Tikhvin

Last updated

Tikhvin
Тихвин
Tixvin-ulicakarlamarksa.jpg
Karla Marksa Street, the longest in Tikhvin
Flag of Tikhvin (Leningrad oblast).png
Tikhvin COA (Novgorod Governorate) (1773).png
Location of Tikhvin
Tikhvin
Russia administrative location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Tikhvin
Location of Tikhvin
Outline Map of Leningrad Oblast.svg
Red pog.svg
Tikhvin
Tikhvin (Leningrad Oblast)
Coordinates: 59°39′N33°32′E / 59.650°N 33.533°E / 59.650; 33.533
Country Russia
Federal subject Leningrad Oblast [1]
Administrative district Tikhvinsky District [1]
Settlement municipal formationTikhvinskoye Settlement Municipal Formation [1]
First mentioned1383 [2]
Town status since1773 [2]
Elevation
50 m (160 ft)
Population
  Total58,459
  Estimate 
(2018) [4]
58,136 (−0.6%)
  Rank 284th in 2010
   Capital ofTikhvinsky District [1] , Tikhvinskoye Settlement Municipal Formation [1]
   Municipal district Tikhvinsky Municipal District [5]
  Urban settlementTikhvinskoye Urban Settlement [5]
   Capital ofTikhvinsky Municipal District [5] , Tikhvinskoye Urban Settlement [5]
Time zone UTC+3 (MSK   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [6] )
Postal code(s) [7]
187549–187553, 187555–187557
Dialing code(s) +7 81367 [8]
OKTMO ID41645101001
Town DayJuly 9

Tikhvin (Russian : Ти́хвин; Veps: Tihvin) is a town and the administrative center of Tikhvinsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on both banks of the Tikhvinka River in the east of the oblast, 200 kilometers (120 mi) east of St. Petersburg. Tikhvin is also an industrial and cultural center of the district, as well as its transportation hub. Population: 58,459(2010 Census); [3] 63,338(2002 Census); [9] 71,352(1989 Census). [10]

Contents

It was previously known as Predtechensky pogost, [2] Tikhvinsky posad. [2]

Etymology

According to one version supported by Max Vasmer, the name of the town originates from Old East Slavic тихъ (Russian : тихий), which means "quiet". [11] According to another version, it is derived from Finnish tihkua — "trickle out". [12]

History

Dormition Monastery Vid na Uspenskii monastyr' cherez reku Tikhvinka.jpg
Dormition Monastery
Belfry of Tikhvinsky Monastery Bolshoy Tikhvinskiy Uspenskiy monastyr 5.JPG
Belfry of Tikhvinsky Monastery

It was first mentioned in 1383 as Predtechensky pogost (Предтеченский погост), when a chronicle reported that a wooden Church of the Dormition was built here. [2] Later, in 1495–1496, Y. K. Saburov, a clerk in the Novgorod Cadastre, mentioned the "...Tikhvin parish and in it, a wooden church..."

Its location at the intersection of trade routes which connected the Volga River with Lake Ladoga and the Baltic Sea ensured its rapid development. At the beginning of the 16th century, it was already a widely known commerce and trade center. In 1507–1515, funded by Vasili III of Russia, on the spot of the burned wooden church, Dmitry Syrkov of Novgorod constructed the monumental stone Cathedral of Dormition, which stands to this day.

In 1560, by order of Ivan the Terrible, the Monastery of Dormition was built on the left bank of the Tikhvinka River. Management of the construction project was entrusted to Fyodor Syrkov, the son of Dmitry Syrkov. Special importance was placed on the haste of its construction; therefore, the Tsar permitted the use of peasants from twenty rural divisions to assist in building it.

In the spring and summer of 1560, the large Monastery of Dormition and the smaller Vvedensky convent were simultaneously built, as well as two trade and industrial settlements with various buildings for residential, economic, and religious purposes. The monastery was initially surrounded by a stockade of sharpened poles. Later, in the mid-17th century, it was replaced by two parallel log walls, filled in between with earth and stones. A covered walkway with arrow slits went along the top of walls and above the walls nine powerful towers were raised. Thus, on the spot of an ancient settlement, an important fortified stronghold was created, which would play a large role in the defense of the northwestern borders of Russia.

At the beginning of the 17th century, the Russian state underwent a deep internal crisis. During the Swedish-Polish incursion, the Swedes occupied and devastated the region around Novgorod. In 1613, Tikhvin was captured, ransacked, and burned. Tradespeople, sheltering behind the fortress walls of the monastery, survived a prolonged siege and numerous attacks before routing the Swedish army. The fight ended with the expulsion of the Swedes from the area, marking the beginning of the liberation of the Novgorod region from Swedish and Polish forces.

Tikhvin blossomed economically during the 17th and 18th centuries. The products of Tikhvin's blacksmiths enjoyed special demand and were bought not only in Russian cities but also abroad. Tikhvin became one of the points for foreign trade in Russia and Tikhvin Fair was one of the largest in the country. The bloom in trade and crafts in the 17th century contributed to an increase of the settlement's population, which grew considerably.

Stone buildings were permitted only on the territory of the monastery. In the 16th century, in addition to the cathedral, a stone refectory was built, and a church dedicated to the birth of the Mother of God was erected in 1581. In 1600, a five-roofed belfry was constructed. An especially intense period of stone construction took place in the second half of the 17th century, when all the wooden buildings in the monastery were replaced by ones of stone. As a result of these works, a highly artistic ensemble of historical and architectural monuments was created on the territory of the monastery, which is mostly preserved to this day, although in the 18th and 19th centuries some of the cloister buildings underwent reconstruction which altered their original appearance.

Since their construction in 1560, Tikhvin owed its allegiance to the monastery and convent. In 1723, after a prolonged fight, the inhabitants of Tikhvin were freed from monastery control and obtained their own administration, a magistrate who answered to Novgorod Province office. The settlement was not totally separated from the monastery until 1764, after an edict concerning the transfer of the monastery's property to the state. In 1773, Tikhvin was granted town status. [2]

Tikhvin has considerable deposits of bauxite, a component involved in the manufacture of aluminum. These reserves were of "decisive significance" to the German war effort in World War II. 12th Panzer Division launched an operation to capture Tikhvin on 19 October 1941. [13] During World War II, Tikhvin was occupied by Nazi troops from 8 November 1941 to 9 December 1941. [2] Due to counterattacks on the part of Soviet forces, it had to be abandoned after one month, but many architectural monuments were destroyed during that time. The re-capture of Tikhvin is considered to have been extremely vital in the execution of the Road of Life during the Siege of Leningrad, thanks to its railway. It allowed the Soviets to provide much more foodstuffs in comparison to the makeshift land road previously used.

Climate

Climate data for Tikhvin
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)7.2
(45.0)
9.2
(48.6)
17.0
(62.6)
27.3
(81.1)
35.0
(95.0)
35.9
(96.6)
37.8
(100.0)
35.6
(96.1)
30.4
(86.7)
23.1
(73.6)
11.6
(52.9)
10.3
(50.5)
37.8
(100.0)
Average high °C (°F)−4.5
(23.9)
−3.7
(25.3)
2.1
(35.8)
10.0
(50.0)
17.2
(63.0)
21.3
(70.3)
23.7
(74.7)
21.4
(70.5)
15.5
(59.9)
7.6
(45.7)
0.9
(33.6)
−2.6
(27.3)
9.1
(48.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)−7.3
(18.9)
−7.1
(19.2)
−2.4
(27.7)
4.3
(39.7)
10.9
(51.6)
15.5
(59.9)
17.9
(64.2)
15.7
(60.3)
10.5
(50.9)
4.4
(39.9)
−1.3
(29.7)
−4.9
(23.2)
4.7
(40.4)
Average low °C (°F)−10.3
(13.5)
−10.8
(12.6)
−6.9
(19.6)
−1.0
(30.2)
4.4
(39.9)
9.4
(48.9)
12.3
(54.1)
10.6
(51.1)
6.2
(43.2)
1.4
(34.5)
−3.7
(25.3)
−7.6
(18.3)
0.3
(32.6)
Record low °C (°F)−50.9
(−59.6)
−40.7
(−41.3)
−34.8
(−30.6)
−26.0
(−14.8)
−9.1
(15.6)
−3.3
(26.1)
0.1
(32.2)
−2.0
(28.4)
−8.7
(16.3)
−17.8
(0.0)
−31.2
(−24.2)
−44.5
(−48.1)
−50.9
(−59.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)61.5
(2.42)
42.2
(1.66)
42.9
(1.69)
42.7
(1.68)
57.5
(2.26)
79.2
(3.12)
83.5
(3.29)
84.6
(3.33)
64.3
(2.53)
69.7
(2.74)
69.8
(2.75)
67.3
(2.65)
765.2
(30.12)
Source: Pogodaiklimat.ru [14]

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Tikhvin serves as the administrative center of Tikhvinsky District. [1] As an administrative division, it is, together with nineteen rural localities, incorporated within Tikhvinsky District as Tikhvinskoye Settlement Municipal Formation . [1] As a municipal division, Tikhvinskoye Settlement Municipal Formation is incorporated within Tikhvinsky Municipal District as Tikhvinskoye Urban Settlement. [5]

Economy

Industry

In Soviet times, the largest employer in Tikhvin was a heavy machine factory, known as Transmash up to 2001, where tractors and defense equipment were manufactured. In its heyday, 20,000 people were employed there. The plant was very negatively affected by the dissolution of the Soviet Union and post-Soviet economic problems. Tractor production ceased in 2003 and by 2005, its workforce was reduced to about a thousand. The plant was acquired in 2001 by the ICT Group and restructured, a ferroalloy plant (acquired by Mechel in 2008), and rail wagon building plant were constructed in the first decade of the 21st century.

Other industrial enterprises in the town include the manufacturing of furniture for IKEA, a construction company, a wood-chemical plant (producing rosin, resin, turpentine, and other such wood-based chemicals), a meat-packing plant, a dairy plant, a bread factory, and other light enterprises.

Transportation

A railway connecting St. Petersburg and Vologda passes Tikhvin. A secondary railway branches out south, connecting Tikhvin with Budogoshch.

The A114 Highway, connecting Vologda with Cherepovets and St. Petersburg, passes Tikhvin as well. There are also local roads.

The whole course of the Tikhvinka River is a part of the Tikhvinskaya water system, one of the waterways constructed in the early 19th century to connect the basins of the Volga and the Neva Rivers. The waterway runs from the Syas upstream the Tikhvinka. Lake Yelgino is connected by the Tikhvin Canal, 6 kilometers (3.7 mi) with the upper course of the Volchina River. The waterway then follows downstream the Gorun River, the Chagodoshcha River, and the Mologa River. Currently, it is not used for any commercial navigation. Most of the locks built on the Tikhvinka decayed and are not in use. [15]

Architecture

Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov house museum Tikhvin. Dom-muzei Rimskogo-Korsakova. 4.08.11..JPG
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov house museum

Today, Tikhvin is divided into two parts: the "old town", which preserves the look of a small provincial town, and the "new town", consisting of apartment blocks built after World War II in the typical Soviet style. The majority of the population lives in the "new town". The houses and buildings of the "old town" are mostly wooden; in the center square, which until the 20th century was the commercial heart of the town, stands a restored cathedral, Savior of the Transfiguration, which is the main church in the town. In addition to the cathedral, a number of notable buildings are preserved around the square, including the hotel "St. Petersburg" (now Sberbank) and the "Guest Court", which was closed for many years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, but has been completely restored and now functions as a shopping center.

An additional point of interest is the historical part of the town with old wooden buildings and planning characteristic of the 18th century. The ruins of wooden sluices from the 19th century has been preserved as well; these are the remains of the Tikhvinskaya water system.

Culture

The famous Russian composer, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, was born in Tikhvin. His house has been converted into a museum.

Festivals

Religion

The Theotokos of Tikhvin icon Tikhvinskaya ikona Bozhiey Materi.jpg
The Theotokos of Tikhvin icon

The main architectural and historical sight of town is the Monastery of the Dormition, founded in 1560. The monastery is famed for the Theotokos of Tikhvin icon. According to legend, it appeared on the shore of the Tikhvinka River on June 26 (July 9), 1383; later at this place the monastery and town would be built.

Notable people

Twin towns – sister cities

Tikhvin is twinned with: [16]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Volkhov</span> Town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Volkhov is an industrial town and the administrative center of Volkhovsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the river Volkhov 122 kilometers (76 mi) east of St. Petersburg. Population: 47,182 (2010 Census); 46,596 (2002 Census); 50,325 (1989 Census).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kirishi</span> Town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Kirishi is a town and the administrative center of Kirishsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Volkhov River, 115 kilometers (71 mi) southeast of St. Petersburg. Population: 52,309 (2010 Census); 55,634 (2002 Census); 53,014 (1989 Census).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kamennogorsk</span> Town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Kamennogorsk, is a town in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Karelian Isthmus on the left bank of the Vuoksi River 170 kilometers (110 mi) northwest of St. Petersburg. Population: 6,739 (2010 Census); 6,084 (2002 Census); 5,694 (1989 Census).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tosno</span> Town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Tosno is a town and the administrative center of Tosnensky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Tosna River, 53 kilometers (33 mi) southeast of the center of St. Petersburg. Population: 39,101 (2010 Census); 38,683 (2002 Census); 32,459 (1989 Census).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lodeynoye Pole</span> Town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Lodeynoye Pole is a town and the administrative center of Lodeynopolsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Svir River 244 kilometers (152 mi) northeast of St. Petersburg. Population: 20,674 (2010 Census); 22,830 (2002 Census); 26,718 (1989 Census); 21,400 (1972).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Novaya Ladoga</span> Town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Novaya Ladoga is a town in Volkhovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the point where the Volkhov River flows into Lake Ladoga, 140 kilometers (87 mi) east of St. Petersburg. Population: 8,838 (2010 Census); 9,920 (2002 Census); 11,310 (1989 Census).

Syasstroy is a town in Volkhovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located near the mouth of the Syas River, at its confluence with the Valgonka, close to Lake Ladoga, 140 kilometers (87 mi) east of St. Petersburg. Population: 13,745 (2010 Census); 13,969 (2002 Census); 16,122 (1989 Census).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pikalyovo, Leningrad Oblast</span> Town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Pikalyovo, sometimes Pikalevo, is a town in Boksitogorsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located 246 kilometers (153 mi) southeast of St. Petersburg and 25 kilometers (16 mi) east of Boksitogorsk. Population: 21,562 (2010 Census); 23,325 (2002 Census); 24,510 (1989 Census).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Priozersky District</span> District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Priozersky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northwest of the oblast and borders with Lakhdenpokhsky District of the Republic of Karelia in the north, Vsevolozhsky District in the south, and Vyborgsky District in the west. In the east, the district is bounded by Lake Ladoga. The area of the district is 3,597.5 square kilometers (1,389.0 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Priozersk. Population : 43,260 (2010 Census); 42,859 ; 40,231 (1989 Census).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Boksitogorsky District</span> District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Boksitogorsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the oblast and borders with Tikhvinsky District in the north and west, Babayevsky District of Vologda Oblast in the east, Chagodoshchensky District of Vologda Oblast in the southeast, Khvoyninsky District of Novgorod Oblast in the south, and with Lyubytinsky District of Novgorod Oblast in the southwest. The area of the district is 7,200 square kilometers (2,800 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Boksitogorsk. Population : 15,695 (2010 Census); 17,698 ; 49,452 (1989 Census).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kirishsky District</span> District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Kirishsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the central southern part of the oblast and borders with Volkhovsky District in the north, Tikhvinsky District in the northeast, Lyubytinsky District of Novgorod Oblast in the southeast, Malovishersky District of Novgorod Oblast in the south, Chudovsky District of Novgorod Oblast in the southwest, Tosnensky District in the west, and Kirovsky District in the northwest. The area of the district is 3,019.3 square kilometers (1,165.8 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kirishi. Population : 11,455 (2010 Census); 12,075 ; 14,521 (1989 Census).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lodeynopolsky District</span> District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Lodeynopolsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northeast of the oblast and borders with Olonetsky District of the Republic of Karelia in the north, Podporozhsky District in the east, Tikhvinsky District in the south, and Volkhovsky District in the west. The area of the district is 4,900 square kilometers (1,900 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Lodeynoye Pole. Population : 9,795 (2010 Census); 12,185 ; 13,426 (1989 Census).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Podporozhsky District</span> District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Podporozhsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northeast of the oblast and borders with Prionezhsky District of the Republic of Karelia in the north, Vytegorsky District of Vologda Oblast in the east, Babayevsky District of Vologda Oblast in the southeast, Tikhvinsky District in the south, Lodeynopolsky District in the southwest, and Olonetsky and Pryazhinsky Districts of the Republic of Karelia in the northwest. In the northeast, the district is bounded by Lake Onega. The area of the district is 7,679 square kilometers (2,965 sq mi), which makes it the largest district in Leningrad Oblast. Its administrative center is the town of Podporozhye. Population : 13,000 (2010 Census); 14,845 ; 18,075 (1989 Census).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tikhvinsky District</span> District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Tikhvinsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the oblast and borders with Lodeynopolsky District in the north, Podporozhsky District in the northeast, Babayevsky District of Vologda Oblast in the east, Boksitogorsky District in the southeast, Lyubytinsky District of Novgorod Oblast in the south, Kirishsky District in the west, and Volkhovsky District in the northwest. The area of the district is 7,018 square kilometers (2,710 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Tikhvin. Population : 12,529 (2010 Census); 14,637 ; 17,104 (1989 Census).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Volkhovsky District</span> District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Volkhovsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the central eastern part of the oblast and borders with Lodeynopolsky District in the northeast, Tikhvinsky District in the southeast, Kirishsky District in the south, and with Kirovsky District in the west. In the north, it is washed by Lake Ladoga. The area of the district is 5,124.4 square kilometers (1,978.5 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Volkhov. Population : 48,000 (2010 Census); 50,799 ; 58,939 (1989 Census).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Plyussky District</span> District in Pskov Oblast, Russia

Plyussky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northeast of the oblast and borders with Slantsevsky District of Leningrad Oblast in the north, Luzhsky District of Leningrad Oblast in the northeast, Shimsky District of Novgorod Oblast in the east, Strugo-Krasnensky District in the south, and with Gdovsky District in the west. The area of the district is 2,767 square kilometers (1,068 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Plyussa. Population: 9,187 (2010 Census); 11,610 ; 13,988 (1989 Census). The population of Plyussa accounts for 37.6% of the district's total population.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Budogoshch</span> Urban-type settlement in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Budogoshch is an urban locality in Kirishsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the banks of the Pchyovzha River. Municipally, it serves as the administrative center of Budogoshskoye Urban Settlement, one of the two urban settlements in the district. Population: 3,871 (2010 Census); 3,885 (2002 Census); 4,673 (1989 Census).

Yefimovsky is an urban locality in Boksitogorsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Sominka River, in the basin of the Chagodoshcha River. Municipally, it is incorporated as Yefimovskoye Urban Settlement, one of the three urban settlements in the district. Population: 3,611 (2010 Census); 3,937 (2002 Census); 5,177 (1989 Census).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vazhiny</span> Urban-type settlement in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Vazhiny is an urban locality in Podporozhsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Svir River at the mouth of the Vazhinka River, several kilometers northwest of the town of Podporozhye. Municipally, it is incorporated as Vazhinskoye Urban Settlement, one of the four urban settlements in the district. Population: 2,754 (2010 Census); 2,941 (2002 Census); 3,956 (1989 Census).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Boksitogorsk</span> Town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Boksitogorsk is a town and the administrative center of Boksitogorsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the banks of the Pyardomlya River in the basin of the Syas River, 245 kilometers (152 mi) east of St. Petersburg. Population: 16,585. (2010 Census)

References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Oblast Law #32-oz
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 465. ISBN   5-7107-7399-9.
  3. 1 2 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  4. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Law #52-oz
  6. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  7. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  8. Телефонные коды Ленинградской области (in Russian). Телефонные коды России. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  9. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  10. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  11. Фасмер М. Этимологический словарь русского языка. vol. IV. p. 63.
  12. Поспелов Е. М. Географические названия мира: Топонимический словарь: Ок. 5000 единиц. Moscow, 1998
  13. Stahlburg, Alexander (1990). Bounden Duty. New York: Macmillan Company. p. 176.
  14. "Климат Тихвина". Pogodaiklimat.ru. Retrieved November 24, 2020.
  15. Хрусталев, М. Ю. (1999). По Тихвинской водной системе. Из истории водных коммуникаций и судоходства. Чагода: Историко-краеведческий альманах (in Russian). Vologda: Ардвисура. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
  16. "Культура". tvsz.ru (in Russian). TVSZ. Retrieved February 6, 2020.

Sources