Tikhonravov (crater)

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Tikonravov
Tikhonravov - PIA00172-MC-12-ArabiaRegion-19980605 (cropped).jpg
Viking 1 Orbiter photo
Planet Mars
Coordinates 13°18′N35°54′E / 13.3°N 35.9°E / 13.3; 35.9 Coordinates: 13°18′N35°54′E / 13.3°N 35.9°E / 13.3; 35.9
Quadrangle Arabia quadrangle
Diameter 344 km (214 mi)
Eponym Mikhail Tikhonravov

Tikhonravov is a large, eroded crater in the Arabia quadrangle of Mars. It is 344 kilometres (214 mi) in diameter and was named after Mikhail Tikhonravov, a Russian rocket scientist. [1] Tikhonravov is believed to have once held a giant lake that drained into the 4,500-kilometre-long (2,800 mi) Naktong-Scamander-Mamers lake-chain system. An inflow and outflow channel has been identified. [2] Many craters once contained lakes. [3] [4]

Contents

Pedestal craters

Some craters in Tikhonravov are classified as pedestal craters. A pedestal crater is a crater with its ejecta sitting above the surrounding terrain. They form when an impact crater ejects material which forms an erosion resistant layer, thus causing the immediate area to erode more slowly than the rest of the region. The result is that both the crater and its ejecta blanket stand above the surroundings. [5]

See also

Related Research Articles

Arabia Terra

Arabia Terra is a large upland region in the north of Mars that lies mostly in the Arabia quadrangle, but a small part is in the Mare Acidalium quadrangle. It is densely cratered and heavily eroded. This battered topography indicates great age, and Arabia Terra is presumed to be one of the oldest terrains on the planet. It covers as much as 4,500 km (2,800 mi) at its longest extent, centered roughly at 21°N6°E with its eastern and southern regions rising 4 km (13,000 ft) above the north-west. Alongside its many craters, canyons wind through the Arabia Terra, many emptying into the large northern lowlands of the planet, which borders Arabia Terra to the north.

Terra Sabaea

Terra Sabaea is a large area on Mars. Its coordinates are 2°N42°E and it covers 4,700 kilometres (2,900 mi) at its broadest extent. It was named in 1979 after a classic albedo feature on the planet. Terra Sabaea is fairly large and parts of it are found in five quadrangles: Arabia quadrangle, Syrtis Major quadrangle, Iapygia quadrangle, Ismenius Lacus quadrangle, and Sinus Sabaeus quadrangle.

Cassini (Martian crater)

Cassini is a crater on Mars named in honour of the Italian astronomer Giovanni Cassini. The name was approved in 1973, by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature.

Becquerel (Martian crater)

Becquerel is a 167 km-diameter crater at 22.1°N, 352.0°E on Mars, in Arabia Terra in Oxia Palus quadrangle. It is named after Antoine H. Becquerel.

Casius quadrangle

The Casius quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The quadrangle is located in the north-central portion of Mars’ eastern hemisphere and covers 60° to 120° east longitude and 30° to 65° north latitude. The quadrangle uses a Lambert conformal conic projection at a nominal scale of 1:5,000,000 (1:5M). The Casius quadrangle is also referred to as MC-6. Casius quadrangle contains part of Utopia Planitia and a small part of Terra Sabaea. The southern and northern borders of the Casius quadrangle are approximately 3,065 km and 1,500 km wide, respectively. The north to south distance is about 2,050 km. The quadrangle covers an approximate area of 4.9 million square km, or a little over 3% of Mars’ surface area.

Arabia quadrangle

The Arabia quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Arabia quadrangle is also referred to as MC-12.

Elysium quadrangle

The Elysium quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Elysium quadrangle is also referred to as MC-15.

Amazonis quadrangle

The Amazonis quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Amazonis quadrangle is also referred to as MC-8.

Oxia Palus quadrangle

The Oxia Palus quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Oxia Palus quadrangle is also referred to as MC-11.

Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle One of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars

The Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle is also referred to as MC-19. The Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle covers the area from 0° to 45° west longitude and 0° to 30° south latitude on Mars. Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle contains Margaritifer Terra and parts of Xanthe Terra, Noachis Terra, Arabia Terra, and Meridiani Planum.

Thaumasia quadrangle

The Thaumasia quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Thaumasia quadrangle is also referred to as MC-25 . The name comes from Thaumas, the god of the clouds and celestial apparitions.

Trouvelot (Martian crater)

Trouvelot is a crater on Mars, located in the Oxia Palus quadrangle at 16.2° north latitude and 13.1° west longitude near the crustal dichotomy in the circum-Chryse region. It is roughly located along the dichotomy between Arabia Terra to the northeast and the southernmost of the circum-Chryse outflow channels to the southwest. Trouvelot crater measures approximately 148.77 kilometres (92.44 mi) in diameter and was named after Étienne Léopold Trouvelot, a French astronomer (1827–1895). The name was adopted by IAU's Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature in 1973.

Spallanzani (Martian crater)

Spallanzani is a crater on Mars, located in the Hellas quadrangle at 58.0° south latitude and 86.4° east longitude. It measures approximately 72 kilometers in diameter and was named after Italian biologist Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729–1799). The name was adopted by IAU's Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature in 1973.

In planetary geology, a pedestal crater is a crater with its ejecta sitting above the surrounding terrain and thereby forming a raised platform. They form when an impact crater ejects material which forms an erosion-resistant layer, thus causing the immediate area to erode more slowly than the rest of the region. Some pedestals have been accurately measured to be hundreds of meters above the surrounding area. This means that hundreds of meters of material were eroded away. The result is that both the crater and its ejecta blanket stand above the surroundings. Pedestal craters were first observed during the Mariner missions.

HiWish is a program created by NASA so that anyone can suggest a place for the HiRISE camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to photograph. It was started in January 2010. In the first few months of the program 3000 people signed up to use HiRISE. The first images were released in April 2010. Over 12,000 suggestions were made by the public; suggestions were made for targets in each of the 30 quadrangles of Mars. Selected images released were used for three talks at the 16th Annual International Mars Society Convention. Below are some of the over 4,224 images that have been released from the HiWish program as of March 2016.

Groundwater on Mars Water held in permeable ground

During past ages, there was rain and snow on Mars; especially in the Noachian and early Hesperian epochs. Some moisture entered the ground and formed aquifers. That is, the water went into the ground, seeped down until it reached a formation that would not allow it to penetrate further. Water then accumulated forming a saturated layer. Deep aquifers may still exist.

The common surface features of Mars include dark slope streaks, dust devil tracks, sand dunes, Medusae Fossae Formation, fretted terrain, layers, gullies, glaciers, scalloped topography, chaos terrain, possible ancient rivers, pedestal craters, brain terrain, and ring mold craters.

Danielson (crater)

Danielson Crater is an impact crater in the Oxia Palus quadrangle on Mars at 7.93° N and 7.11° W. and is 66.7 km in diameter, and is north of the Meridiani Planum, south of Arabia Terra and west of the planet's meridia. Its name was approved in 2009, and it was named after American engineer G. Edward Danielson.

Janssen (Martian crater)

Janssen Crater is an impact crater in the Arabia quadrangle on Mars at 2.7° N and 322.4° W. and is 154 km in diameter. Its name was approved in 1973, and refers to French astronomer Pierre Janssen. Some close up images of the crater reveal layers in a floor deposit. A picture below show these layers, as well as dark slope streaks. The darker the streak, the younger it is. The layers on the floor of Janssen may have been formed on the bottom of lakes.

Crommelin (Martian crater)

Crommelin Crater is an impact crater in the Oxia Palus quadrangle of Mars, located at 5.1°N latitude and 10.2°W longitude. It is 113.9 km in diameter. It was named after British astronomer Andrew Crommelin (1865–1939), and the name was approved in 1973 by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN).

References

  1. Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature: Tikhonravov
  2. Fassett, C. and J. Head III. 2008. "Valley network-fed, open-basin lakes on Mars: Distribution and implications for Noachian surface and subsurface hydrology". Icarus: 198. 39–56.
  3. Cabrol, N. and E. Grin. 2001. "The Evolution of Lacustrine Environments on Mars: Is Mars Only Hydrologically Dormant?" Icarus: 149, 291–328.
  4. Fassett, C. and J. Head. 2008. "Open-basin lakes on Mars: Distribution and implications for Noachian surface and subsurface hydrology". Icarus: 198, 37–56.
  5. http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu/PSP_008508_1870