(Bref.) Sacc. & P. Syd., (1899)
Neovossia barclayanaBref., (1895)
Tilletia barclayana is a plant pathogen that infects rice, signalgrass, pearl millet, and crabgrass. The pathogen corrupts the crops it infects, causing black busts to appear on the crops, which then become discolored and smutted.
Tilletia barclayana can live up to 2 years or more while in a host, and is found largely worldwide. Although the origin of the pathogen is unknown, it was first reported in the 1980s.
Tilletia barclayana spreads between nearby plants, leading to an increased loss. Due to this impact scientists are attempting to make these crops more resistant to the pathogen. As of now, the main method of controlling the pathogen is by pulling the infected crops directly from the ground.
Out of salicylic acid and plant extracts of Ammi visnaga , Glycyrrhiza glabra , Artemisia judaica , Mentha viridis , Syzygium aromaticum and Eucalyptus globulus , M. viridis and S. aromaticum were most effective in prevention of T. barclayana infection.All the tested solutions did provide some level of protection however.
Oryza sativa, also known as rice, is the plant species most commonly referred to in English as rice. It is the type of farmed rice whose cultivars are most common globally, and was first domesticated in the Yangtze River basin in China 13,500 to 8,200 years ago.
The smuts are multicellular fungi characterized by their large numbers of teliospores. The smuts get their name from a Germanic word for 'dirt' because of their dark, thick-walled, and dust-like teliospores. They are mostly Ustilaginomycetes and comprise seven of the 15 orders of the subphylum. Most described smuts belong to two orders, Ustilaginales and Tilletiales. The smuts are normally grouped with the other basidiomycetes because of their commonalities concerning sexual reproduction.
Karnal bunt is a fungal disease of wheat, durum wheat, and triticale. The smut fungus Tilletia indica, a basidiomycete, invades the kernels and obtains nutrients from the endosperm, leaving behind waste products with a disagreeable odor that makes bunted kernels too unpalatable for use in flour or pasta. While Karnal bunt generally does not lead to devastating crop losses, it has the potential to dramatically decrease yield, and poses additional economic concerns through quarantines which limit the export of suspected infectious wheat products from certain areas, including the U.S. Several chemical control methods exist for Karnal bunt of wheat, but much work remains to be done in identifying resistant host varieties.
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a "whole-plant" resistance response that occurs following an earlier localized exposure to a pathogen. SAR is analogous to the innate immune system found in animals, and although there are many shared aspects between the two systems, it is thought to be a result of convergent evolution. The systemic acquired resistance response is dependent on the plant hormone, salicylic acid.
Cochliobolus miyabeanus is a fungus that causes brown spot disease in rice.
Common bunt, also known as hill bunt, Indian bunt, European bunt, stinking smut or covered smut, is a disease of both spring and winter wheats. It is caused by two very closely related fungi, Tilletia tritici and T. laevis.
Gibberella zeae, also known by the name of its anamorph Fusarium graminearum, is a fungal plant pathogen which causes fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease on wheat and barley. The pathogen is responsible for billions of dollars in economic losses worldwide each year. Infection causes shifts in the amino acid composition of wheat, resulting in shriveled kernels and contaminating the remaining grain with mycotoxins, mainly deoxynivalenol (DON), which inhibits protein biosynthesis; and zearalenone, an estrogenic mycotoxin. These toxins cause vomiting, liver damage, and reproductive defects in livestock, and are harmful to humans through contaminated food. Despite great efforts to find resistance genes against F. graminearum, no completely resistant variety is currently available. Research on the biology of F. graminearum is directed towards gaining insight into more details about the infection process and reveal weak spots in the life cycle of this pathogen to develop fungicides that can protect wheat from scab infection.
Tilletia caries is a basidiomycete that causes common bunt of wheat. The common names of this disease are stinking bunt of wheat and stinking smut of wheat. This pathogen infects wheat, rye, and various other grasses. T. caries is economically and agriculturally important because it reduces both the wheat yield and grain quality.
Urocystis agropyri is a fungal plant pathogen that causes flag smut on wheat.
Sporisorium sorghi, commonly known as sorghum smut, is a plant pathogen that belongs to the Ustilaginaceae family. This fungus is the causative agent of covered kernel smut disease and infects sorghum plants all around the world such as Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), S. sudanense, S. halepense and Sorghumvulgare var. technichum (broomcorn). Ineffective control of S. sorghi can have serious economic and ecological implications.
Sarocladium oryzae (Sawada) is a plant pathogen causing the Sheath rot disease of rice and Bamboo blight of Bambusoideae spp. in Asia.
Ustilaginoidea virens, perfect sexual stage Villosiclava virens, is a plant pathogen which causes the disease "false smut" of rice which reduces both grain yield and grain quality. The disease occurs in more than 40 countries, especially in the rice producing countries of Asia. but also in the U.S. As the common name suggests, it is not a true smut (fungus), but an ascomycete. False smut does not replace all or part of the kernel with a mass of black spores, rather sori form erupting through the palea and lemma forming a ball of mycelia, the outermost layers are spore-producing. Infected rice kernels are always destroyed by the disease.
Monographella albescens is a fungal plant pathogen also known as leaf scald which infects rice.
Sporisorium reilianum Langdon & Full., (1978), previously known as Sphacelotheca reiliana, and Sporisorium reilianum, is a species of biotrophic fungus in the family Ustilaginaceae. It is a plant pathogen that infects maize and sorghum.
Cassava mosaic virus is the common name used to refer to any of eleven different species of plant pathogenic virus in the genus Begomovirus. African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV), East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV), and South African cassava mosaic virus (SACMV) are distinct species of circular single-stranded DNA viruses which are transmitted by whiteflies and primarily infect cassava plants; these have thus far only been reported from Africa. Related species of viruses are found in India and neighbouring islands, though cassava is cultivated in Latin America as well as Southeast Asia. Nine species of cassava-infecting geminiviruses have been identified between Africa and India based on genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. This number is likely to grow due to a high rate of natural transformation associated with CMV.
Tilletia is a genus of smut fungi in the Tilletiaceae family. Species in this genus are plant pathogens that affect various grasses. Tilletia indica, which causes Karnal bunt of wheat, and Tilletia horrida, responsible for rice kernel smut, are examples of species that affect economically important crops.
Tilletia horrida, rice kernel smut, caryopsis smut, black smut, or grain smut, is a fungal rice disease believed to only affect the Oryza genus. It presents as a partial bunt.
This article summarizes different crops, what common fungal problems they have, and how fungicide should be used in order to mitigate damage and crop loss. This page also covers how specific fungal infections affect crops present in the United States.
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is a bacterial pathovar that causes a serious blight of rice, other grasses, and sedges.
The Plant Pathology Herbarium and Insect Collection is a Queensland Government scientific collection based in Queensland, Australia. Based at the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, the collection holds specimens of known fungal pathogens of plants grown in Queensland, as well as insect pests that occur in the state. In 1966 the herbarium was given the abbreviation BRIP. This abbreviation has official status in that it was the first listed in Index Herbarium. The abbreviation is not an acronym where each letter represents a word, but rather derived from the words 'Brisbane' and 'Pathology'.