|Countries|| Saudi Arabia |
|Cities||Jeddah, Yanbu, Al Qunfudhah, Jizan, Midi, Al Hudaydah, and Al Makha|
Tihamah or Tihama (Arabic : تِهَامَةُTihāmah) refers to the Red Sea coastal plain of the Arabian Peninsula from the Gulf of Aqaba to the Bab el Mandeb.
Tihāmat is the Proto-Semitic language's term for 'sea'. Tiamat (or Tehom, in masculine form) was the ancient Mesopotamian god of the sea and of chaos. The word appears in the Hebrew Bible as təhōm (Genesis 1:2), meaning "primordial ocean, abyss".
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During the era of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, many military expeditions took place here including the Battle of Hamra al-Asad and caravan raids. Beginning in January 623 CE, some of the Muslims resorted to the tradition of raiding the Meccan caravans that traveled along the eastern coast of the Red Sea from Mecca to the Syrian region.
While at Ḥamra' al-Asad (حَمْرَاء ٱلْأَسَد), Muhammad made an agreement with Mabad al-Khuzaah at Tihamah, in which Mabad pledged not to conceal anything from him. Mabad was then sent to Mecca to dissuade Abu Sufyan ibn Harb from fighting. : 341 In Mecca, Mabad met with Abu Sufyan and exaggerated that Muhammad had gathered a great force to fight Abu Sufyan. Abu Sufyan and his companions were planning a massive and decisive attack on Medina to finish off the Muslims once and for all. Hearing Mabad's talk of the great military strength of Muhammad, Abu Sufyan retreated from his plan of an immediate attack on the Muslims. In this fashion Muhammad successfully managed to prevent the massive onslaught the Meccans were planning. : 342
The region is sometimes subdivided into two parts, Tihāmat Al-Ḥijaz (تِهَامَة ٱلْحِجَاز; northern part) and Tihāmat ʿAsīr (تِهَامَة عَسِيْر; southern part). The Yemeni part (Arabic : تِهَامَة ٱلْيَمَن, romanized: Tihāmat Al-Yaman) is an extension of Tihamat ʿAsir. The plain is constricted and attains its greatest widths, 60 to 80 km (37 to 50 mi), south of Medina and Mecca. The cities of Yanbu, Jeddah and Al Qunfudhah are located in the Hijazi part of the Tihamah. The Asiri-Yemeni part of the Tihami plain includes the cities of Jizan and Al Hudaydah. The temperatures in Tihamah are probably some of the hottest on earth. Tihamah in Arabic means severe heat and lack of wind.
The extensive sandy coastal plain (the Tihamah) is a hot and inhospitable area parallel to the Red Sea, and most of it, north of Zabid (Yemen), is devoid of trees. However, in a few places there is dense shrub composed almost exclusively of Vachellia flava and it may be assumed that this was originally the dominant natural vegetation of the Tihamah. Salvadora persica occurs in thickets, and there are odd trees of Balanites aegyptiaca and colonies of wild doum palm ( Hyphaene thebaica ), as well as planted date palms (Phoenix dactylifera).
Over sixteen megalithic menhirs were discovered by Edward Keall, director of the Royal Ontario Museum's Canadian Archaeological Mission near the village of Al-Mutaynah (ٱلْمُتَيْنَة) in the Tihami area. The stones were made of granite and weighted up to 20 tonnes (20,000 kg). Three of the upright stones measured around 8 feet (2.4 m) tall with one fallen being over 20 metres (66 ft) in length. Copper tools suggested to date to the same era as the construction of the stones were dated to around 2400 to 1800 BCE. An even more archaic lithic industry was found along with pottery sherds that were dated between 1200 and 800 BCE.
Najd is the geographic center of Saudi Arabia, accounting for about a third of the country's modern population and, since the Emirate of Diriyah, acting as the base for all unification campaigns by the House of Saud to bring Arabia under a single polity.
The Hejaz is a region which includes the majority of the west of Saudi Arabia, which includes the cities of Mecca, Medina, Jeddah, Tabuk, Yanbu, Taif and Baljurashi. It is thus known as the "Western Province", and is bordered in the west by the Red Sea, in the north by Jordan, in the east by the Najd, and in the south by the Region of 'Asir. It is the most cosmopolitan region in the Arabian Peninsula. Its largest city is Jeddah, which is the second largest city in Saudi Arabia, with Mecca and Medina respectively being the fourth and fifth largest cities in the country.
The Battle of Badr, also referred to as The Day of the Criterion in the Qur'an and by Muslims, took place on March 15, 624 CE, near the present-day city of Badr, Al Madinah Province in Saudi Arabia. Muhammad, commanding an army of his Sahaba, defeated an army of the Quraysh led by Amr ibn Hishām, better known among Muslims as Abu Jahl. The battle marked the beginning of the six-year war between Muhammad and his tribe. Before the battle, the Muslims and the Meccans had fought several smaller skirmishes in late 623 and early 624.
The Quraysh were a grouping of Arab clans that historically inhabited and controlled the city of Mecca and its Kaaba. The Islamic prophet Muhammad was born into the Hashim clan of the tribe. By 600 CE, the tribe were affluent merchants who dominated commerce between the Indian Ocean and East Africa on one side and the Mediterranean on the other. They organized caravans that traveled to Gaza and Damascus in the summer and to Yemen in the winter. On those routes, they were also engaged in mining and other enterprises. They were known for their hilm, or "absence of hotheadedness," because, despite their rivalries, they put commercial interests and unity first.
Banu Abd Shams refers to a clan within the Meccan tribe of Quraysh.
Zabid is a town with an urban population of around 52,590 people, located on Yemen's western coastal plain. It is one of the oldest towns in Yemen, and has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1993. However, in 2000, the site was placed on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Badr is a town in Al Madinah Province, Al-Hijaz, Saudi Arabia. It is located about 130 km (81 mi) from the Islamic holy city of Medina. It was the location of the Battle of Badr, between the Quraishi-led polytheists, and the Muslims under the leadership of Muhammad, in 624 CE.
The Message is a 1976 Islamic epic drama film directed and produced by Moustapha Akkad, chronicling the life and times of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through the perspective of his uncle Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib and adopted son Zayd ibn Harithah. Mark Cousins in his The Story of Film: An Odyssey said The Message was "perhaps seen by as many people as have seen any film in cinema history."
Mount Uhud is a mountain north of Medina, in the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia. It is 1,077 m (3,533 ft) high and 7.5 km (4.7 mi) long. It was the site of the second battle between the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the polytheists of his tribe of Quraysh. The Battle of Uhud was fought on 19 March, 625 CE, between a force from the small Muslim community of Medina and a force from Mecca, in north-western Arabia.
The Islamic prophet Muhammad came to the city of Medina following the migration of his followers in what is known as the Hijrah in 622. He had been invited to Medina by city leaders to adjudicate disputes between clans from which the city suffered. He left Medina to return to and conquer Mecca in December 629.
Hilf al-Fudul was an alliance or confederacy created in Mecca in the year 590 AD, to establish justice for all through collective action, especially for those who where not under the protection of any clan. Because of Muhammad's role in its formation, the alliance plays a significant role in Islamic ethics. Because fudul commonly means "virtuous" the alliance is often translated as League of the Virtuous.
Following the migration and return of the most Sahabas from the first migration to Abyssinia, the Muslims continued to suffer Persecution by the Meccans. This time, in 6 BH (615 CE) almost one hundred Muslims made a second migration back to Ethiopia where they stayed protected.
The Hijaz Mountains or "Hejaz Range" is a mountain range located in the Hejazi region of western Saudi Arabia. The range runs north and south along the eastern coast of the Red Sea, and can thus be treated as including the Midian Mountains, and being part of the Sarawat Mountains, broadly speaking.
The Asir Mountains is a mountainous region in southwestern Saudi Arabia running parallel to the Red Sea. It comprises areas in the Region of 'Asir, but generally, it also includes areas near the border with Yemen. The mountains cover approximately 100,000 square kilometres (40,000 sq mi) and consists of mountains, plains, and valleys of the Arabian highlands. Sensu lato, they are part of the Sarawat Mountains, defining the latter as the mountain range which runs parallel to the Tihamah throughout the western portion of the Arabian Peninsula, particularly the western parts of Saudi Arabia and Yemen.
The early Muslim–Meccan conflict refer to a series of raids in which the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his companions participated. The raids were generally offensive and carried out to gather intelligence or seize the trade goods of caravans financed by the Quraysh. His followers were also impoverished. The raids were intended to harm the economy and in turn the offensive capabilities of Mecca by Muhammad. He also broke an Arab tradition of not attacking one's own kinsmen by raiding caravans. The Muslims felt that the raids were justified and that God gave them permission to defend against the Meccans' persecution of Muslims.
The Battle of Hamra al-Assad, was a Ghazawat, a battle in which Muhammad took part. It occurred in AD 625 after the Battle of Uhud, when the Quraysh were returning to Mecca.
The Patrol of Dhu Al-Ushairah occurred in the year 2 A.H. of the Islamic calendar between the months of Jumādi al-Ūlā and Jumādi al-Ākhirah. This was the 6th caravan expedition and the 3rd ‘Ghazwah’ occurring about 2 months after the Invasion of Buwāṭ.
The Ghamd is an Azd Arab tribe of the Hejaz Region. They are predominantly Sunni, and are considered one of the oldest tribes of the Arabian peninsula. The Ghamid people are thought to be closely related to the neighboring tribe of Zahran.
Sakhr ibn Harb ibn Umayya ibn Abd Shams, better known by his kunyaAbu Sufyan, was a prominent opponent turned companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was the father of the first Umayyad caliph Mu'awiya I and namesake of the Sufyanid line of Umayyad caliphs which ruled from 661 to 684. One of his daughters, Ramla, was married to Muhammad, but this occurred before Abu Sufyan's own conversion and without his consent.
Mabad al-Khuzaah was a companion of Muhammad who helped him during the Invasion of Hamra al-Asad at Tihamah, in which Mabad pledged not to conceal anything from him. Mabad was then sent to Mecca to spread false information. In Mecca, Mabad met with Abu Sufyan and spread disinformation that Muhammad had gathered a great force to fight Abu Sufyan. Abu Sufyan and his companions were planning a massive and decisive attack on Medina to finish off the Muslims once and for all. Hearing Mabad's talk of the great military strength of Muhammad, Abu Sufyan retreated from his plan of an immediate attack on the Muslims. In this fashion Muhammad successfully managed to prevent the massive onslaught the Meccans were planning.
The Red Sea coastal plain is constricted throughout its length, attaining its greatest widths, 40 to 50 miles, south of Medina and south of Mecca. The name Tihāmah, used for the whole plain, is sometimes subdivided into Tihāmat Al-Ḥijāz and Tihāmat ʿAsīr.
Yemen may be divided into five major regions: a coastal plain running north-south known as the Tihāmah (an extension of the Tihāmat ʿAsīr), the western highlands, the central mountains (the Yemen Highlands), the eastern highlands, and finally the eastern and northeastern desert regions.
It is so called because of its severe heat and lack of wind, from the word At-Taham which refers to extreme heat and lack of wind.