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Tigray for Democracy and Justice Party (TDJP) is a political party primarily based in the Tigray Region, struggling against the TPLF government of Ethiopia. Particularly after the end of the Ethiopian 2005 elections, TDJP decided to scale up its work to bring real democracy to the people of Ethiopia. TDJP believes in the respect for human rights, justice and democracy. It believes that all Ethiopians should have their voices heard and that the one-party state should end.
TDJP does not believe in the secession policies of TPLF and OLF but at the same time it believes Oromos should have the most say in the country in order for popular vote to succeed. It also understands that Oromiffa and Tigrinya should be equally an official language and working language in the capitals.
It is against secession because that policy harms the unity of the nation. TDJP believes in liberal democracy. In general, TDJP does not believe a peaceful struggle will bring change because the TPLF regime is inhumane, intolerant and unapproachable. Therefore, along with other Tigray opposition groups, TDJP is waging a guerrilla war against the TPLF troops in northern Ethiopia.
TDJP has bases in northern Ethiopia as well as in very well organized networks in Addis Ababa and Gondar. The organization is mostly financed by Diaspora Tigray Ethiopians in the United States and Europe.
The government of Ethiopia is the federal government of Ethiopia. It is structured in a framework of a federal parliamentary republic, whereby the prime minister is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. The prime minister is chosen by the lower chamber of the Federal Parliamentary Assembly. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament. The judiciary is more or less independent of the executive and the legislature. They are governed under the 1995 Constitution of Ethiopia. There is a bicameral parliament made of the 108-seat House of Federation and the 547-seat House of Peoples' Representatives. The House of Federation has members chosen by the regional councils to serve five-year terms. The House of Peoples' Representatives is elected by direct election, who in turn elect the president for a six-year term.
Meles Zenawi Asres was an Ethiopian soldier and politician who served as President of Ethiopia from 1991 to 1995 and then Prime Minister of Ethiopia from 1995 until his death in 2012.
The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front was an ethnic federalist political coalition in Ethiopia that existed from 1988 to 2019. It consisted of four political parties, namely Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF), Amhara Democratic Party (ADP), Oromo Democratic Party (ODP) and Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement (SEPDM). After leading the overthrow of the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, it dominated Ethiopian politics from 1991 to 2019. In November 2019, the EPRDF was dissolved, and Prime Minister and EPDRF chairman Abiy Ahmed merged three of the constituent parties into his new Prosperity Party, which was officially founded on 1 December 2019.
The Tigray People's Liberation Front, also called the Tigrayan People's Liberation Front, is a leftist ethnic nationalist paramilitary group, and the former ruling party of Ethiopia. It was classified as a terrorist organization by the Ethiopian government from May 2021 until its removal from the list in March 2023. In older texts and Amharic publications, it is known as Woyane or Wayane.
Siye Abraha Hagos (also Seeye Abraha Hagos) (Tigrinya: ስዬ አብርሃ ሓጐስ, siyә abräha; born 12 June 1955) is an Ethiopian politician who served as Ethiopian Minister of Defense from 1991 to 1995. He was a top official of Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF) and Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front executive committees until 2002. Since 2013, he has been working as Security Sector Reform Advisor for United Nations Development Programme in Liberia.
The Marxist–Leninist League of Tigray (MLLT) was a semi-clandestine Hoxhaist Communist Party that held a leading role in the Tigrayan Peoples' Liberation Front (TPLF) in the 1980s. The majority of the TPLF leadership held dual membership in the MLLT, including Meles Zenawi, Prime Minister of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia from 1995 until his death in 2012.
Ethiopian nationalism, also referred to as Ethiopianism or Ethiopianness, according to its proponents, asserts that Ethiopians are a nation and promotes the social equality of all component ethnic groups. Ethiopian people as a whole regardless of ethnicity constitute sovereignty as one polity. Ethiopian nationalism is a type of civic nationalism in that it is multi-ethnic in nature and promotes multiculturalism.
Abiy Ahmed Ali is an Ethiopian politician serving as the third Prime Minister of Ethiopia since 2018, and as a leader of the Prosperity Party since 2019. He was awarded the 2019 Nobel Peace Prize "for his efforts to achieve peace and international cooperation, and in particular for his decisive initiative to resolve the border conflict with neighbouring Eritrea". Abiy served as the third chairman of the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) that governed Ethiopia for 28 years and the first person of Oromo descent to hold that position. Abiy is an member of the Ethiopian parliament, and was a member of the Oromo Democratic Party (ODP), one of the then four coalition parties of the EPRDF, until its rule ceased in 2019 and he formed his own party, the Prosperity Party.
The Tigray War was an armed conflict that lasted from 3 November 2020 to 3 November 2022. The war was primarily fought in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia between the Ethiopian federal government and Eritrea on one side, and the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF) on the other.
Fan, also FANO or Fanno, is an Amhara militia. One stated objective of Fano leadership as of March 2020 was for Benishangul-Gumuz Region's Metekel Zone, the northern districts of Welkait and Raya, as well as the southern district of Dera to be placed under the control of the Amhara Region. During the Tigray conflict, Fano supported federal and Amhara regional forces against rebels aligned to the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF).
The Tigray Democratic Party is an opposition party in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia.
The Tigrayan peace process encompasses the series of proposals, meetings, agreements and actions that aim to resolve the Tigray War.
The Salsay Weyane Tigray is a political party in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia.
Abiy Ahmed became the Prime Minister of Ethiopia on April 2, 2018. He was formerly the chairman of the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) from 2018 until its dissolution in 2019 when it was replaced by the Prosperity Party.
The Amhara genocide is an ongoing and systematic massacre of ethnic Amhara and Agew people in Ethiopia since 1990 Large-scale killings and grave human rights violations followed the implementation of the ethnic-federalist system in the country. In most of the cases, the mass murders were silent with perpetrators from various ethno-militant groups— from TPLF/TDF, OLF–OLA, and Gumuz armed groups.
The 1995 Ethiopian Federal Constitution formalizes an ethnic federalism law aimed at undermining long-standing ethnic imperial rule, reducing ethnic tensions, promoting regional autonomy, and upholding unqualified rights to self-determination and secession in a state with more than 80 different ethnic groups. But it is divisive, both among Ethiopian nationalists who believe it undermines centralized authority and fuels interethnic conflict and among ethnic federalists who fear that the development of its vague components could lead to authoritarian centralization or even the maintenance of minority ethnic hegemony. Parliamentary elections since 1995 have taken place every five years since enactment. All but one of these have resulted in government by members of the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) political coalition, under three prime ministers. The EPRDF was under the effective control of the Tigrean People's Liberation Front (TPLF), which represents a small ethnic minority. In 2019 the EPRDF, under Abiy, was dissolved and he inaugurated the pan-ethnic Prosperity Party which won the 2021 Ethiopian Election, returning him as prime minister. But both political entities were different kinds of responses to the ongoing tension between constitutional ethnic federalism and the Ethiopian state's authority. Over the same period, and all administrations, a range of major conflicts with ethnic roots have occurred or continued, and the press and availability of information have been controlled. There has also been dramatic economic growth and liberalization, which has itself been attributed to, and used to justify authoritarian state policy.
There is not much in-depth information available about the revolution in Ethiopia, but the book Peasant Revolution in Ethiopia by John Young provides detailed information about the revolution, why it started, how the Derg affected the nation, and the role of the peasant population in Tigray and Eritrea.
Since the start of Tigray War in November 2020, the Eritrean government has been heavily involved in the war against the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF) in support of the Ethiopian government.
The events of the Tigray War have sparked numerous reactions and protests worldwide.
On 2 November 2022, a peace treaty was signed between the government of Ethiopia and the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF), where both parties agreed to a "permanent cessation of hostilities" to end the Tigray War. The agreement was made effective the next day on 3 November, marking the two-year anniversary of the war.