Tikveš uprising

Last updated
Monument dedicated to victims of Tikvesh uprising Tikveski ustanak - spomen ploca.JPG
Monument dedicated to victims of Tikvesh uprising

Tikvesh uprising (Bulgarian : Тиквешко въстание, romanized: Tikveshko vŭstanie; Macedonian : Тиквешко востание, romanized: Tikveško vostanie; Serbian : Тиквешки устанак / Tikveški ustanak) was an uprising in the Tikveš region of Macedonia in late June 1913.


It was organized by Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) against the Serbian troops in Vardar Macedonia between the First and the Second Balkan War. As the First Balkan War was coming to its final border arrangements, the pressures on the Bulgarian Exarchate and on the Macedonian Bulgarian ethnic community in the Ottoman areas that came under Greek and Serbian control were intensifying. [1] According to the report of the International Commission on the Balkan Wars Serbia implemented there a program of " assimilation through terror ". [2] [3] IMRO acted in close coordination with the Bulgarian army, which troops at the time were located on the left bank of the Vardar river. The rebellion started prematurely on June 15, 1913, [4] after the secret uprising conspiracy had been revealed by the local Serbian authorities. The organisers had planned to start armed resistance against the oppressors after the Bulgarian Army had begun operations in the region.

The rebellion spread in the regions of Kavadarci, Negotino and the village of Vatasha. Two large rebel groups were set up with leaders Doncho Lazarov and Mishe Shkartov. Serbian army unit in Negotino was attacked and forced out from the town, Kavadarci and Vatasha were liberated soon after. The rebellions set up a provisional Bulgarian government in these settlements. Reorganized Serbian army troops and irregulars led by Vasilije Trbić were sent to crush the uprising. On June 25, after realising that help from the Bulgarian army would not be coming soon, the rebels moved out from the towns. In the following days the Serbian army brutally suppressed the uprising and terrorized the Bulgarian population in the rebelling regions. According to some sources 363 civilian Bulgarians were killed in Kavadarci, 230 - in Negotino and 40 - in Vatasha. [5] As result, Bulgaria, dissatisfied with the results of the First Balkan War, attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece, on 29 June, 1913 starting the Second Balkan War.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization</span> Secret revolutionary society (1893–1934)

The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, was a secret revolutionary society founded in the Ottoman territories in Europe, that operated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising</span> Anti-Ottoman revolt in the Balkans (1903)

The Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising, or simply the Ilinden Uprising of August–October 1903, was organized revolt against the Ottoman Empire, which was prepared and carried out by the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization, with the support of the Supreme Macedonian-Adrianople Committee, which included mostly Bulgarian military personnel. The name of the uprising refers to Ilinden, a name for Elijah's day, and to Preobrazhenie which means Feast of the Transfiguration. Some historians describe the rebellion in the Serres revolutionary district as a separate uprising, calling it the Krastovden Uprising, because on September 14 the revolutionaries there also rebelled. The revolt lasted from the beginning of August to the end of October and covered a vast territory from the western Black Sea coast in the east to the shores of Lake Ohrid in the west.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kruševo Republic</span> Rebel state in the Ottoman Empire (1903)

The Kruševo Republic was a short-lived political entity proclaimed in 1903 by rebels from the Secret Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) in Kruševo during the anti-Ottoman Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising. According to subsequent Bulgarian and followed later Macedonian narratives, it was one of the first modern-day republics in the Balkans.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hristo Tatarchev</span> Macedonian Bulgarian revolutionary (1869–1952)

Hristo Tatarchev was a Macedonian Bulgarian doctor, revolutionary and one of the founders of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO). Tatarchev authored several political journalistic works between the First and Second World War. He is considered an ethnic Macedonian in the Macedonian historiography.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gyorche Petrov</span> Bulgarian teacher and revolutionary (1865–1921)

Gyorche Petrov Nikolov born Georgi Petrov Nikolov, was a Bulgarian teacher and revolutionary, one of the leaders of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO). He was its representative in Sofia, the capital of Principality of Bulgaria. As such he was also a member of the Supreme Macedonian-Adrianople Committee (SMAC), participating in the work of its governing body. During the Balkan Wars, Petrov was a Bulgarian army volunteer, and during the First World War, he was involved in the activity of the Bulgarian occupation authorities in Serbia and Greece. Subsequently, he participated in Bulgarian politics, but was eventually killed by the rivaling IMRO right-wing faction. According to the Macedonian historiography, he was an ethnic Macedonian.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mara Buneva</span>

Mara Buneva was a Macedonian Bulgarian revolutionary, a member of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, who assassinated Velimir Prelić, a former Serbian Chetnik commander and Yugoslav legal official of the Skopje Oblast. She shot herself in the chest, and subsequently died in a hospital a few hours after the attack, while Prelić died a few days later.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Panko Brashnarov</span> Revolutionary from Macedonia

Panko Brashnarov was a revolutionary and member of the left wing of the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization (IMARO) and IMRO (United) later. As with many other IMARO members of the time, historians from North Macedonia consider him an ethnic Macedonian, whereas historians in Bulgaria consider him a Bulgarian.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ohrana</span>

Ohrana were armed collaborationist detachments organized by the former Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) structures, composed of Bulgarians in Nazi-occupied Greek Macedonia during World War II and led by officers of the Bulgarian Army. Bulgaria was interested in acquiring Thessalonica and Western Macedonia, under Italian and German occupation and hoped to sway the allegiance of the 80,000 Slavs who lived there at the time. The appearance of Greek partisans in those areas persuaded the Axis to allow the formation of these collaborationst detachments. However, during late 1944, when the Axis appeared to be losing the war, many Bulgarian Nazi collaborators, Ohrana members and VMRO regiment volunteers fled to the opposite camp by joining the newly founded communist SNOF. The organization managed to recruit initially 1,000 up to 3,000 armed men from the Slavophone community that lived in the western part of Greek Macedonia.

The "May Manifesto" of May 6, 1924 was a paper in which the objectives of the unified Macedonian liberation movement were presented: independence and unification of partitioned region of Macedonia, fighting all the neighbouring Balkan monarchies, supporting the Balkan Communist Federation and cooperation with the Soviet Union.

The Brsjak revolt broke out on 14 October 1880 in the Poreče region of the Monastir Vilayet, led by rebels who sought the liberation of Macedonia from the Ottoman Empire. According to Ottoman sources the goal of the revolt was the accession of Macedonia to Bulgaria. The rebels received secret aid from Principality of Serbia, which had earlier been at war with the Ottoman Empire, until Ottoman and Russian diplomatic intervention in 1881. The Ottoman Gendarmerie succeeded in suppressing the rebellion after a year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Razlovci uprising</span>

The Razlovci uprising was a Bulgarian rebellion in the areas of Maleševo and Pijanec in Ottoman Macedonia, part of the April Uprising of 1876.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dimitar Gyuzelov</span> Bulgarian revolutionary and philosopher

Dimitar Gyuzelov was a Macedonian Bulgarian revolutionary and philosopher. He is the father of Macedonian writer Bogomil Gyuzel and artist Liljana Gyuzelova, who between 1996 and 2006 worked on an art installation titled The Perpetual Return, dedicated to her father, his murder, and the stigma that the children of prominent Bulgarians who had been persecuted by the Yugoslav authorities after 1945 had to endure.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Boško Virjanac</span>

Boško Mitrović, known by the nom de guerreVirjanac (Вирјанац) or Virčanac (Вирчанац), was a Serbian Chetnik commander.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Five Strumica Students</span>

The Five Strumica Students refers to a group of five students on the age from 20-23, all born in Strumica that on August 13, 1951 were executed by authorities in Communist Yugoslavia. In the information report of the authorities it was stated that the group was planning to illegally cross the border to Greece, but their relatives claimed that they were killed because of ideas close to IMRO, an organization that fought for the independence of Macedonia. A large crowd flocked to the funeral of those killed, and their relatives built a large common gravestone, but after a few months the UDBA blew it up. The case received international acclaim, and soon after in New Jersey, USA, and in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the pro-Bulgarian Macedonian Patriotic Organization set up its own structures called in Bulgarian: Струмишката петорка. At that time the Yugoslav authorities conducted a series of raids and executions to prevent the influence of the inherits of IMRO, this being one of them.

Spiro Kitinchev was a Macedonian Bulgarian writer, activist, and politician during the Second World War in Yugoslav Macedonia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gotse Delchev Brigade</span>

"Gotse Delchev" Brigade was a military unit composed of conscripts and volunteers from the region of Macedonia. The Brigade was named after the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization revolutionary Gotse Delchev.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Skopje Student Trial</span>

The Skopje student trial began on December 5, 1927, in Skopje, then in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The trial was against activists of the Macedonian Youth Secret Revolutionary Organization. A total of 20 Macedonian Bulgarian students stood on the bench. They were accused of fighting for an Independent Macedonia. The government of the Kingdom then pursued a policy of Serbisation towards the Slavic population of the area, called "Southern Serbia". Before the trial the students were subjected to torture. Todor Popyodranov was summoned for questioning in person by police chief Zika Lazić. He was asked to hand over the names of other students from the organization and was released "to think." Popyordanov jumped under a train and committed suicide. On the trial Ante Pavelić then a lawyer and a member of the National Assembly, appeared. He presented to the court a telegraph sent to him by the relatives of some of the defendants asking him to defend them in court. The trial ended on December 10. The most severe sentences were for Dimitar Gyuzelov and Ivan Shopov, sentenced to 20 years, Dimitar Natsev to 15 years, and Dimitar Chkatrov to 10 years in prison. During the trial, graffiti were written on the streets of Skopje, reading "Serbs, go back to Sumadia" and "Macedonia is Bulgarian!". The "Secret cultural and educational organization of the Macedonian Bulgarian women" took an active part in the process, organizing the supply of the prisoners with basic necessities. As a result of the verdicts after the trial, Mara Buneva killed the Serb Velimir Prelić, the chief public prosecutor in the case.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Law for the Protection of Macedonian National Honour</span>

The Law for the Protection of Macedonian National Honour was a statute passed by the government of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia at the end of 1944. The Presidium of Anti-fascist Assembly for the National Liberation of Macedonia (ASNOM) established a special court for the implementation of this law, which came into effect on January 3, 1945. This decision was taken at the second session of this assembly on 28–31 December 1944.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Macedonian-Adrianople Social Democratic Group</span>

The Macedonian-Adrianople Social Democratic Group was a regional faction of the Bulgarian Workers' Social Democratic Party in the Ottoman Empire. According to Macedonian historians, most of its activists were ethnic Macedonians.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alekso Martulkov</span> Macedonian socialist (1878 - 1962)

Alekso Martulkov, born as Aleksandar Onchev Martulkov, was a publicist and one of the first socialist revolutionaries from the region of Macedonia. He was a member of the Bulgarian Workers' Social Democratic Party and later the People's Federative Party and the Bulgarian Communist Party. Simultaneously, he was a member of the IMRO and subsequently the IMRO (United). He advocated for the independence of Macedonia. Martulkov was also a member of the Bulgarian Parliament, as well as the Presidium of ASNOM and the parliament of SR Macedonia. He is considered a Macedonian in the Macedonian historiography and a Bulgarian in the Bulgarian historiography.


  1. Igor Despot, The Balkan Wars in the Eyes of the Warring Parties: Perceptions and Interpretations; iUniverse, 2012, ISBN   1475947038, p. 200.
  2. Paul Mojzes, Balkan Genocides: Holocaust and Ethnic Cleansing in the Twentieth Century, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2011, ISBN   1442206659, p. 38.
  3. Benjamin Lieberman, Terrible Fate: Ethnic Cleansing in the Making of Modern Europe; Rowman & Littlefield, 2013, ISBN   144223038X, p. 75.
  4. Гоцев, Димитър. Национално-освободителната борба в Македония 1912-1915, София 1981, с. 48 (Gotsev, Dimitar. The National Liberation Struggle in Macedonia, Sofia 1981, p. 48)
  5. Гоцев, Димитър. Национално-освободителната борба в Македония 1912-1915, София 1981, с. 51 (Gotsev, Dimitar. The National Liberation Struggle in Macedonia, Sofia 1981, p. 51)