18 August 1880
|Died||21 February 1971 90) (aged|
Tilla Durieux (born Ottilie Godeffroy; 18 August 1880 – 21 February 1971) was an Austrian theatre and film actress of the first decades of the 20th century.
Born Ottilie Helene Angela Godeffroyon 18 August 1880 in Vienna, she was the daughter of the Austrian chemist Richard Max Victor Godeffroy (1847–1895) and his wife, the Hungarian pianist Adelheid Ottilie Augustine Godeffroy (née Hrdlicka, died 1920), who was born in Romania. After graduating from elementary school, she switched to the public school in Alsergrund, Vienna. She was baptized in the evangelical parish Augsburg Confession in Vienna. On 31 May 1928 she converted to Catholicism
She trained as an actress in Vienna and made her debut at the Moravian Theatre in Olmütz (now Olomouc) in 1902. Since her mother refused her career choice, she later adopted the stage name Durieux, derived from du Rieux, the maiden name of her paternal grandmother. The next season she got an engagement in Breslau (Wrocław since 1945). From 1903 she worked with Max Reinhardt at the Deutsches Theater in Berlin and with a group of expressionist artists around Kurt Hiller and Jakob van Hoddis. In 1911 Durieux entered the stage of the Lessing Theater where, on 1 November 1913, she became the second actress to perform the role Eliza Doolittle in a German language production of George Bernard Shaw's play Pygmalion , half a year before its English premiere on 11 April 1914.From 1915 she performed at the Royal Schauspielhaus Berlin. In 1923, Durieux appeared on Broadway in Dario Niccodemi's play The Shadow at the 39th Street Theatre.
In 1904, Durieux married the Berlin Secession painter Eugen Spiro, whose younger sister was Baladine Klossowska. They divorced consensually in 1905, after she had fallen in love with Paul Cassirer. She started dating the successful art dealer and editor and they got married in 1910. The marriage lasted 16 years, however Cassirer was very affected when Durieux wanted to divorce him. When their divorce was declared in 1926, Cassirer committed suicide in a room next to the court room where their hearing had taken place.
Soon after, Durieux married general director Ludwig Katzenellenbogen. In 1927 they were the main financiers of Erwin Piscator's Neues Schauspielhaus project. Durieux was a public character of 1920s Berlin and associated with numerous celebrities like the photographer Frieda Riess.
In 1933, Durieux and Katzenellenbogen left Nazi Germany for Switzerland to escape Nazi rule. She continued to perform at the Vienna Theater in der Josefstadt and in Prague. In 1937 she moved to Zagreb, Croatia (then in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) where she became a member of the International Red Aid. Durieux unsuccessfully tried to obtain visa for the United States. In 1941 Ludwig Katzenellenbogen was arrested by Gestapo agents in Thessaloniki and deported to Sachsenhausen concentration camp. He died in 1944 at Jüdisches Krankenhaus Berlin [ citation needed ].
Durieux managed to return to West Germany in 1952, appearing on stages in Berlin, Hamburg, and Münster. The plays in which she performed included A Dream Play by August Strindberg, The Chinese Wallby Max Frisch, and the Atriden-Tetralogie by Gerhart Hauptmann.
In 1971 Durieux underwent surgery for a hip fracture and died of post-operative sepsis. Although the date on her gravestone is 21 January 1971, she died on 21 of February 1971, which would have been the 100th birthday of Paul Cassirer.
Durieux's marriage to her second husband, Paul Cassirer, brought her into the world of art collecting. In addition to family portraits, the Tilla Durieux and Paul Cassirer Collection included modern works of art. When she and her third husband, Ludwig Katzenellenbogen, emigrated from Nazi Germany in 1933, they took some artworks with them.
Durieux’s collection was integrated into the Zlata LubienskiArt Collection. On November 13, 1945, the Commission for Gathering and Protecting of Cultural Monuments and Antiques proclaimed that the Zlata Lubienski Art Collection was a ‘protected’ collection under the Section for Museums of the Department of Art and Culture of the Ministry of Education of the Federal Republic of Croatia. Scholars have emphasized the ambiguous meaning of the word "protection". Lubienski and Durieux contested the decision but were denied.
On February 17, 1982, the City Institute for the Conservation of Cultural and Natural Heritage for the City Council in Zagreb gave a permit for the export of the Tilla Durieux Collection. A commission whose members included Ida Slade Šilović (City Institute for the Conservation of Cultural and Natural Heritage for the City Council in Zagreb), Zdenko Kuzmić and Zdenka Kazmar (City Museum in Zagreb), Dubravka Osrečki (Committee for Public Affairs) and Ljiljana Poljak (from City Administration) was established. The Tilla Durieux Collection was divided, leaving nineteen art works in Zagrebas a part of a new Tilla Durieux Collection at the City Museum in Zagreb while 58 items were exported to Germany, where many were sold.
The heirs of Ludwig Katzenellenbogen and his ex-wife Estella have listed fifty artworks with the Deutsches Zentrum Kulturgutverluste.
|1914||Der Flug in die Sonne||Helga Steinert|
|1915||Die Launen einer Weltdame||Maud, leading role "lady of the world"|
|1920||Die Verschleierte||leading role|
|1921||Hashish, the Paradise of Hell||Sultanin|
|1921||Der zeugende Tod||Boroka, Malerin|
|1922||The Blood||screenplay by Tilla Durieux|
|1929||Woman in the Moon||Fünf Gehirne und Scheckbücher|
|1953||The Stronger Woman||Mutter der Fürstin|
|1954||The Last Bridge||Mara|
|1956||The Story of Anastasia||Zarenmutter Maria Feodorowna von Russland|
|1957||Von allen geliebt||Frau Avenarius|
|1957||El Hakim||Mutter des Hussni|
|1959||Morgen wirst du um mich weinen||Tante Ermelin|
|1964||Condemned to Sin||Die Großmutter|
|1966||It||Die Alte aus dem Osten|
Eugene Spiro, born Eugen Spiro was a German and American painter.
The Berlin Secession was an art movement established in Germany on May 2, 1898. Formed in reaction to the Association of Berlin Artists, and the restrictions on contemporary art imposed by Kaiser Wilhelm II, 65 artists "seceded," demonstrating against the standards of academic or government-endorsed art. The movement is classified as a form of German Modernism, and came on the heels of several other secessions in Germany, including Jugendstil and the Munich Secession.
Paul Cassirer was a German art dealer and editor who played a significant role in the promotion of the work of artists of the Berlin Secession and of French Impressionists and Post-Impressionists, in particular that of Vincent van Gogh and Paul Cézanne.
The Museum Georg Schäfer is a German art museum in Schweinfurt, Bavaria. Based on the private art collection of German industrialist Georg Schäfer (1896–1975), the museum primarily collects 19th-century paintings by artists from German-speaking countries.
The Landesmuseum Mainz, or Mainz State Museum, is a museum of art and history in Mainz, Germany. In March 2010 it reopened in full after an extensive renovation.
Alfred Flechtheim was a German Jewish art dealer, art collector, journalist and publisher persecuted by the Nazis.
Inge Keller was a German stage and film actress whose career on stage and screen spanned seventy years. She was one of the most prominent performers in the former German Democratic Republic. Thomas Langhoff described her as "perhaps the most famous actress of the German Democratic Republic—a star." Deutschlandradio Kultur reporter Dieter Kranz called her "a theater legend".
Frieda Gertrud Riess was a German portrait photographer in the 1920s with a studio in central Berlin.
Julius Freund was a German entrepreneur and art collector persecuted by the Nazis because he was Jewish.
Curt Glaser was a German Jewish art historian, art critic and collector who was persecuted by the Nazis.
Leo Lewin was a German merchant, art collector and horse breeder who was persecuted by the Nazis due to being Jewish.
Hugo Simon was a German Jewish banker, politician and art collector who was persecuted by the Nazis. He was a former owner of Edvard Munch's famous painting, The Scream. After the November Revolution of 1918, he was briefly Minister of Finance in the Prussian Council of People's Representatives as a member of the USPD. Alfred Döblin dealt with this short time as a politician in his novel November 1918.
Ottilie Genée, also Ottilie Fritzsch, was a German stage actress and operatic soprano.
Leo Blumenreich, real name Leonard Lewy was a German art dealer, collector and patron.
Eva Cassirer was a German philosopher, astronomer and art collector. She was an honorary professor at the Technical University of Berlin. She was awarded the honorary title Righteous Among the Nations in 2011.
Alfred Cassirer was a German engineer, entrepreneur and art collector.
Ludwig Katzenellenbogen was a German brewery director deported by the Nazis to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp.
Alfred Gold was an Austrian writer, theatre critic, journalist, art collector, and dealer.
Leo Smoschewer was a German Jewish mechanical engineering entrepreneur and art collector whose business was Aryanized and art collection seized by the Nazis.
Julius Bernhard Stern was a German Jewish banker, art collector and philanthropist. (Not to be confused with the art dealer Julius Stern.