is a pre-Harappan Indus Valley civilisation settlement located, just 30 km from Fatehabad City in Fatehabad district of Haryana state in India. Compared to other IVC sites, such as cities like Rakhigarhi and towns like Kalibangan, Kunal site was a village. Excavation at Kunal show 3 successive phases of Pre-Harappan indigenous culture on the Saraswati river who also traded with Kalibanga and Lothal. Kunal, along with its other contemporary sites Bhirrana and Rakhigarhi on Sarasvati-Ghaggar river system, is recognised as the oldest Pre-Harappan settlement, with Kunal being an older cultural ancestor to Rehman Dheri in Pakistan< which is on the Tentative List for future World Heritage Sites.
Balu is a small archeological site attributed to the Indus Valley civilisation, located some 22 kilometres (14 mi) south of the city of Kaithal in the Indian state of Haryana. There are three Patti in village. Many castes live in the village, most among them are Hindu Jats. It is one of the biggest villages of Haryana and has three sarpanches. According to Census 2011, Balu has population of nearly 18,000 and nearly 2,800 houses residing. There are various facilities in village consists of hospital, power house, schools and transport services. Mostly, people of the village lives well above poverty and healthy environment .It has around 10 schools, a small hospital, water tank, library and ground including anaj mandi.
Karanpura is an archeological site near Bhadra city of Hanumangarh district in Rajasthan, India. It belongs with ancient Indus Valley civilization. Harappan pottery has been found after excavation.
Tosham hill range, located at and in the area around Tosham, with an average elevation of 207 meters, and the rocks exposed in and around Tosham hills are part of subsurface north-western spur of Alwar group of Delhi supergroup of Aravalli Mountain Range, belong to the Precambrian Malani igneous suite of rocks and have been dated at 732 Ma BP. This range in Aravalli Craton is a remnant of the outer ring of a fallen chamber of an extinct volcano. Tosham hill range covers the hills at Tosham, Khanak, and Riwasa as well as the small rocky outcrops at Nigana, Dulehri, Dharan, Dadam, and Kharkari Makhwan. Among these, Khanak hill is the largest in area and tallest in height.
Sohr Damb, c. 3800–2300 BC, is an archaeological site, located near Nal, in central Balochistan, Pakistan that begins before the Indus Valley civilization featuring Togau, Kili Ghul Mohammad, and Kechi Beg pottery styles. It has also been known as 'Nal', and gave its name to the prehistoric Amri-Nal culture, which is attributed to the dual typesites of Amri and Nal.
Sothi is an early archaeological site of the Indus Valley civilization dating to around 4600BCE, located in the Hanumangarh District of Rajasthan, India, at a distance of about 10 km southwest of Nohar railway station.