Tihomir of Serbia

Last updated
Tihomir
Grand Prince of Serbia
Reign1166
Predecessor Desa
Successor Stefan Nemanja
Bornbefore 1113
Zahumlje
Died1171
Sitnica
Issue Stefan Prvoslav
Dynasty Vukanović
Father Zavida
Religion Eastern Orthodoxy

Tihomir of Serbia (Serbian Cyrillic : Тихомир Завидовић, Tikhomir Zavidović; велики жупан Тихомир, veliki župan Tikhomir, "Great Župan Tikhomir"; before 1113 – 1171) was the Grand Prince (Serbian Cyrillic : велики жупан / veliki župan ) of the Grand Principality of Serbia (1166). [1]

Contents

Life

He was the first-born child of Zavida. [2] Tihomir was appointed the Grand Prince of Serbia (1166) by Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus though he ruled jointly with his brothers. [2] The lands were divided: Stracimir ruled West Morava, Miroslav ruled Zahumlje and Travunia Stefan Nemanja was given Toplica, Ibar, Rasina and Reke. Nemanja was also a vassal to Manuel I, through his appanage of Dubočica. [3]

Tihomir's younger brother Nemanja aided the Imperial army against the Hungarians in Srem in 1164. The tie between Nemanja and Manuel I was most likely seen as a threat to Tihomir. [3]

Stefan Nemanja built the Monastery of Saint Nicholas in Kuršumlija and the Monastery of the Holy Mother of Christ near Kosanica-Toplica, without the approval of Tihomir. [3] Nemanja had felt that he had the free will of doing so, Tihomir disagreed, Nemanja was, or Tihomir thought that he was trying to assert independence through his relation to Manuel I. Tihomir had Nemanja chained and thrown into jail, his lands were annexed. [3] Nemanja's supporters convinced the Church that Tihomir had done all this because of his disapproval of church building, thus the Church turned against Tihomir, and Nemanja managed to escape the jail and returned to his province. [3]

Stefan Nemanja mobilized an army, possibly with Byzantine help, and headed for the crownland. Manuel I might have been displeased with Tihomir's actions. Nemanja was triumphant; Tihomir and Miroslav and Stracimir were expelled to Byzantium in 1167. [3] Stefan Nemanja quickly became a powerful figure, and Manuel I subsequently turned to Tihomir and his brothers. The Byzantine Empire wanted to see Serbia divided by several princes to keep it weak. [4]

Manuel I provided Tihomir with an army, coming in from Skopje. In 1171, Nemanja raised a large army and defeated Tihomir's forces at the Battle of Pantina near Zvečan. Tihomir drowned in the River of Sitnica. Nemanja captured his other brothers and made peace, giving them rule in their former lands by recognizing him as the only ruler of Serbia. The Nemanjić dynasty was named after Stefan Nemanja who ruled Serbia until 1371.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Stefan Nemanja</span> Grand Prince of Serbia, founder of the Nemanjić dynasty (c. 1113 or 1114 – 1199)

Stefan Nemanja was the Grand Prince of the Serbian Grand Principality from 1166 to 1196. A member of the Vukanović dynasty, Nemanja founded the Nemanjić dynasty, and is remembered for his contributions to Serbian culture and history, founding what would evolve into the Serbian Empire, as well as the national church. According to the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Nemanja is also among the most remarkable Serbs for his literary contributions and altruistic attributes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Stefan the First-Crowned</span> King of Serbia from 1217 to 1228

Stefan Nemanjić, or Stephen the First-Crowned, was the Grand Prince of Serbia from 1196 and the King of Serbia from 1217 until his death in 1228. He was the first Rascian king; due to his transformation of the Serbian Grand Principality into the Kingdom of Serbia and the assistance he provided his brother Saint Sava in establishing the Serbian Orthodox Church, he is regarded one of the most important members of the Nemanjić dynasty.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vukan Nemanjić</span> Grand Župan Vukan, Ruler of all Serbian land, Zeta, maritime towns and land of Nišava

Vukan Nemanjić was the Grand Prince of the Grand Principality of Serbia from 1202 to 1204. He was the Grand Prince of Pomorje from 1195 until his death. He was the eldest, but his father had instead chosen his younger brother Stefan as heir, as soon as his father died, he plotted against his brother, Stefan II Nemanjić, and took the throne by force, in a coup assisted by the Kingdom of Hungary. He was defeated two years later, and was pardoned by his third brother, who became Saint Sava, and he continued to rule his appanage of Zeta unpunished.

Grand, Great or Chief Župan is the English rendering of a South Slavic Serbian title which relate etymologically to Župan.

Đorđe Nemanjić or George of Zeta was the Grand Prince of Zeta, from at least 1208 until at least 1243. For some time, he also was a self-styled King of Duklja. He was the son of rival Serbian Grand Prince and titular King Vukan Nemanjić, hence George too was a titular King, for a few years after his father's death. He continued the struggle between his father and uncle, and accepted the suzerainty of the Republic of Venice.

Desa was the Serbian co-ruler from 1148 to 1153, alongside his elder brother Uroš II, Grand Prince of Serbia; the Prince of Duklja, Travunija and Zahumlje from 1149 to 1162; the Grand Prince of Serbia from 1153 to 1155, and again from 1162 to 1166.

The Vukanović dynasty, was a medieval Serbian dynasty that ruled over inner Serbia, centered in the Raška region, during the 11th and 12th century. Several members of the Vukanović dynasty also ruled in some other regions. The house may have descended from the Vojislavljević dynasty of Duklja. Vukanović dynasty was later succeeded in Serbia by the closely related Nemanjić dynasty.

The Battle of Pantina was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Grand Principality of Serbia in 1167. It was part of a war of succession within Serbia, in which the Byzantines intervened on behalf of the deposed Grand Prince Tihomir of Serbia against his rebellious younger brother, Prince Nemanja, who emerged victorious and was crowned afterwards.

Ana ; fl. 1196–d. June 22, 1200) was the princess consort of the Serbian Principality as the wife of Stefan Nemanja. She was of noble descent. Ana took monastic vows in 1196 and was baptized Anastasia, after Anastasia of Sirmium. She is venerated by the Serbian Orthodox Church as Saint Anastasija with her feast day on June 22.

Uroš I was the Grand Prince of the Grand Principality of Serbia from about 1112 to 1145.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Miroslav of Hum</span>

Miroslav Zavidović was a 12th-century Great Prince of Zachumlia from 1162 to 1190, an administrative division (appanage) of the Grand Principality of Serbia (Rascia) covering Herzegovina and southern Dalmatia.

Zavida or Beli Uroš was a 12th-century Serbian royal who briefly ruled as Župan of Zachumlia and later held the title Lord of Ribnica.

The Serbian monarchs and royalty have assumed several regnal titles and styles throughout history.

Stracimir Zavidović was a 12th-century Serbian prince (Župan) of West Morava, an administrative division (appanage) of the Grand Principality of Serbia, from 1163–1166.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Grand Principality of Serbia</span> Serbian state between 1091 and 1217

Grand Principality of Serbia, or Rascia, was a medieval Serbian state that existed from the second half of the 11th century up until 1217, when it was transformed into the Kingdom of Serbia. Initially, the Grand Principality of Serbia emerged in the historical region of Raška, and gradually expanded, during the 12th century, encompassing various neighboring regions, including territories of modern Montenegro, Herzegovina, and southern Dalmatia. It was founded by Grand Prince Vukan, who initially served as regional governor of Raška, appointed by King Constantine Bodin. During Byzantine-Serbian wars Vukan gained prominence and became self-governing ruler in inner Serbian regions. He founded the Vukanović dynasty, that ruled the Grand Principality. Through diplomatic ties with the Kingdom of Hungary, Vukan′s successors managed to retain their self-governance, while also recognizing the supreme overlordship of the Byzantine Empire, up to 1180. Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja (1166–1196) gained full independence and united almost all Serbian lands. His son, Grand Prince Stefan was crowned King of Serbia in 1217, while his younger son Saint Sava became the first Archbishop of Serbs, in 1219.

Tihomir of Raška was a Serbian nobleman, mentioned in the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, who served as the Grand Prince of Raška, from around 960 to 969.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Monastery of St. Nicholas, Kuršumlija</span> Serbian Orthodox monastery

The Monastery of St. Nicholas is a Serbian Orthodox monastery built by the Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja between 1159 and 1166. It is situated in the center of the historical region of Toplica, near the present day city of Kuršumlija (Serbia), in the upper valley of Toplica river.

In the Medieval Serbian state, a range of court and honorific titles were used.

There has been many regnal styles of Serbian sovereigns.

References

  1. Fine 1994, p. 3-5.
  2. 1 2 Fine 1994, p. 3.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fine 1994, p. 4.
  4. Fine 1994, p. 5.

Sources

Tihomir of Serbia
 Died: 1171
Regnal titles
Preceded by Grand Prince of Serbia
1166
Succeeded by